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The topic entails:-

  1. Definition of field work
  2. Stating different types of field work
  3. Explaining the importance of field work
  4. Explaining the procedure to be followed during field work
  5. Identifying possible problems during field work
  6. Carrying out field work within the local environment.


1.  a) Form four students of your school carried out a field study on beef farming in Narok District.

  (i) State four objectives of their study.

  (ii) Give four follow up activities they carried out.  

(b) Students of Kakao secondary school intend to undertake a field study of Olkaria I geothermal

power generating project. Answer the following questions;

(i) State three objectives they would write down for the field study

(ii) List three preparations they would undertake before the actual field study

(c) Your class visited a biogas digester near your school;

(i) Describe how it was constructed

(ii) List three raw materials the class may have identified which are used in the production

of biogas


2.  a) You are planning to carry out a field study on soil in an arid region.

i) What are some of the characteristics you would observe?  

  ii) Why would you prepare a working schedule for the study?


3.  a)i)Give three natural vegetation zones on mount Kenya

  ii) Name three temperate grasslands found in the world

iii) Describe the characteristics of the hot desert vegetation  

 b) Explain three causes of the decline of the areas under forests in Kenya

c) You are supposed to carry out a field study of a weather station near your school

  i)What preparations would you make for the study

  ii) What instruments are you likely to find within the Stevenson box


4.  (a) You are required to carry out a field study on vegetation within the local environment;

  (i) Apart from identifying different types of plants, state other activities you will carry

during the field study

  (ii) How will you identify the different types of plants

(b) Form four students from Kisumu west district carried out a field study in an area of soil

erosion in Machakos district

(i) State three causes of soil erosion they could have identified  

(ii) Name two effects of soil erosion they have identified

(iii) State any one objective for their study  


5.  (a) Students from Kisumu West secondary school carried out a field study in the area

covered by the map

(i) What three preparations did they make?

(ii) State any null hypothesis for the study  

b) Your class intends to carry out a field study on weathering within the vicinity of the school

  i) State the type of information you are likely to collect

  ii) State two follow up activities you are likely to carry after the study  


6.  (a) Students from Kericho school set out to conduct a field study on the relationship between

climate and vegetation of the area covered by the map.

(i) What preparation did they carry out for the study?  

(ii) State three evidences they would identify to support climate change.

(iii) State two possible alternative hypotheses for the study

(b) Students are planning to carry out a field study in the area affected by climate change;

(i) State three ways in which observation would be the best method of data collection.  

(c) Citing evidence from the map, explain three factors that have influenced settlement in the

area covered by the map.


7.  (a) Students of Chepkosilen school carried a field study on economic activities in the

area covered by the map.

  (i) Give two preparations they made before the study.

(ii) State two hypotheses for their study.  

(iii) Citing evidence, identify three economic activities that they studied.

(iv) What type of map is Belgut?


(b) Students from your school have conducted a field study on a Lake in Kenya

(i) In their study they identified some of the problems affecting the lake to have been

caused by nearby industries
and deforestation in the surrounding areas. Explain how

each of the two could have affected the lake.

(ii) Name any two methods they might have used to collect the data.

(iii) State any two reasons why it would be important to do follow-up after the study  

(d) You are required to carry out a field study on soil erosion around your school

(i) State two methods you would use t record data

  (ii) Give three problems you may encounter during the field study


8.  a) Students of Masabot School carried out a field study of Changoi tea factory.

i) Name two types of roads they used to travel to Changoi tea factory.

ii) What preparations they were likely to make for the study  

 b)(i) Suppose you were a student in the school at Tegat and you plan to carry out a day’s

field study of Changoi tea factory. Design a working programme (schedule) you would

use during the day of study  

.   ii) Your class is required to carry out a field study of a river. What would be the advantages

of dividing the class into groups according to the stages of the long profile of the river ?


9.  a) You intent to carry out a field study on a desert landscape.

  i) Apart from conducting oral interviews, state two other methods you would use to

collect information

  ii) State two problems that you are likely to encounter in the field

 b) You are provided to carry out a field study of the vegetation within the local environment;

  i) Apart from identifying the different types of plants, state three other activities you

will carry out during the field study

  ii) How will you identify the different types of plants?  



10. a) Your class went for a field study in Samburu.

i) List three methods they are likely to have used to present their findings

b) i) State three activities they would be involved in.

  ii) Identify three problems they are likely to encounter.  


11. (a) You are required to carry out a field work on soils around your school:-

(i) State three objectives for your study  

(ii) State two reasons why it would be necessary to carry samples back to school

(b) You carried out field work ion soils around your school:-

(i) State three preparations you made before the actual day of field work

(ii) State any three problems you encountered during the field work


12.  (a) You are to carry out a field study on rivers near your school:-

(i) Name three methods you will use to collect your data  

(ii) Why is it important to carry out a pre-visit

(iii) How will your findings be useful to the local community?  


13.  (a) A field study was carried out around the rift valley lakes:-

State two characteristics of the lakes they would have identified

b) You intend to go for a field study to a region where folding has occurred.

i) State three reasons why you would conduct a pre-visit.  

ii) Identify two methods you would use to record data.  

  c)i) State two problems they may face during their study

  ii) State two follow up activities they may have been involved in after the field study  


14.  The table below shows the crops produced in Kenya between the years 2000 to 2002


CROPS ‘000’




















  (a) (i) Calculate the percentage of wheat production in the year 2000

  (ii) Using a scale of 1cm rep 200 units, draw proportional circles to show the production

of crops each year. Show your calculations

(b) Explain three physical conditions which favour wheat growing in Kenya

 (c) Compare wheat growing in Kenya and Canada under the following:-

(i) Mechanization

(ii) Marketing  

(iii) Size  

 (d) State four uses of wheat

15. (a) Use the following information to answer the questions below:

Type of energy

No. of families using each type

Average monthly income per family (Kshs.)

Fire wood



Liquid Petroleum Gas

Saw dust


















 (i) Draw a pie-chart with a radius of 4cm to represent the number of families using each type

of energy. Show your calculations

(b) Students from Matungu district went to study gold mining in Kakamega South district

(i) State any two main preparations made before field study visit  

(ii) Give any two follow-up activities they engage in after the study

(c) Suppose you were to conduct a field study in Kakamega forest

(i) State three problems that are likely to hinder your work  

(ii) How could you determine the following:-

-Heights of a tree

-Diameter of stem

-Tree of the same species

(d) You have been asked to conduct field study on land pollution in an urban set up;

(i) State three problems that you may encounter;

(ii) Your class carried out a field study on forests in your area. List four measures you

would recommend to conserve forests in the area



1.  a) – To find out where farmers get their livestock/hides  

– Find out the significant of beef produce to the local areas.

ii) – Displaying the filled questionnaires.

  • Displaying photographs taken.
  • Giving a lecture on beef farming.
  • Carry out group discussions.
  • Drawing proper sketches.

b i) – To find out the various ways in which the power plant benefits the surrounding


  • To discover the amount of power generated by the plant
  • To find out the problem facing geothermal power generation in Kenya
  • To find out the power generation potential of the rift valley area

b ii) – Formulator of objectives before actual field study

  • Write to Kengen to seek permission to visit Olkaria
  • Collect all the necessary writing materials
  • Conduct a reconnaissance to the site
  • Prepare a questionnaire for use on the day of study
  • Prepare a working schedule  

c) i) – A pit is dug not too deep or shallow  

  • The pit is cemented and sealed to prevent gas from escaping
  • Pipes are connected to carry the biogas to the burners
  • Pour the dung and other waste into the digester and mix with water
  • Anaerobic bacteria feed on it giving off biogas  

ii) – Saw dust

  • Agricultural wastes
  • Wood

– Dung


2  . a i)  – Soils are light in colour

– Soils are sandy/ stony

– Soils are loose in texture

– Soils are thin

– Soils have low moisture content

ii)  2 columns of time & activity

Time of departure

Two activities indicating data collection

Time back to school


8 a.m






4 p.m


Departure from school

Arrival at the field

Testing or feeling of soil texture

Measuring the alkalinity of soil

Carrying out experiment on water retention

Observing of the soil e.t.c.

Going back to school

3.  a i) – Savanna vegetation

  • Rainforest
  • Bamboo forests
  • Health and moorland

ii) – prairies  

  • steppes
  • downs
  • veld

iii) – some have thick/fleshy/succulent leaves /barks

  • some have long tap roots
  • some have no leaves /have thin/spiky/waxy/needle like leaves
  • some plants have thick/hard barks
  • some plants have thorns
  • some plants are stunted/dwarf like
  • shrubs are common
  • some plants spout during wet seasons (short time)

b) – fire-often ,large areas of forests are destroyed by accidental and sometimes intended

fire. such forests takes long to recover

  • diseases causes by pests and parasites attack mainly the planted forests causing many trees to die
  • human activity /settlement /charcoal burning/logging have destroyed many forests areas of which are transformed in to farms and grasslands
  • over-exploitation leads to depletion of certain tree species such as Meru oak, camphor and Elgon teak. these trees take long to mature
  • government policy of degazetting of some forests made people free to clear many forested areas
  • prolonged droughts lead to degeneration of forests some of which take long to recover

ci) – Conduct a previsit

 – Collect the tools and equipments needed for the study

 – Prepare a working schedule

 – Read secondary sources at information

 – Formulate the objectives and hypothesis

 – Decide on the method of data collection

ii) – Hygrometer (wet and dry bulb thermometer)

– Ordinary thermometer

– Six’s thermometer (max & min thermometer)


4.   a i)  – Stating either activities to be carried out during the field  

– Recording the data an types of vegetation

– Collecting data on vegetation types and conditions favoring their growth.

– Drawing the structure of plants leaves

– By classification and characteristics of leaves of different plants.

– Observing types of roots and stem of the different plants

b i) – high population increase

  • poor grazing methods
  • poor management of bench terraces
  • nature of the landscape
  • charcoal burning

ii) – loss of top soil  

  • siltation of water reservoirs and H.E.P dams on Tana river
  • deposit of sand along river leading to sand harvesting
  • intensification of soil conversation awareness in the district  

iii)- to find out the cause of soil erosion in machakos district  

– to find out the effect of soil erosion in machakos district


5.  a i) – formulation of hypothesis /objective  

  • reconnaissance survey
  • prepare route map
  • prepare a working schedule
  • carry out secondary research(content analysis)
  • seek permission from relevant authority
  • prepare necessary stationery
  • make travel arrangement

ii) – the residents of the area covered by the map sheet do not have access to tea products

meant for export  

– The tea plantation does not stretch outside the Belgut district boundary

b i) – Factors that influence weathering  

  • Types and processes of weathering
  • Effects of weathering on physical and human environment

ii) – Draw sketches of features

– Data analysis

  • Data interpretation
  • Discuss the findings  


6  .a) i)  – Pre – visit/ reconnaissance

  • Preparing equipments to be used
  • Asking permission from relevant authorities
  • Setting objectives/ hypothesis
  • Preparing map of the place/ route map
  • Discussion before the field day  

ii) – Climate of the area have direct influence on vegetation

– The vegetation of the area changes with the change of climate

b i) – Reduced amount of vegetation cover  

  • Reduced mountain shows in the tropical highlands
  • Severe wind and soil erosion
  • Presence of strong winds
  • Failing of crop yield
  • Reduced size of water bodies
  • High localized temperatures
  • Low plant/ animal population densities


i) – First hand information would be collected

– Data collected would be reliable

– It is a quick method of data collection  


. c) – Relief – steep slopes have no / sparse settlements evidenced in western side (KEBEWET AREA) since such slopes are not ideal for erection of houses/ gently sloping slopes have dense settlements as is in control part of near (Chemalul, Kablanga, Kapwaso) areas

since they form ideal sites for erection of structures

  • Vegetation areas with thick vegetation e.g. forests, plantations have scarce settlements (Tea estates and forests in S.E). Such vegetation discourages settlement
  • Drainage – poorly drained places like mashes have no settlements since the places cannot provide firm sites for erection of houses/ well drained places have dense settlements such sites provide water for a domestic use and provide firm sites
  • Transport lines – Areas with good road network have dense settlements for easy transportation of people and goods e.g. along loose surface roads


7. a i) – Reading from secondary sources  

– Carrying out reconnaissance

– Formulation of hypotheses and statement of objectives

– Division of class into smaller groups

– Asking permission from relevant authorities  

ii) – Most of the crops grown are cash/ most crops grown are subsistence

– Crop farming is more dominant than livestock keeping

– Most of the economic activities take place in areas with good transport network



– plantation farming

– Livestock farming

– Manufacturing

– Transport

– Trade


– Existence of estates

– Existence of dips

– Tea factory (4647)

– Existence of roads

– Shops

iv) – Topographical  



-Has led to disposal of industrial wastes into the lake contaminating /polluting the

water and interfering with aquatic life

  • Agro-chemicals/industrial effluents washed into the lake has promoted weed loons
  • causing the lake to be colonized by weeds/water hyacinth  


  • Has exposed soils to agents of erosion; the eroded soils have been carried and deposited

in the lake siltation. This had diminished the depth of the lake.

  • Deforestation in water catchment areas has interfered with the water cycle causing low

rainfall and less water from feeder rivers. this has led to drying of the lakes

ii) – observation

– Taking photographs

– Taking measurements

– Collecting samples

– Interviewing/asking questions

– Reading from secondary sources

iii) – In order to write the report/summarize the data

– So as to a group/process/ analyze the data collected

– so that the various groups can report/discuss the findings from the field

– So as t display any collected samples

– So as to assess the importance of he information collected I the field

– To test samples collected from the field

. c i) -note taking

 -filling in questionnaire


  -field sketching/drawing maps



  -tape recording

-labelling samples

ii)   -bad weather-raining

  -in accessibility of some area

  -lack of sufficient data

-illiterate respondent

  -arrogant respondents


8. a)i)- All weather road.

 – Loose surface road.

 – Dry weather road.

ii )- Formulate hypothesis/objectives.  

– Makes a short survey/reconnaissance of the area to be studied.

– Preparation of route map.

– Carrying out literature review/secondary information.

– Organize into groups.

– Make transport arrangements.

– Prepare the necessary stationery and equipment required.

– Prepare a working schedule.

– Seek permission from relevant authorities.

. b)(i) – Assemble equipment

  • Depart for the area of study
  • Report to the factory authorities
  • Embark on data collection
  • Report back to the factory authorities
  • Report back to school

ii) – The class will be able to study the entire course of the river  

– It will enable them to obtain detailed information on each stage of the river

– It will save on time

– It will enable the study to be carried out in an orderly way

– It will encourage participation of all the members of the class/ encourage individual roles

– It will facilitate more interaction among the group members


9. a i) – Administering questionnaire observation

– Collecting samples of rocks/ deposits

– Drawing sketches/ diagrams/ maps

– Measuring/ calculating

– Taking photographs

– Reading secondary materials/ content analysis

ii) – The hot/ scotching sun would make it difficult to collect data  

– Torrential rain/ flash floods/ dust storms would disrupt data collection

– The rugged terrain would make it difficult to reach certain features

– Attack by wild animals

b i)- Measure distances/ estimation of distances/ heights

– Collect samples of plants

– Draw sketches/ transects

– Record/ take notes

– Take photographs of plants/ area

– Count plants

ii) – By their appearance

  • Their colour
  • By their leaf size/ pattern/ arrangement/ type
  • By their age
  • By the nature of their barks
  • By the texture of their leaves


10 .   i)- Graphs

– Pie charts

– Preparing a written report.

– Displaying rock samples

– Displaying photographs.

– Drawing maps showing distribution of area underlying desertification.

. b i ) – Breaking the rocks.

– Digging the rocks.

– Collecting samples.

– Tasting the rocks

– Observing the rocks  

ii)- Tiredness because of rugged /steep terrain.

– Lack of testing Material.

– Inadequate resource materials.

– Accidents e.g slipping/getting cut by rocks.

– Hindrances by poor /harsh weather conditions.

– Attack by wild animals.

– Difficulty in carrying heavy rock samples.

– Difficulty in climbing /ascending steep rocks.


11.  a i) – To determine the type of soil

  – To find out the soil colour.

  – To establish the use of the soil

ii) – Inadequate time for detailed study.  

– For further analysis in the lab.

– Keeping for future reference in the geography room.

(b) i) -carried out a reconnaissance /persist

-identified the tools to be used during the fieldwork

-prepared a working schedule

-asked for permission from relevant authorities

-held discussions in groups

-state the objectives/hypotheses

ii) -hostile weather due to heavy rains

-attacks by wild animals

-lack of resource pesos

-some areas were inaccessible


12.   a) i) -direct observation

-administering questions

-taking photographs

-taking measurements

-interviewing the local people

ii) -to identify the route

-to prepare time schedule

-to ask for permission from the local community

-to identify the particular features location

iii) -can be advised on ways of controlling flooding

-can be advised on several uses of the river and need to conserve it


13.  a ) – long and narrow

  • some are salty
  • some are fresh
  • some have underground outlets e.g Naivasha
  • deep

b i)   – Helps the researcher to decide on appropriate method of data collection  

  – Helps in identifying the appropriate tools to be used during the study

  – Helps the researcher to design a working schedule

  – Helps the researcher identify problems likely to be identified

  – Helps the researcher estimate the cost to be incurred

  – Helps the researcher to familiarize with the area

 ii)  – Note taking  

  • Filling in questionnaire
  • Mapping
  • Photography

. c)i) – the area is too wide/extensive

  • some areas are inaccessible-steep slopes
  • harsh weather/weather changes
  • field study can take too long

c) ii) – report writing  

  • class discussions
  • displaying of collected samples
  • asking/answering questions
  • reading more abut the topic
  • analysis photographs/tape recorded work/collected samples


14.   a i)   22 x 100 = 13.33


= 13.33%  

ii)    2000 2001 2002

165 000 318 000 455000


= 406.20 = 563.914 = 674.536

r . 2.0 r 2.81 r 3.37








b)  – Moderate to high rainfall/500 – 1270 mm p.a. for growth.

– Dry spell for harvesting.

– Warm to hot temps/15 – 200c to facilitate growth/maturity.

– Well drained volcanic soils increases yield.

– Gentle/undulating topography to facilitate mechanization..

c i) In Canada cultivation is highly mechanized while Kenya in Kenya its less.

ii) In Canada wheat is mainly for export while in Kenya its mainly for local consumption.

iii) The farms in Canada are more extensive and wide while in Kenya the cultivation is

done mainly in small scale.

d) – Used in industries to make alcohol and glue.

– Wheat flour is food /bread/ cake.

– The wheat stalks are livestock feed.

– Straws are used for making papers/ straw gourds/ bedding in cow sheds.



15. a i) Firewood – 13400 x 360 =107.20  


  Kerosene – 11200 x 360 = 89.60


Charcoal – 9100 x 360 = 72.79


Liquid petroleum gas – 5300 x 360 = 42.40


Saw dust – 4000 x 360 = 32.00


Hydro electricity – 2000 x 360 = 15.99



b i) – Previsit/ reconnaissance

  • Literature review
  • Class discussion
  • Data collection instruments
  • Preparation of working schedules
  • Obtain permission
  • Transport arrangement  

b ii) – Discussion of findings

– Write better notes/ draw better diagrams

– Display photographs/ maps/ diagrams


c) i) – Inaccessibility of some parts the to presence of tendrils.

  • Wild animals’ attack/insects sites.
  • Unfavourable weaken conditions/cold conditions.
  • Rainfall

ii) Height of a tree measure the shadow then calculate.

Diameter of the stem – use a tape measure.  

Trees of the same species – study leaf structures.


d i) – Foul smell

  • Garbage may habour smokes which are dangerous.
  • Paths may be blocked.

ii)  – Tree forming should be practiced in the area

  • Agro – forestry should be practiced
  • People should be encouraged to use alternative sources of energy/ energy saving jikos
  • Mature trees felled should be replaced immediately
  • Villagers/ people should be educated on importance of trees
  • Nurseries should be established to provide seedlings
  • Indigenous trees should be planted


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