FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
Meaning
Farm Power: This is the energy used to perform different farm operation; the energies used include heat energy, electric energy, mechanical energy chemical energy etc.
Machinery:
These are devices which use different sources of power, so as to release energy which is used to perform farm operation e.g. planters, harvesters etc.
Sources of power in the Farm
Use of power in the Farm includes:
(a) Human Power: This is a farm power obtained from a healthy human being a healthy human being can produce 0.1kw power.
Advantage: It is an easily available.
Limitation / disadvantage: Human beings can easily tired, hence have different ability to supply poet.
Ration: Human power can perform all farm poet of cultivation, weeding, harvesting, also human being can operate machines e.g. tractor to work the farm; as well as guiding drought animals. To produce power, human beings can produce power by using, all farm tools / equipment e.g. and hoe, axe, rake, hand sprayer etc.
(b) Animal power
This is the power produced by Animals to facilitate work in the farm. The animals used to work in the farm are known as Drought animals.
Drought animals include; donkeys, oxen, camel, horses
They may produce 2-4 KW power in a given time
They work under guidance of human being to pull of crops and inputs. A harness:
This is equipment fastened on the animal body to which farm implements are attached. Process of hitching implements to drought animal is called harnessing. Tools and Implements used for Drought animal
Ox-cultivator -used for weeding between crops rows
Ox- Ridgers- used for making ridges.
Ox- plough- (mould board) – used far tilling / opening up the load
Toolbar – For attaching different pieces of animal drown implements

Cart – for transportation of inputs e.g. seeds, manure as well as per carrying crop harvests.
Advantage of adopting animal power it is cheap as no fuel or spares for repair and maintenance will be required.
Disadvantages / limitation of chemical power
Animals cannot survive well in tsetse infested area animals cannot be used effectively in steep – slopes and heavy grass land.
(c) Machine
These include engines which use fuel / oil as source of energy so as to provide driving force (re mechanical energy) e.g. tractor.
Tractor
As a chief source of power a tractor supplies power through:-
Pulling implement e.g. ploughs, harrow etc which are hitched and drawn by tractors.
P.T.O shaft (power take off shaft) to convey power to other implements e.g. rotary mowers, fertilizer distributors etc.
By attaching a belt to a pulley, in providing power to milling machines.
Operation
Machines can perform different operation e.g. plowing, harrowing, planting, harvesting etc.
Advantage
It is time serving because it is fast
It is labour serving
Limitation
Needs skilled labour to operate, repair, maintenance etc
Needs large capital in buying, operating, repair and maintenance.
Other sources of power
They are not so common in farming activities, however they are adapted:-
o Wind power
o Water power
o Solar power
o Biogas
o Charcoal
(e) Wind power
Is power generated by an instrument called windmill, which when wind blows it converts kinetic energy of wind into mechanical energy of the shaft. Operations
o Wind mills, drive water pumps to make water available for irrigation, domestic use and animal drinking.
o Wind mills rotate generators to produce electricity
o Wind mills suns revolving machines e.g. milling machine
Advantage: They require no fuel
Limitation: It is weather sensitive hence / power supplies are unpredictable as it depends on wind presence.
(f) Water power
Water energy can rotate turbine machine to produce electricity (hydro-electricity) Operation
The power rotates turbine to produce electricity which is widely used is different farming activities and industries, water mills are used to grind grains e.g. maize.
Limitations: The power production can fluctuate due to weather changes.
(g) Solar power
The power is delivered from solar energies
Operations
o Solar energy can be converted to heat energy and used for drying of crop harvests. e.g. Solar dries, solar heaters and cooker
o Solar can be directly converted to electricity by photo-voltage cells and stored in solar batteries.
o The electricity produced can be used for different farming activities e.g. water pump

Limitation
    It is not always continuous due to sunshine period storage batteries are expensive and unavailable
(h) Biogas
Is a flammable gas called methane, which is produced through action of bacteria and cellulose present in organic materials
    The process takes place in a stated container called digest or Operations: Biogas can be used as cooking gas, heating lighting homes etc. Advantage: It is cheap to make.
(i) Charcoal
It is used for cooking, ironing clothes and running charcoal refrigerators
Advantage – Its is cheap and readily available
Disadvantage -It encourages deforestation
– Leave soot on cooking utensils

The role of Farm Power and Machinery
o Reduce effects of pests, diseases and weeds if farm machinery are used
o It is time saving
o Encourage human and industrial development through increased profit on mechanized agriculture
o It is labour saving
o Total yield is high as a result of large scale operation
FARM WORKSHOP
Practical application of workshop tools and equipments.
I. Capacity equipment / wood work tools
These include wood saw, wood chisel, rasp file, planes, mallet, hammers, G-Clamp, Drills etc
Application: They are used for making chairs, beds, door, and windows frames.

II. Simple Metal sheets (Metal work tools)
These include hack saw, drills, files, dividers, etc
Application: The tools can be used for making cooking pots, fitting metals, metal joints, dustbins, kerosene burn trays for drying crops, poultry drinkers etc.
III. Simple plumbing work
Tools involved are pipe cutters pipe stocks, pipe fittings etc.
Application: Used in installation of water pipes ad pipe repairs work. Farm workshop management
In order for workshop activities to take place consistently it needs the following management.
(a) Cleanliness
o Keeping the place free of obstacles
o Cleaning by sweeping out all spilled oil material
o Disposing all rubbish into dust bin
(b) Proper arrangement of tools and equipments i.e. equipments should be put in proper spaces e.g. tool box
(c) Protective measures: They involve measures to make sure that the hazards are prevented through regular check up of machines breakdown etc.
(d) Provision of enough light and ventilation in the workshop

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