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INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY

What is biology?
Biology is a study of living things or organism.
Living things include bacteria, fungi, animals, plants etc.
Biology is derived/comes from two Greek words;
Bios – means “Life”
Logos – means “study”
The people who study biology are called Biologist. Very small organism are called microorganism. The simplest living things are made up of one cell these are called unicellular organism e.g. bacteria, protozoan and amoeba (also are called microscope organism). Large organisms are made up of many cells these are called multicellular organism e.g. fish, trees, man.
WHAT IS LIFE
Life is the state of living which plants, animals, and other living organisms have before they die. The basic unit of life is cell. All living things are made up of cell, cell are so small that they cannot be seen with marked eye.
BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY
There are two main branches of biology
(1) Botany – Study of plants
(2) Zoology – Study of animals only
However there are many minor branches of biology. That deal with different aspects of living things
Example;
BRANCHES
AREA OF STUDY
1.Anatomy
Physical structure of organisms
2.Cytology
Deals with cell
3.Ecology
Relation between organisms and their Environment
4.Mycology
Deals with fungi
5.Taxonomy
How organisms are named and groups
6.Physiology
How organisms body parts function
7.Parasitology
Deals with parasites
8.Immunology
The body defense against infections and disease
IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING BIOLOGY
  1. It helps a man to understand himself/herself better
  2. Knowledge of biology enables human being to conserve the environment.
  3. It helps man to evaluate environment uses such as pollution, global warming and environmental degradations.
  4. Biology help to understand cause, symptoms, method of transmission, prevention, and treatment of diseases this improve the standard of living.
  5. It provides answer to fundamental questions.
  6. It helps us to enter in careers such as medicine, agriculture, reproductive, health and genetic Engineering.
  7. Biology helps us appreciate nature.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND OTHER SUBJECT FIELD
Biology related to many other field of study such as agriculture, medicine, pharmacy such as veterinary, medicine and nutrition.
  1. AGRICULTURE
Biology research finding on crops and livestock have led to improve agriculture production.
  1. MEDICINE AND PHARMACY
Medicine is the study of prevention and treatment and cure of disease.
  1. NUTRITION
Biology is used by dieticians to determine the kind of diets suitable for people with different health problems.
  1. FORESTRY
Biologists have developed varieties of trees that grow well in dry areas, also that mature fast so as to prevent desertification.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS
Living things have characteristics which make them different from non- living thing. These are;
  1. NUTRITION/ FEEDING
All living things take in food or make their own food. Food enables living things to grow, develop and carry out on life process.
  1. RESPIRATION
Respiration is a process by which food substances are broken down to produce useful energy in a cell.
3. EXCRETION
Is the process by which excess waste or harmful material resulting from the chemical reaction occur in body cell are removed out of body.
  1. SENSITIVITY/ IRRITABILITY
It is the ability of an organism to detect and respond to a change in its environment
  1. GROWTH
Growth is an increase in size and mass of an organism that becomes more complicated and more efficient.
6. MOVEMENT/ LOCOMOTION
Is an action of changing posture or position of an organism. Movement which involve the whole body is called locomotion. E.g. Animals but plants just show movement in term of growth of their body parts. E.g. roots, shoots and leaves.
  1. REPRODUCTION
Is the process where by living things give rise to new individuals of their own kinds. This ensures that there is continued existence of the species and life forms.
Non- Living things are referred to as inanimate
Living things are referred to as animate
SCIENTIFIC PROCESS IN BIOLOGY
Biology is a practical science that involves carrying out experiment, observation, measuring and experimentation are skills that we need when studying Biology, and we use our sense organs to make observation.
These organs are;
  1. The eyes
    for seeing
  2. The nose for smelling
  3. The ears for hearing
  4. The tongue for tasting
  5. The skin for feeling
Scientific measurements are taken using specific instrument and units.
Some basic biological measures are
MEASURE
INSTRUMENT
SI UNIT
Mass
Beam balance/Digital balance
Kilogram (kg)
Time
Watch
Second (s)
Length
Ruler
Meter (m)
Temperature
Thermometer
Kelvin (K) – Degrees Celsius
-Degree Fahrenheit
In biological investigation like in any other scientific research, methods are listed. The scientific method is a set of steps that scientist use to study things.
Those methods are
1. Problem identification
2. Formulation of hypothesis
3. Experimentation
4. Observation and data collection
5. Interpretation of data.
6. Conclusion
Problem identification
In day today life one time comes across question which require explanation or problem which needs solution or something to prove e.g. it is observed that buffaloes in Serengeti park are dying at great rate what would be the cause of death or there is poor harvesting or Earth warms are mostly found in the soil wells handed are as why?
Formulation of hypothesis
A hypothesis is a suggestion of the answer to the question asked. It is an intelligent guess that tries to explain as an observation for example Earth worms prefer shaded areas because in the soil shaded there is more moist. A hypothesis can’t be termed as a biological acceptable to explain action. Therefore experiment should be designed, proved or disapproved. If hypothesis is correct we say it is accepted, if disapproved we say rejected
Experimentation
An experiment is a test that is carried out under controlled conditions to determine whether a hypothesis is correct or not. In any experiment there is control experiment and experiment test. Example of experiment; Earth worms prefer moist or dry condition

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Observation and data collection
The scientists observe what happens from the time the experiment was set up to the time it ends. It is important to note all the changes made from the beginning to the end of the experiment and recording
Interpretation of data
At the end of experiment the scientist analyses the observations and Data recorded. The scientist may look for pattern or in the data .
Conclusion
A conclusion is a statement that summarizes what a scientist has learnt from an experiment. When scientist read conclusion, they taste whether the data or information collected support the hypothesis (accepted) or not support the hypothesis (reject), if so another hypothesis must be formulated and repeat the whole experiment.




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EcoleBooks | BIOLOGY O LEVEL(FORM ONE) NOTES - INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY

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