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The topic entails:-

  1. Defining weather and stating its elements
  2. Explaining conditions necessary for siting a weather station.
  3. Use instruments to measure elements of weather
  4. Analyse and interpret data on weather conditions
  5. Description of the structure and composition of the atmosphere
  6. Explain factors influencing weather
  7. Carrying out a field study on weather station
  8. Distinguish between weather and climate
  9. Explain the factors that influence climate
  10. Description of the characteristics of the climatic regions of Kenya.
  11. Description of characteristics of major climatic regions of the World.
  12. Accounting for the causes of aridity and desertification
  13. Explaining the effects and possible solutions to aridity and desertification
  14. Discussing the causes and impact of climate change on physical and human environment



1.  State three causes of desertification.

2.  a)i) Differentiate the term aridity and desertification

  ii) Differentiate between weather and climate  

  b) State two causes of temperature inversion

 c) Explain the occurrence of a land breeze

3.  a) Give three characteristics of the inter- tropical convergence zone

 b) (i) State three natural causes of climate change  

ii) Explain four consequences of climate change on the physical environment

 c) Give four reasons why some areas within the equatorial belt do not experience true

equatorial climate

4.  (a) Describe the climatic conditions experienced in the Kenya highlands

 (b) Explain four effects of folding to human activities

5.  (a) Distinguish between weather and climate

 (b) State six characteristics of equatorial climate

6.  (a) Explain how the following factors influence climate:

(i) Ocean currents

(ii) Altitude  

 (b) Study the map of Africa below and answer the following questions:

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(i) Describe the characteristics of climate marked A.

7.  (a) State three conditions necessary for the formation of dew

 (b) State two climatic reasons why the government should evict settlers from the Mau

forest complex in the Rift valley of Kenya

8.  (a) (i) What is a fog?  

(ii) State any two conditions necessary for the formation of fog.  

 (b) Name any two isothermic layers of the atmosphere.

9.  (a) What is an air mass?

(b) Give two climatic characteristics of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)  

10.   (a) Describe two characteristics of a mountain climate

  (b) (i) State two human causes of climate change

(ii) Explain three consequences of climate change

(c) Four classes intend to visit a weather station near your school to study the instruments

for measuring weather element:-

(i) Describe how you would use a rain gauge to measure rainfall  

(ii) Name two instruments you would find inside a Stevenson screen

11.  a) What do you understand by:

  i) Micro- climate

ii) Green house effect

 b) Name two weather recording instruments that are placed in a Stevenson’s screen  

12.  (a) What is an air mass?

(b) What two conditions favour formation of air mass?

13.  (a) What is the Inter-tropical convergence Zone?

(b) Account for any four characteristics of tropical rainforests.  

14.  (a) What is an air mass?

 (b)Study the diagram below and name the air masses marked A, B , C and D  




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LP- Low Pressure

HP- High Pressure


15  (a) (i) What is global warming?

(ii) Give any four causes of climate change.

(iii) Name four Green house gases

(b)(i) Explain five effects of climate change  

(ii) Identify with evidence two climatic aspects that could have influenced the distribution

of vegetation

16.  (a Differentiate between:

(i) Aridity and desertification  

 (b) Give three reasons why the recording of weather data at a weather station may be inaccurate

 (c) State two qualities that makes Stevenson screen suitable for its work  


17.  The map below shows the climatic regions of Kenya

 (a) Use it to answer the question a and b

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.  (a) Name the climatic region name 2 and 3

(b) State three characteristics of climatic region marked 7  

18.  The map of Africa below shows the different climatic regions of Africa. Use it to answer

 question 18.(a).






 a )i)Identify the climatic types marked X and Y

  ii) Name any four characteristics of the climate marked Z    

 b) i) Briefly explain the green house effect and the global warming

  ii) Explain three effects of climatic change on the physical environment

 c) Explain how the following factors influence climate

i) Altitude  

ii) Continentality

iii) Ocean currents



1.  -population pressure leading to clearing of forest

  • climatic changes/global warming/destruction of ozone layer
  • accidental fires
  • poor methods of farming /overgrazing

2. a i) Aridity refers to a state of dryness or deficiency of rainfall in an area while

desertification refers to the encroachment of desert like conditions into

productive or arable land √√  

ii) Weather atmospheric condition of a place over a short period of time  

Climate- Average weather condition of a given place over a long period

b)- Moist warm air meets dry cold air mass

– Mountain slopes adjacent to a valley cause anabatic and katabatic winds

c) – Sea heats faster than the land during the day  

– Air over the sea rises creating low pressure over the sea

– Cooler air over the land blows towards the sea

– Cool air from the land is called land breeze

3. a) – Zone of low pressure  

– High temperature

– High convectional rainfall

– Trade winds converge here

– Moves with movement of the sun  

(b)i) -Variation of solar output  

– Volcanic eruption

– Variations in the earth’s orbital characteristics

– Variation in atmospheric carbon dioxide  

iii) – Increase in temperature causing rise in sea level due to melting ice

– Changes in wind speed causing erosion

– Changes in seasons leading to severe drought

– Increase in precipitation causing flooding of large areas  

c) – Relief features such as high mountains influence temperature and rainfall pattern

  • Presence of large water bodies that modify temperatures of the surrounding lands through breezes
  • Continentality- many regions are in the interior of the continents making them receive low amounts of rains
  • Winds- some areas are influenced by cold onshore winds that lower temperature of the surroundings

4.  (a) – Temperature varies between 17C to 24C

  • Lower slopes have higher temperatures than upper slopes
  • Mean annual range of temperature is between 3C to 5C
  • Rainfall is received throughout the year
  • Rainfall is high 1000 -15000 mm
  • Rainfall is double maxima
  • Rainfall is relief- orographic
  • High rain on the wind ward slopes
  • Rainfall is caused by S.E trade
  • Coolest months are between June and August  

 (b – Fold mountains receive heavy rainfall/ snow falls give rise to many rivers for

HEP, irrigation, water for domestic and industrial use

  • Wind wards sides receive high rainfall which promote agriculture/ forest growth
  • Leeward side have violent wind which destroy crops
  • Folding leads to exposer of some minerals or bring minerals near surface for mining
  • Folding hinders construction of communication
  • Folding acts as barriers during wars
  • Folding offer sceneries which attract tourists hence foreign exchange
  • Folds mountains make visibility poor hence hindering air transport  

5.   a) Weather is the daily condition of atmosphere taken in short period usually 24hrs

while climate is the average weather condition taken for a period of 30 – 35 yrs

b) – High rainfall/ no marked dry season/ (1500mm – 2000 mm)

  • High temperatures throughout the year/ (24º– 27º)
  • High humidity throughout the year with relative humidity about 80%
  • Rainfall throughout the year
  • Small temperature range/ 4ºC
  • Double maxima (March – May and Oct – Nov)
  • Major winds are South East and North East
  • Low pressure all the year/ Doidrums/ Equatorial low
  • Rainfall mainly convectional falling in the afternoon accompanied with lightening and thunderstorm
  • Thick cloud cover all the year/ thick cumulonimbus clouds  

6. (a) i) – Warm ocean currents raise temperature of the adjustment land/ warm current

increase rainfall

– Cold ocean current lower temperature of the regions/ lower rainfall/ create dryness

ii) High areas have low temperatures/ Mt areas receive high rainfall

Mountain sides facing sun are warmer than sides facing away from sun (Aspect)

b i)- Rainfall of double maxima

– High temperatures throughout the year about 270°C

– Low temperature range

– Rainfall falls throughout the year

– Rainfall is high average 2000mm

– Low pressure due to over head sun

– Rainfall is mainly convectional

– High humidity content  

7.   a) – Air should be calm so that it can remain in contact with the ground long

enough to be cooled below dew point  

– Day time should be warm to speed up evaporation and provide a lot of water in the air

– There should be cloudless nights  

b) – To increase precipitation in the area

– To regulate in the area

– Forest to help air purification

8.  a) i) A fog is a mass of water droplets suspended in the lower atmosphere which limits

visibility to less than a kilometer  

ii) – Air must have abundant moisture  

– The night should be clear/cloudless to facilitate terrestrial radiation

– The air should be clam/gentle air currents to help the water droplets in suspension

b) – Troposphere  

– Stratosphere

– Mesopause

9.  a) -it is a large volume of air whose temperature and humidity are fairly uniform

and covers an extensive surface area  

b) -it experiences high temperature

-it is a zone of low pressure and the doldrums

-the zone migrates to the north and south of the equator with apparent movement of

the overhead sun

-it is a zone where the S.E and N.E trade winds converge

-it is associated with convectional rain and thunderstorms  

10.  a) – Temperature decreases with increase in altitude.  

– Rainfall increases with height upto 300m then it starts to decrease

– Windward slopes are wetter than leeward slopes.

– Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude.

– Local winds are common, they blow up slope during the day and down slope

during night.

– In temp. regime slopes facing the equator are warmer than those facing the poles

  b) i)- Increases air pollution from industrial activities.

– Deforestation /uncontrolled logging.

ii) – Widespread changes in the natural ecosystem with grasslands and deserts areas

expanding as forested areas shrinks.  

– Possible rise in temp. may increase evaporation rates leading increased rainfall

in some areas.

– Increased rainfall will cause flooding of low lying areas.

– Water stored in polar glacier will melt leading to rise in sea levels and flooding of

coastal lands.

– In temperate regions, winters are likely to be wetter and summer drier.

– Wetter & warmer conditions may increase pests & diseases thereby affecting humans,

crops & livestock.

– Change in climate is likely to cause extinction of various plants and animal species.

– Possible drought might increase in most parts of the world.

– Cause in change in agricultural activities & massive crop failure leading to food


c i) – A rain gauge consists of a funnel, metallic cylindrical container and a collecting jar.  

  • When it rains, water from direct rain drops collects into the jar through the funnel
  • The water collected is then poured into a graduated (in mm) measuring cylinder.
  • The readings taken & recorded.

c ii) – Thermometers /six thermometers.

– Hygrometer.

11. a i) – This is climatic conditions in a restricted area due to small differences of aspect

slope, vegetation and human landscapes

ii) It is a condition where the incoming solar radiations pass through the atmosphere

while the outgoing terrestrial radiation is blocked by gases/ clouds/ atmosphere

making the earth retain the terrestrial radiation/ re-radiation. (This makes earth to

be warmer than it would have been)/ it is a condition where the atmosphere

balances the incoming and outgoing terrestrial radiation making the earth to

retain optimum heat

b)  – A thermometer / maximum and minimum/ six‘s thermometer  

– A hygrometer/ wet and dry bulb thermometers

12  a) -body of air/wind with uniform conditions moving in a given direction

b) -same temperature

-air pressure-move from H.P to L.P

-earth’s movement

13.  (a) Tropical convergence zone is a low pressure belt that lies between the tropics

where the North East and South East trade winds converge  

b) – The forest is evergreen due to high rainfall and abundant sunshine

– The trees grow tall to complete for sunlight

– Trees have broad leaves to encourage water loss through evapo-transpiration /

transpire excess water due to high rainfall

– these are mainly hardwoods due to abundant sunshine

– Trees have buttressed roots to support their great heights and large trunks in the

wet soils.

– Tree roots go deep into the ground for anchorage

– There are many tree species due to the tropical conditions.

– The forest has little underground because the canopies block sunlight from reaching the


– The forests have numerous lianas/climbers which twine around the tall trees to reach

sunlight in the dense forest.

– Trees grow rapidly due to the high temperatures and high rainfall

14.   a) It is large volume of air/ wind with similar/ uniform temperature humidity and covers

over a large area and flows over along distance

b)  A- North East polar winds

 B- South West westerlies/ S. West winds

C – North east trade winds

D – South East trade winds

15.  a i) – Global warming is the increase of average temperatures on earth as result of green

house effect/ gases reflecting back to earth part of heat radiation

ii) – The orbital position of the earth or effect of the distance of the earth from

the sun

  • High amount of carbon dioxide in the air from industries
  • The volcanic emption raise heat/ temperature
  • High amount of solar radiation reaching the earth due to depletion of Ozone layer  

iii) – Carbon dioxide (CO2)

– Chlorofluorocarbons (CFS)

– Methane

– Nitrous oxide (N2O)  

b)(i) – Change in the ecosystems with grass land and deserts expanding while

forests shrink  

  • Rise in the sea level due to thawing of glaciers that leads to flooding of coastal low lands
  • Rise in global temperatures leading to increased rainfall due to increased evaporation
  • Wetter winters and dry summers in temperature regions
  • Shrinking water bodies e.g. lakes, rivers and drying up of streams
  • Reduced animal and plant species due to adaptation difficulties
  • Extinction of some species of flora and fauna
  • Low production of food due to failing soil fertility and absence of rain/ too much of rainfall

    in other areas  

    (ii) – High rainfall evidenced by many permanent rivers  

– Cool temperatures from high altitudes e.g. 2000m

16.   a) Aridity is dryness/ insufficient rainfall, while desertification is the expansion/

encroachment of desert conditions

  b) – Use off defective instruments√  

– Personnel my have inadequate /limited skills√

– Vagaries of nature such as earth tremous√

  c) – painted white to prevent over heating√

– raised to a height of 121m to prevent contact with direct radiation from the

earth’s surface√

– it has louvers at the side to allow free air circulation√

17.  a)- 2-modified tropical climate of the highland

– 3-modified equatorial climate of the lake basin

b) – it receives very low rainfall of less than 250mm annually  

  • the mean annual temperature are high above 29ºc
  • large diurnal range of temperature
  • day temperature are high
  • humidity is low
  • sand storms are common occurrence
  • there are occasional floods caused by sporaduram
  • the region is under the influence of dry north east trade winds

19.  a i)   X – Mediterranean

Y – Equatorial climate

ii)  – Rainfall is low/ below 250mm per year

  • Rainfall is erratic/ unreliable
  • Occasional flash floods
  • Temperatures are high throughout the year
  • Intense solar radiation
  • Diurnal range of temperature is large/ extreme hot days and cold nights
  • High rates of evaporation
  • Skies are clear/ high terestial radiation
  • Low humidity
  • Strong dusty winds

b i)- Green house effect is general increase of the temperatures of the globe due

to increase in the level of CO2 and other green houses gases. This result into

a condition where the incouncy solar radiation passes through the atmosphere

while the outgoing terrestrial radiation s blocked by the gases and the clouds

ii) Increase in temperature


  • Rainfall increase
  • Melting of ice caps
  • Rise in sea level
  • High evaporation
  • Abnormal growth of plants

Change in rainfall pattern


  • Floodings
  • Rise in sea level
  • Drought
  • Soil erosion by water

Change in seasonal patterns


  • Severe winter/ short summer
  • Drought
  • Shifting of vegetation zones
  • Extinct of some species

Change in winds

 -More frequent & more destructive

 – High waves

 – Flooding

 – Wind erosion/ wind storms

c i) – Temperature decreases with increasing height above sea level. This is because

atmospheric air at low altitude is denser than high above. Heat loss is greater at high

altitude than at lower altitude

  • Rise in altitude cause fall in temperature and a cooling effect that causes condensation of moisture in the air. This leads to precipitation forming at high altitude
  • Atmospheric pressure is higher at low altitude and lower at high altitude. This is because the weight of the atmospheric air at low altitude is more than at high altitude

ii) In summer, coastlands are relatively cooler than in land areas. This is because the

winds bring the cooling effect of the sea to the land, by the time winds reach inland

they are heated by warm land resulting in higher temperature over the interior of

the land  

In winter the onshore winds bring the warming effect of the sea into the land causing a rise in temperature. By the time these winds reach the interior of the land, they are cooled by cold land thus enhancing the low temperature

Onshore winds cause a lot of rain in the coastal areas throughout the year. This is because the wind picks up moisture over the sea and drop it on the nearby land. The continental interiors receive less rain, mainly in summer, because the winds have dropped mot of the moisture in the coastal lands

 iii) Ocean currents  

  • Cold ocean currents bring about the cooling effect in the temperature
  • Also bring a dry effect because the cold air is not able to rise

Warm ocean currents

  • Bring a warm effect (rise in temperature)
  • Heavy rainfall because the warm air is able to rise and condense to form rainfall


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