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1 Revision of Last Term Work and Exams

Homographs: Words that are Spelled the Same. More on Spellings

2    Comprehension/Listening Skills-Listening to Grasp the Main Points- Unit 6 Section C- Page 111

Structure, Present Tense -Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous.

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Government and Politics.

3  Comprehension: Comprehending Word. Unit 6 Section A Page 104 on ‘Beauty’ Meanings in Context.

Structure: Auxiliaries, “will and would”,

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Photography

4    Essay writing: Formal Letter, speech work: Contrasting /Ɵ/and /ᵭ/ \ Ɵ\ and/tag/ /d/

and /d/, Structure: Participle-Present and Past – Unified Test.

5    Comprehension/ Writing Skill, Answering Summary Questions.

Structure: Auxiliaries-“shall” and “should”.

Essay Writing: Descriptive- The Evil Effect of Peer Pressure.

6 Comprehension –Unit 8-Yvonne and Yvette- Pages 139-142

Vocabulary Development- Printing and Mass-media .

Structure:’can and could’.Words Commonly Misspell,TheUse ofDictionary

7  Comprehension- Group Work on Oral and Written TV Interviews, Structure: Past Tense, Past Continuous, Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous.

Comprehension/Writing Skills, Paraphrasing a Passage.

Essay Writing: Various Methods of Introducing Writings

8  Essay writing: More on Argumentative “Child Abuse” Who is to be Blamed, Government or Parents?

Vocabulary /Development: Words Associated with Religion.

Structure: Future Tense: Simple Future Continuous etc

9  Comprehension – Unit 7 Passage C Pages 125-126.Speech Work: Introduction Syllable Spelling: Homophones: Words that sounds alike.

Structure Punctuation: Question Mark, Apostrophe and Exclamation Mark.

10 Speech work: Introduction to Stress, essay writing:Writing Minutes of Meetings

Structure: Punctuation-Full Stop, Comma, Dash, Colon, Semi Colon, and quotation marks

11 Revision and Exams.

12 Examination.


Effective English Book 1- Michael Montgomery et al.

Countdown English- O. Ogunsanwo et al.

Goodbye to Failure- Blessing Dupe at al




Topic: Revision of Last Term’s Work and Examination, Homographs: Words that are Spelled the Same.


A: Revision of last term work and examination, the teacher goes over the questions with the students and offers expected solutions.


Reading assignment: Homographs


Reference: Countdown/WASSCE/ SSCE/NECO. English Language.


B: Homographs: words that are spell the same but sound different and have different meanings or origin.


(i)Bow (verb) to move ones head or top half one’s body forward or downwards.

(ii)Bow (noun) weapon used for shooting arrows.

(i) Minute (noun) each of the 60 parts of an hour that equals to 60 seconds.

  • (adj/extremely small.
  • Minute- very small, insignificant, tiny, minuscule.
  • Convict (verb) to decide and state officially in a law court that someone is guilty.
  • Convict (noun) a person who has been found guilty of a crime and sent to prison.


    (i) Record: (Noun) A written account kept somewhere for future reference, (Noun)

    (ii) Record: a vinyl disc on which sound is recorded and may be replayed on a phonograph.

    (iii)Record: (verb) to keep a permanent account of facts or events by writing them down.

    (i)Perfect 🙁 Adj) complete without fault.

    (ii)Perfect 🙁 verb) to make something perfect.

    (i)Exercise 🙁 noun) physical or mental activities done to make one healthy and stronger.

    (ii)Exercise 🙁 verb) to use one’s power right or personal qualities in order to achieve

    (i) Found (verb)- past tense of find.

    (ii) Found (verb)- to start something such as organization. Note- the past tense of this is founded. E.g Rev W F Kumuyi founded Dipper Life Bible Church some decades ago.



    Study these:




    Nitty gritty
















































    Reading Assignment: Read Effective English for SS1 Page32 and Grasp the Main Point.


    Weekend Assignment: Answer the questions on page 38, number 3 of your Effective English.



    WEEK TWO DATE……………

    TOPIC: Comprehension/Listening Skill-Listening to Grasp the Main Points. Page 111.

    B: Structure: Tenses

    C: Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Transportation

    A: Comprehension: Listening Skills-listening to Grasp the Main Points.

    CONTENT: The Development of Listening Skills.



    Listen to the passages on pages 32, Unit 1, section C, telephone conversation.



    Do the exercise on Page 32


    Reading assignment: Read effective English Book 3, Page 19, unit1

    B: Structure: Tenses (present)



    Comprehension: The passage focuses on colour selection and clash of textures and styles. Therefore, read the passage in between the lines and give a comprehensive interpretation of the content. Thereafter, answer all the questions beneath the passage.


    Definition and Types of Tenses

    Tense is an aspect of the verb that expresses the timing of an action, the performance of the action might be in the present, past, or future time.



    Simple Present Tense, Present continuous, Present Perfect Tense, and Present Perfect continuous,


    SIMPLE PRESENT TENSES: It expresses those actions that we do on daily basis. It expresses habitual action E.g. I eat rice, I work.

    Singular Plural

    The man knows my name. The men know my name.

    It is also used to state the natural or the universal truth. E.g

    i. The earth is spherical.

    ii.Africa is the second largest continent.


    It is also used in running football commentaries. E.g Alex Iwobi passes the ball to Victor Moses, Moses dribbles a player and hits the ball into the back of the net and it is a goal, oh no! The referee disqualifies that.


    PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSES: It’s an action that is still in progress. It is formed by adding (ing) to the verb

    E.g. Goring -going-talking. Is or are is added to the verb root, – is coming, – are going.

    Example: she is cooking.

    We are playing football.


    PRESENT PERFECT TENSES: It is formed by using has or have plus the perfect form of the verb root / participle. Examples:

    They have gone out.

    He has spoken to her,

    wehave done the work.


    PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: It is formed by adding have/has to been” before adding “ing” verb e.g.

    I have been working.

    They have been doing it.

    She has been singing.


    Evaluation: Answer the questions on page 59, practice 5 of your effective English.

    Reading Assignment: pg198, 0f countdown WASSCE/SSCE/NECO/JME by Evans.


    C: Topic: Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Government and Politics

    CONTENT: Definition of Some Relevant Words

    Government: This is a group of people who steers the affairs of a state.

    Democracy: This is government whereby majority rule a state. It is the government of the people, by the people and for the people.

    Oligarchy: This is the system of government whereby few privileged and powerful people. It is the government of the minority.

    Mace: This is a symbol of authority in the legislative chamber, e.g national assembly.

    Adjudicate: To settle a legal case or other dispute. This is usually done by the Judiciary.

    Bill: This is a draft of a law, presented to a legislature for enactment. A bill is a proposed law.

    Enactment: This is an act of making a law.

    Promulgation: This is an act of making laws known to people rule a state. It is an act of announcing laws which have been enacted or made.

    Assent: This is the president’s approval to a bill in form of signature. With that the bill has become a law.

    Rule of law: This is the supremacy of law over everyone in a country.

    Constitutionalism: This is a principle which states that both the government and the governed must abide by the provision of the constitution.

    Ultra vire: It means beyond one’s power.

    Null and void: This means ‘invalid’ because such has been declared unconstitutional.

    Bureaucracy: These are structures and regulations put in place to control governmental activities or operations.

    Recess: A period in the parliamentary year where the law makers are meant to be on holidays.

    Legislator/parliamentarian: This is another name for a law maker.

    Gubernatorial: Connected to the position of a governor. E.g Gubernatorial election, gubernatorial seat.

    Senatorial: Connected to the position of a senator, e.g senatorial slot, senatorial elections.

    Ministry: This is a government department, at the administrative level normally headed by a minister.

    Portfolio: This is a post; and responsibilities of a cabinet minister or other heads of a government department.

    Cabinet:A group of ministers or aids working with a president or a governor

    Autocracy: This is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual.

    The fundamental rights of the people are denied or not guaranteed. Another name for this I despotism ortyranny.

    Gavel: This is a wooden mallet, used by a judge in a court room or by the senate president, speakers of houses of assembly during legislative proceedings.

    Prerogation of Mercy: This is the power conferred on the president or governor of a state to pardon offenders or prisoners.

    Delimitation: This is a process of carving out of constituencies by the electoral commission.

    Constituencies:These are districts carved out for the purpose of representations

    Gerrymandery: This is carving out of constituencies in a dishonest or an unfair manner.

    Defection: This is when one dumps one political party for another. This is synonymous to crosscarpeting.

    Prorogue: This is to suspend or bring a parliamentary life to an end.

    Confederalism: This is a loosed political arrangement.

    Nationalism: This is an opposition to foreign rule and domination

    Jingoism: This is an excessive love for one’s country and hatred for others.


    Evaluation: Write fifteen vocabularies of government and politics and use them in sentences.


    Reading Assignment: Countdown WASSCE, SSCE, NECO AND JME English language page 142-146.


    Weekend Assignment: Practice 2 page 22 of Effective English.


    WEEK THREE   DATE……………

    Topic: Comprehension: Comprehending words meanings in context/ Activity- Page 104 section A.

    CONTENT: Meaning. How to comprehend the meanings of words in context.

    Comprehension: means understanding. To comprehend words in context means to understand the meaning of a given word used in the context or passage.



    Before the meaning of a word can be given, the contextual usage must be considered, this might be quite different from the general meaning of the word.

    When replacing a given word in a passage, test your equivalent in the passage to see if the original meaning of the passage or sentence has been retained. The equivalents should be exact equivalents. For example, you should retain the tense of the original verb; E.g. ‘stared’ should be replaced by ‘gazed’. you must also retain the word class I.e if a word is a noun, it equivalent must also be a noun and vice versa. E.gprobity(noun)- honesty, decency, intergity, uprightness,saintliness. All these are nouns.

    Vehemently (adverb)-strongly{adverb}, forcefully etc.

    Jealous (adjective)-envious(adjective).

    The word given must be equivalent to the word in the context.

    REFERRED TO Page 104, Passage A- ‘Beauty’- Reading passage about black hair


    Evaluation: Give another word to each of the following words as used in comprehension passage on page 34-40

    Of your Effective English: consummate, spouse, engaged, faithful and annul.


    Reading Assignment: page 80-81 of Countdown WASSCE, SSCE, NECO and JME by Evans.


    B: Structure: Auxiliaries ‘will and would’.


    Auxiliary ‘will’

    Auxiliary ‘would’

    Auxiliary ‘will’: Shows simple futurity in the second person and third person singular and plural.e.g

    2nd person Singular Plural

    You will You will

    He, she, it, will They will

    ‘Will’ shows determination in the first person singular and plural e.g.

    First person  singular plural

    I will We will

    Auxiliary ‘would‘ expresses futurity from the stand point of some past time e.g… If I had a car, I would travel very often.

    ‘Would’ is used to express condition

    Evaluation: Answer practice 4 on page 167

    Reading assignment: Read the use of English on page 165 of your Effective English


    C:Vocabulalary Development: Words associated with Photography



    Relevant Words

    Photography means writing or drawing with light. Therefore a camera picture is one drawn with rays of light.

    Relevant words

    Dark room: Room with a dim-colored light cut off from all outside light. It is used for developing photographs

    Film: A medium used to capture images in a camera.

    Blur: To make obscure or hazy or dim.

    Pose: To take a fixed position for the sake of effect.

    Hobby: Favourite pastime

    Lens: Curved piece of glass that forms images as light passes through it.

    Negative: Piece of plastic which shows the lights and shadows in reverse.

    Studio: Work room of a photography

    Evaluation: Practice 2 on page 22

    Reading Assignment: Effective English SS1 page 19-20

    Weekend Assignment: Find out the meanings of the following words and use them in sentences: rewind crank, shutter release button, view finder, color slides cine-camera, developing, printing, negative.


    WEEK FOUR   DATE……………

    Topic: A: Letter Writing: Formal Letter

    Letter writing is the art of communicating by writing one’s request, feelings, idea, opinions and so on to someone, as if the person were physically present.


    Formal letter

    Another name for formal letters is official letter. They are letters we write to people in their official positions. Even when we know them personally, the rule demands that we still write them impersonal or official letters.

    Formal letter can be in form of applications for admission or employment requests for casual leave by staff in offices, official queries and replies to them, letters to local government Chairmen, Commissioners or Minister of Education requesting for changes in the school system and other such topics.


    Features of a Formal Letter

    Writer’s Address: This should be written at the top right hand corner of the page like this:

    Federal Government College

    P.M.B. 1075,


    Imo State

    15th July, 2002.

    Receiver’s Address

    This is written on the line following the date on the left hand side of the page. Other names for the receiver are: (1) the recipient

    (11) The addressee e.g.

    The Director,

    Adebisi Associated Enterprises,

    P.M.B. 10016,


    3. Salutation: The salutation is the greeting which comes after the receiver’s address: Dear Sir,or Dear Madam,.

    There are some people who are greeted in special ways like this:

    The Governor of a state

    Your Excellency

    An Ambassador

    Your Excellency

    A traditional ruler

    Your Highness/Your Majesty

    A pastor

    Dear Reverend

    A judge

    Your Lordship


    4. Heading or Topic or Title

    This comes directly after the salutation but not on the same line. E.g. Complaints about the lack of facilities in my area.


    5.Body of the letter: Here, you go straight to what the question states you should do. There should be no room for exchange of pleasantries or personal matters, slangs, colloquialism, abbreviations and contracted words like won’t, I’m, You know, Yea, Whats up, US, NAFDAC are not are allowed.


    6. Subscript (Complimentary close)

    The most correct way of ending a formal letter is Yours faithfully, at the right hand corner of the page immediately after the letter. It’s followed by the writer’s signature and full names written under the signature:

    Yours faithfully,



    NOTE- Capital letter “Y” and small letter “f” while your signature must come before your name.


    Evaluation: Write a letter to the chairman of your local government complaining to him about the lack of facilities in your area.

    Reading Assignment: Page 203 of Effective English.


    B: Speech Work: Contrasting /Ѳ/ and /ð/, /tag/ and /d/

    Content: Consonant sounds /Ѳ/ and /ð/

    Consonant sounds /tag/ and /d/

    /Ѳ/ voiceless Dental fricative: This sound is purely English. It’s made by placing the tip of the tongue behind the upper front teeth. The sound has just one spelling.

    ‘Th’- think, thank, thin, thumb, tatch, anthem, author, path, oath, wealth, faith etc

    /ð/ Voiced Dental Fricative/ð/

    The sound is made the same way the sound /Ѳ/ is produced but for the condition of the glottis. /ð/ also has one spelling.

    ‘Th’—than, breath, wreathe, father, those, they etc
















    /tag/ Voiceless Alveolar Plosive /tag/

    Due to the buildup of air, the tongue suddenly gives way and the sound /tag/ is produced.

    Spelling variants and word examples are:

    ‘T’- two, ten, tremble, extract

    ‘Th’-Thomas, thyme, Thames

    ‘Tt’-attack, attention, attend, attract, matter, better, bottle.

    ‘D’- smashed, slapped, kicked, pushed, passed, gnashed, misses, scooped etc.


    /d/ the difference in the production of /tag/ and /d/ is that /tag/ is aspirated as an initial sound while/d/ is not. The glottis is in the vibrating mode when /d/ is made.

    Spelling variants and word examples are:

    /d/ — do, den, expand, produce, bed etc.

    /dd/- daddy, muddy, sudden, paddle, padding, ladder, middle.




















    Write three more examples for each of the sounds taught.


    Reading Assignment: Page 3 and 4 of Standard Speech 10 Book of Diction in English Course.


    WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT- A: Transcribe the following words– tight, tithe, loathe, loath, bathe, bath, through, though, thought, mathematics, thames, thomas, them, thigh, thyme, thing, path


    C: Structure: Participles; Present/Past

    Content: Present Participle

    Past Particle

    Present Participle: This is the Present Perfect Tense.

    The present perfect tense is derived by adding either has/have to words like written,done,spelt. has’ is used for singular verb while ‘have’ is used for plural verb.

    E.g. He has done it.

    They have ground the pepper.

    We havethe song.


    The Past Perfect Tense: This is derived by adding ‘had’ to word like written, done, spelt etc. Had is used for past while has/have are used for present verb e.g.

    1. He had done the work before I came in.

    2. They had ground the pepper.

    3. We had learnt the song before we sang it.


    Evaluation:learnt, flown, sung, rung- Use each of the participles in four sentences.


    Reading Assignment: Countdown WASSCE/SSCE/NECO, JME


    Weekend Assignment: Countdown by Evans page 363 Passage A.




    Topic: A: Comprehension/Writing Skills, Answering Summary Questions

    Content: Answering Summary Questions

    Useful hints

    There are various ways of writing a summary. What is important is that you should give all the information required in the manner demanded. In addition, you will find the following hints useful.

    Always indicate which part of the question you are answering since the order of your answer may not correspond to that of the questions.

    Pick from the passage only the information demanded by the question.

    Keep strictly to the contents of the passage and be as brief as possible.

    Use your own words in presenting your answers; do not copy out whole sentences from the passage in answer to summary questions.

    Evaluation: Read the summary passage on page 29 of your Effective English and answer the questions below it.


    Reading Assignment: Page 112 of countdown by Evans.


    B: Structure: Auxiliary ‘shall’ and ‘should’.

    Content: Aux. ‘Shall’

    Aux. ‘should’


    1.’Shall’- Shall shows simple futurity in the first period singular and plural

    2. ‘Shall’-Shows determination in the second and third persons, singular and plural.






    You shall

    You shall


    He/she/it shall

    They shall

    E.g. Youshall love your neighbours as yourself.

    1. ‘Should’—it expresses futurity from the standpoint of some past time.

    I shouldeat the food if given. (Here should is future) a condition.

    2. ‘Should’– it expresses obligation and logical necessity.

    (In this sense, it has the same sense as ‘ought to’)

    We should eat the food since it is safe.

    3. it’s used after certain expressions (of pity, surprise etc) e.g. It is a pity that he should behave that way.

    Evaluation: Make five sentences each with ‘shall’ and ‘should’.

    Reading Assignment: Countdown: Page 193-194.


    C: Essay Writing: Descriptive


    1. Definition

    2. Writing: ‘The Evil Effect of Peer Pressure’

    A description Essay is the one that requires you to write a description of, for example, an object, a person, an animal, an incident or a scene. You should have a picture in your mind of what to describe. The clearer the picture, the better your description.

    Ensure that your presentation follows a logical order. It is a poor planning to jump forwards and backwards in such an essay.

    Evaluation: Write a descriptive essay on ‘The Evil of Peer Pressure’

    Reading Assignment: Countdown by Evans page 13-14.

    Weekend Assignment: Page 265 of Countdown Passage B.



    WEEK SIX DATE……………

    Topic:A: Comprehension-YVONNE AND YVETTE

    vocabulary Development- Printing/Mass Media

    Content: Meaning

    Relevant Words



    This passage is centered on Yvonne and Yvette who were born connected head to head and the doctor’s prediction on their future/chance of survival. The passage also focuses on the lifestyle of each of the twin sisters and how they both managed to live above their challenges in life.

    ACTIVITY- Read the passage carefully and answer all the questions on it.


    Relevant Words

    Editorial: This is an article giving the opinion of its editors on a given topic or current.

    Book pirate: This is a person who reproduces another person’s work without permission.

    Copyright: This is the exclusive right to sell or control a book.

    Royalty: This is the percentage of money paid to an owner of a copyright or book.

    Imprint: The printer or publisher’s name, with the date and place of publication.

    Cartoon: This is a sketch or drawing that shows events or people in an amusing way.

    Column: This is an arrow division of a page reading from top to bottom, kept separate by lines or blank spaces. This is also a recurring feature in a periodical, especially an opinion piece by an author.

    Obituary: A brief notice of a person’s death, as published in the newspaper

    Corrigendum: This is an error that is to be corrected in a printed work after publication. It is a list of errors in a printed work as a separate page of corrected, known as an errata page. The plural form of corrigendum is corrigenda

    Marketing department:

    Broadcast: This is a transmission of a radio or television programme aired to be received by anyone with a receiver. This is the transmission of message or signal via radio waves or electronic means

    Signal: [Of radio, TV, telephone, internet etc] an electromagnetic action, normally a voltage that is a function of time that conveys the information of the radio or of the communication with another party.

    Broadcasters: This is a person whose job is to broadcast

    Freelance journalist/broadcaster: This is broadcaster or journalist who sells his services to employer without a long term contract.

    Reportage: This is a reported of news. This is also news or information of general interest which has been reported.

    Slander: This is a false, malicious statement [spoken or published], especially one which is injurious to a person’s reputation. This is synonymous to defamationofcharacter.

    Libel: This is a pictorial or a written statement which unjustly seeks to damage someone’s reputation. The difference between libel and slander is that libel is written while slander is spoken. However, both have are the same meaning.

    Mast head: The title which is [normally in a large and distinctive font] of a newspaper at the top of the front page

    Dateline: This is a line at the beginning of a newspaper stating the date and place of origin.

    Manuscript: This is a book, composition or any other document written by hand or even printed, submitted as original for [copy-editing and] reproductive publication.

    Editor: This is a person who edits or makes changes to documents. An editor edits stories and news items and he decides which stories/articles/news to publish.

    Correspondent: This is a journalist who sends reports to his newspaper or radio or television station from a distant or overseas location.

    Caricature: This a pictorial representation of someone in which distinguishing features are distorted or exaggerated for comic effects. This is to represent someone in an exaggerated or distorted manner.

    Cartoonist: This is a person who creates cartoon or strip cartoons.

    Advertorial: This is an advertisement written in form of an objective editorial, presented in a printed publication, and usually designed to look like a legitimate and independent news/article.

    Plagiarism: This is an act of copying another person’s work, ideas, text or other creative work, and presenting it as one’s own, especially without permission.

    Proof read: This is to check a written text for errors in spelling and grammar.

    Offset: Printing method in which ink is carried from a metal plate to a rubber blanket and from there to the printing surface.


    Evaluation: Look up the meanings of the following words– piracy, vendor, royalty, sub editor, column, byline, articles, headlines, parody, printing plate, headlines, censorship, NUJ, editor-in-chief, mass communication, print media, electronic media, periodicals, communiqué, journalism, press release, news recap.


    B: Structure: Auxiliary ‘can’ /’could’

    Content: Aux. ‘can’

    Aux. ‘could’

    ‘Can’ is used to:

    Express permission: e.g. Awa can go if he likes. (Permission in the present and future)

    Express possibility: e.g. That River can be bridged.

    Express ability or capacity: John can lift that weight easily.


    ‘Could’- Awa could go if he likes. (Polite in the present and future)

    Awa could go out whenever he liked, (permission in the past)

    ‘Could’ can be use to express ability or capacity: John could run fast when he was young.


    Evaluation: Use ‘can’ and could in SIX sentences specifying their usage.

    Reading Assignment: Countdown by Evans page 193.


    C: Spelling: Words Commonly Misspelt

    Our focus would be on the following:


    Words with Silent Letters.

    Words with Silent First and last Letters


    Words of foreign origin

    Some British and American spelling

    Analysis of sixty eight (68) words commonly misspelt.


    Words with silent letters

    (i) Scene, scissors, debt, doubt, bridge, budget, handkerchief, solemn, castle,


    Words with silent first letters.

    Psychology , knight, knee, kneel, knickers, gnash, wrestle, write, psychiatric, psyche, psalm.

    Word ending: lamb, bomb, tomb, chalet, ballet, beret,comb, womb,

    Homophones: Words that have exactly the same sound but different spelling and different meanings. E.g…














    British and American spelling






















    Analysis of words commonly mispelt







    A lot

    A lot














    Evaluation: Write two examples for each of the following words where ‘c’, ‘b’,’d’,’t’ is silent.

    (ii) Write five pairs of homophones


    Reading assignment: Page39-48 of Complete English Course for Senior Secondary Schools by UhamakaChiomaIbe


    Weekend assignment: Passage c Page 365 of Countdown.




    Topic: Structure: Tenses (past)

    Content: Simple Past Tense

    Past Continuous

    Past Perfect and

    Past Perfect Continuous

    Simple Past Tense: The regular verbs form there past by adding (Ed) to the simple form of verb, while irregular verbs form their past tense in different ways e.g.

    Ume worked. In farm yesterday (regular)

    The boys talked to me this morning (regular)

    We ate late last night (irregular)

    Ada spoke to me on telephone (irregular)


    Past Continuous Tense: This shows that an action was still continuing in the past. It is formed by using a form of the past auxiliary ‘be’ and ‘ing’ e.g. was/were+ing

    I was drinking.

    We were drinking.

    Past Perfect: This shows that an action was completed before another action in the past, or completed before a definite time. The auxiliary used here is ‘had’.eg

    (a)After he had drunk the water, he thanked me.

    (b)They had finished the work before the teacher arrived.

    Past perfect continuous: e.g.

    I hadbeendrinking.

    We had been doing it.

    They had been trying.

    She had been working.


    B: Comprehension

    Content: Definition of a Paraphrase, Paraphrasing a Particular Passage.

    Paraphrase: This simply means an expression which is re-composed or re-stated in a shorter or clearer way. It means a restatement of a text in different words, often to clarify meaning.

    A paraphrase of the comprehension passage on page 39 Marriage and Family.

    Irrespective of one’s personal achievement, the only way a woman can be respected in Nigerian society is when she’s married.

    Marriage was formerly a sacred institution before Western civilisation.

    The three major ways of contracting marriage in Nigeria are: court, religious and customary

    Marriage customs vary from tribe to tribe in Nigeria. A way of showing wealth and prowess in traditional Nigerian society is polygamy. This is fading out while monogamy is gaining ground.


    Evaluation: In your own word, paraphrase the comprehension read on page 39-40.


    Reading assignment: Effective English Page 41.

    C: Essay writing: Various Methods of Introducing Writings.

    Content: Essay Writing, Types

    Essay writing: The features of a good essay include, a rich content, its orderly presentation, correct use of language and avoidance of mechanical errors.

    (i)Content: The material the candidate presents must be relevant to the question set.

    (ii)Organisation: This is an orderly exposition, demonstrating the required formal features.

    (i)Expression: This is the candidate’s ability on:

    (ii) choice of the right words; idioms and expressions


    Use of language

    (iii) Use of different types of sentences

    (iv)Effective use of punctuation marks for sentence control

    (v)Mechanical Accuracy: All these are looked out for here:

    (a) Careless handwriting.

    (b)Omission of words

    (c)Use of incorrect tense, e.g. wrong use of number (singular/plural)

    Wrong use or omission of punctuation marks.

    Wrong use of capital letters.



    Narrative Essay: It rsequires you to relate an event or incident as an eye witness would. It’s the art of storytelling. The use of past tense(s) is central to a narrative essay since an account of the past occurrence is meant to be given.

    Descriptive Essay: It requires you to write a description of, for example an object, a person, an animal, an incident or a scene e.g. describe a rainy day you will live to remember.

    Expository Essay: It requires you to explain a thing or process fully. Usually, it requires the writer to compare and contrast, discuss causes and effects of something or define something thoroughly. Examples of an expository essay topics are: Wild Animals in their Natural Environments, articles, or The Rising Cost of Living in Nigeria, How Christmas festival is celebrated in my Village Yearly, The Roles of the Judiciary in the National Development, Nigeria and its people, Road accidents in Nigeria, etc.

    Argumentative Essay: It requires you to present a subject view to persuading your reader to agree with your own point of view against another one e.g. Pipe-borne Water is more useful to the People than Electricity.


    Evaluation: Write an essay presenting your points ‘for’ or ‘against’ the topic ‘ Day Students Perform Better than Boarding Students in Examination.


    Readingassignment: Countdown by Evans page 2-4


    WeekendAssignment: Question 41-50 on page 378-380 of Countdown.



    WEEK EIGHT   DATE……………

    Topic: ESSAY WRITING, More on Argumentative ‘Child Abuse’ Who is to Blame, Government or parents? :

    Essay writing

    Content: Explanation, points

    In this kind of argument which is a good example of an ordinary argumentative essay, not a debate topic. All you need do here is to write the topic and start your essay

    You are to choose who is to blame whether the government or parents


    (i) Write your topic e.g. Government is to Blame for Child Abuse


    (ii)Parents are to Blame for Child Abuse

    If you choose parents are to be blame


    Some parents fail to plan on the number of children to give birth to.

    Some children are not given proper formal and moral education.

    Poverty: This makes some parents send their children to hawk goods on the road.

    Some parents lack proper upbringing thus, they cannot give their children.

    Covetousness: Some parents encourage their daughters to engage in child’s trafficking.

    Corporal punishment by some parents which can easily harden the heart of a child


    Evaluation: Write an argumentative essay on the topic taught


    Reading Assignment: Countdown Page 26-28


    B: Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Religion

    Content: Definition, Relevant Words

    Religion- Christianity.

    Relevant Words:

    Theology: This is the study of God.

    Atheist: One who believes God does not exist.

    Monotheist: One who believes in one God.

    Ethics: Moral principles by which a person or group is guided.

    Worship: Taking part in a religious ceremony in which reverence is paid to God or a god; the religious ceremony itself.

    Seer: A seer is a prophet.

    Crucifix: Cross with the figure of Jesus Christ crucified on it.

    Denomination: This is an act of naming a religious group, class or society

    Synagogue: A place of worship for the Jews

    Baptism: Immersion into water

    Christen: To perform the religious act of baptism. This also means ‘to name a child’

    Christendom: This is the Christian world.

    Episcopacy: Government of the church by Bishops.

    Sacristy:A room in a church where sacred vessels, books, vestments etc are kept.

    Tenet : An opinion, belief or principle held to be true.

    Benediction: This is a short invocation for divine blessing and guidance, usually after a church worship

    Divinity: The state of being divine, or of being like a God

    Papacy: This is the office of the pope. It is also a period when a particular pope reigns

    Pew: This is an enclosed compartment in a church which provides seating for a group of people, often prominent people.

    Eucharist: This is a Christian sacrament of the Holy Communion.

    Communion: This means sacrament


    Traditional Religion

    Divinity: A deity.

    Deity: This is a supernatural human or non human being or entity, or an object that possesses miraculous or supernatural attributes, powers or supernatural powers. E.g god/goddess

    gods/goddess: A deity

    Priest: A man who worships and appeases gods on behalf of the people.

    myth: This a traditional story which embodied a belief regarding some fact, or phenomenon of experience, and in which often the forces of nature and of the soul are personified. It is a sacred narrative regarding a god, a hero or the origin of the world or of a people, etc.

    Incantation: This is the act or process of words sung or spoken, with occult ceremonies for the purpose of invoking or raising spirits: this is chanted to create magical result.

    Reincarnation: this is a fresh embodiment; rebirth or coming back to life.

    Propitiation: This is an atonement for sins. This is done to appease or pacify gods.

    Cult:This is a group of people who share religious or spiritual beliefs, especially beliefs regarded by others as unorthodox. This is a secret society.

    Ritual: These are rites carried out by a priest

    Libation: this is an act of pouring out of liquid, e.g wine, as sacrifice to god or in honour of a dead person

    Islam/Islamic Religion

    Ablution: This is an act of washing or cleansing the body or some part of it, as a religious rite

    Hajj : This is a religious pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, by an adult Muslim.

    Injunction: This means commandment

    Pilgrimage: This is a journey made to a sacred place. It is a religious journey.

    Adherent: A supporter or follower.

    Haram: Forbidden by Islam. Unlawful, sin.

    Hilal: Fit to eat according to Muslim religious customs.

    Sharia: Islamic religious laws, based on Quran.

    Sect: A religious group with beliefs and practices that differ from those of the more established groups.

    Monotheism: This is the belief in one God.

    Imam: This is a Muslim leader. One who leads the salat prayers in the mosque.

    Malam:This is an Islamic teacher.

    Sheikh: This is a leader of an Islamic religious order. An Islamic religious clergy;

    Pillars of Islam: These are five principles upon which Islamic religion is hinged.


    These are:

  1. Belief in Allah,
  2. Fasting during Ramadan
  3. Giving alms
  4. Making pilgrimage/hajj
  5. Praying five times daily.


    ReadingAssignment: Page 334 of Complete English course for Senior Secondary Schools by: OhamakaChiomaIbe.


    Evaluation: Write out ten vocabularies of Christian religion and use them in sentences.

    C: Structure:


    Content: Simple Future, Future Continuous

    Simple Future Tense: It makes use of the modal auxiliary verbs ‘shall’ and ‘will’.

    I shall travel soon.

    You see the manager when he arrives.

    It also makes use of the form ‘be going’ and to infinitive.

    Emeka is go willing to succeed

    It’s going to rain today

    We are going to defeat them.

    It makes use of simple present and an expression indicating the future.

    The bus leaves tomorrow.

    The plane arrives tonight.

    Future progressive (continuous)

    It uses the present progressive and an expression indicating the future.

    Adamu is leaving tomorrow.

    We are taking the examination next week.


    Evaluation: Use the simple future and the future continuous tenses in sentences.


    Reading Assignment: Countdown page 199-200


    WeekendAssignment: Page 267-268 of Countdown: Question51-60




    Topic: Comprehension

    Speech work: Introduction to syllable

    Content: comprehension-Unit 7 Section C, Pages 125-126.

    The passage centres on plants’ under-nourishments, its sources of food and the nutrients needed to grow effectively. Read the passage carefully and answer the first ten questions on the passage.

    Note: Proceed to the summary part and answer the five summary questions on passage

    Definition, Explanation.

    A syllable represents a unit of pronunciation which is uttered with one breath effort,


    Examples: Words with one syllable: go, come, take and see.

    Words with two syllables: ad/mit, ba/by, a/bove

    Words with three syllables: beau/ti/ful, car/pen/ ter.

    Words with four syllables:phi/lo/so/phy, in/for/ma/tion.

    In every word in English which has two or more syllables, one of the syllables is pronounced with more force or energy than the others. That syllable is louder and longer and is said with a higher pitch of voice than others, such a syllable is said to be stressed,e.g teacher /ti: t/ʃ∂/ has two syllables.

    The force used in pronouncing the first syllables is stronger than the second syllable. In other words, the first syllable is stressed while the second is unstressed,

    Evaluation: Divide the following words into syllables: Education, examination, ignorance, emblem, morale, photography, information, afternoon, distribution, composition.


    Reading Assignment: Page 296 of Countdown.

    B. Spelling: Homophones

    Homophones: These are words that have the same sound but different forms(spelling and meanings


    Aloud(not silently)

    Stake(stout stick)

    steak(slice of beef)

    Fare(money charged for a journey)


    Court(place for trying offences

    Caught(past tense of catch)


    Write (make letters with pen etc)



    Toil(to work very hard)

    Toy(object for children)








    Evaluation: Write ten pairs of homophones.


    Reading Assignment: page 183 of Countdown.


    C: Structure:Punctuations,Question Marks, Apostrophe and Exclamation.


    Content: Question Marks, Apostrophe and Exclamation.

    Question mark/?/:Is used to end sentences that ask for a reply e.g.

    Will you give me a book?

    Will he come?

    Note question marks are not used in indirect questions e.g.

    He inquired why I was late to school?(wrong)

    Many questions are signaled by question words like ‘who’, ‘which’, ‘why’, whose’ ‘whom, ‘when’, what’ ‘where’, and ‘how’ e.g.

    (a)Whose clothes are these?

    (ii)Some questions are merely indicated by the question mark

  6. He is meeting me after school.(statement)
  7. He is meeting me after school?(correct)

    (iii)Some questions are signaled by the reversal of the normal subject /verb or auxiliary order.

  8. Should I ask my mother for the money?
  9. Have they finished eating?


    Note: Do not use a comma or full-stop after a question mark.

    ‘Is she ready? ‘, she asked(wrong)

    ‘Is she ready?’ She asked(correct)

    (iv) A question mark (within parentheses) is used to express the writer’s uncertainty as to the correctness of the preceding words, figure or date, e.g. Okafor was born in 1098(?)

    Apostrophe: /’/

    The apostrophe like the capital letter is strictly a written symbol, so we cannot hear it when we read a sentence aloud. The apostrophe is the punctuation mark which is most often wrongly used. It’s used in the following contexts.


    To show that something belongs to, or is related to something.

    It is used to form possessive form of nouns. The possessive shows where or to whom something belongs. It must follow something. The must be a first noun followed by the apostrophe and’s’ then a second noun.

    This is John’s pen.

    It is nobody’s business.

    We met at Joe’s house.

    Note the following:


    To show possessive form we have a choice between ‘of’ and’s’ people however prefer using the ‘of’ form for inanimate nouns and’s’ for the animate:

    1(a) The River’s bank (awkward)

    (b)The bank of the river (correct)

    2(a) the house’s colour (awkward)

    (B) Color of the house (correct)

    3(a) the boy’s shirt (correct)

    4(a) the teacher’s book (correct)


    Possessive form for plural nouns ending in’s’ is only the apostrophe sign/’/



    One girl’s skirt

    Five girls’ skirts

    One lady’s wig

    The ladies’ wigs

    The’s is only added to nouns and not to possessive pronouns: hers, yours, its, ours, yours, theirs, so do not add apostrophe’s’ to them

  10. These are ours.
  11. Those are theirs.

    Personal names ending in’s’ normally take the full’s’ ending: Keats poems, James park.

    The apostrophe is used to denote that some letters have been left out from a word. This is usually the case when two words have been joined to form a new word.i.e word contraction.



    They are not usually used in composition. They are however very good for advertising. The exclamation point is used to indicate special emphasis; it shows surprise, urgency, incredibility or strong emotion. It may follow a single word, a group of words or even a complete statement:




    Never again!




    Do it!




    Forbid it, Almighty God




    Do not use a comma or full-stop after an exclamation point

    Wrong: ‘Halt! Cried the man.

    Right:”Halt”! Cried the man.


    Evaluation: Write five sentences making use of the punctuation taught.


    ReadingAssignment: page 53-54 of Complete Course for Sec. Schools


    WeekendAssignment: Question 60-71, page 368-370 of Countdown by Evans.



    WEEK TEN DATE…………….

    Topic: Speech Work: Introduction to Stress

    Content: Definition, Word Stress on Syllables.

    English words have a fixed stress pattern, so it is very important to take note of this when looking up the pronunciation of a word. It is difficult to predict the stress pattern of English words by the use of rules because such rules are often broken

    when made. The safest thing is to study the stress pattern of English words.


    Some Guiding Rules:

    1. Stress the second syllable from the end of the word which ends in the following:

    -‘ic’, ‘-ial’ ‘er’ ,’ow’ ere, ege, ‘ure’, ‘ation’ ‘or’, ‘1st‘, ‘ade’ ‘ish’, eous, ‘ious, ‘sto’, ‘da’ ture

    E.g. draMatic, inferior, colonial, coMEdian, paraSItic, enterTAINMent, insuFFIcient, confedeRAtion, supreTENdent, eXperimenTAtion


    2. Stress the third syllable from the end of a word which ends in the following: “-ify’, ‘ity’, ‘ate’, -al, ‘ive’, “-lly’, ute, ‘ty’, ‘cal’ itude, ‘cle’, ‘ous’, ‘y’, ‘ize’, ise ‘ment’, ‘le’, ‘ness’, ‘able’, bly, ‘ony’, ‘ism’

    Article, Management,PARticle, Nobody, Miracle, inferiOrity


    3. Stress the first syllable from the end of a word which ends in the following:

    -“stand”, -‘xert’, ‘duce’, ‘ployed’, ‘tain’, ‘noon’, ‘ree’, ‘-rade’, -‘bey’, “plete”,”pose”, ‘come’, ‘rette’, ‘ese’, ‘sine’,

    UnderSTAND, interRUPT, refeREE, EnterTAIN, JapaNESE, magaZINE.

    Evaluation: Answer question 1-5 of your countdown page 253


    B: Writing Minutes of a Meeting.


    Content: Explanation

    Minutes of minutes

    Another form of report is the minutes of a meeting. These are a record of the events and discussion that have taken place at the meeting. For every meeting, there should have been a prepared agenda, that is, a list of items to be considered or discussed during the meeting. The minutes of a meeting are usually numbered in sequence.

    Writing out an agenda as a guide is very important. e.g.

  12. Arrival and introduction of guest of honour.
  13. Chairman’s Opening remarks
  14. Club president’s Address.
  15. Chief launcher’s Address.
  16. Launching of the club.
  17. Refreshments
  18. Chairman’s closing Remarks
  19. Vote of Thanks.

    If you are to write the minutes of the Annual General Meeting of your Club or association, your report should also follow the sequence of items on the agenda already sent out to members’ e.g.

  20. Introduction/opening
  21. Minutes of the last Annual general meeting.
  22. Matters Arising from the Minutes.
  23. Secretary’s Annual Report
  24. Financial Secretary’s Annual Report
  25. President’s Annual Report
  26. Election of officers for the Next Year.
  27. Closing

    Your report should begin with the name of your club, the date and venue of the meeting and the list of members, showing those. You should then follow the agenda, item by item, in sequence.



    Write a report of the inauguration of a club or association to which you belong or of the annual general meeting of the same club or association. Follow the first agenda written in your note.


    ReadingAssignment: page 45-46 of Countdown by Evans.

    C: punctuation: Full stop, comma, Dash Colon, semi colon, quotation marks.

    Content: full stop, comma, Dash Colon, semi Colon, Quotation marks.

    Full-stop (period/./

    The end of an utterance in speech is indicated be definite breaks, accompanied by a rising or falling tone of voice. The written symbols of these breaks or rise or fall in tone are the full-stop, the question mark and the exclamation point.


  28. Use a full-stop to indicate the end of a statement that is grammatically completee.g.

    A.) Ngozi is good girl.

    b). My mother came here yesterday.

    c. The children love playing. In the rain (In the rain, is a fragment)

    d). The children love playing in the rain.

  29. Use a full-stop to indicate abbreviations; initials or numbers
  30. Abbreviations.

    E.g.-Exempli gratia (Latin)- means-for example.

    Etc- Et cetera (Latin) and so on.

    A.M- Ante meridian (Latin) afternoon

    P.M- Post meridian (Latin) afternoon

    Viz-Videlict (Latin) namely

    PhD-Doctor of Philosophy

    Oct- October


    BBC- British Broadcasting Corporation.


    B.) Initials: The first letters of a person’s name.






    C Numbering: When listing out things, a full-stop is used at the end of each number.


    3The comma









    The comma

    (i) Commas for Separation

    (a)It’s used to separate items, words, phrases, clauses, in a list or series e.g. He ran down the stairs, along the corridor, through the door way and down the road.

    (b)It’s used to separate the words spoken in direct speech from the rest of the sentence e.g.

    My mother said,’that is not what i believe”.

    (c) Commas are used in letter writing to mark off the greeting: Dear sir,

    (d) Commas are used after post-script yours sincerely, Uma.

    (e) Commas are used with addresses measurements and references

    Federal Govt, Girls’ college, Abuloma, Port Harcourt.


    (ii) Commas to Enclose

    (a) Commas are used to enclose words which refer to a person just mentioned i.e. appositive e.g.

    Mrs. Edwards, the principal, spoke to the whole school.

    (iii)To set off subordinate clauses or other introducing words or phrases from the main body of the sentence e.g. Before she died, my grandmother gave me a lot of money.



    It’s used to indicate a break in sense, or faltering speech.

    If you tell a lie, I shall know it Ngozi- so remember that before you speak.

    THE COLON/:/

    Use a colon to announce a list, an explanation, or a long quotation e.g. Mummy will buy: meat, fish, garri, onions, and crayfish.


    The use of single or double quotation mark is a matter of choice, quotation marks are used for direct speech e.g. ‘I shall go to the market’, said my mother.

    They are used to indicate direct quotation from books or other reliable authorities: shakesspearessays:”To thus is nothing, but to be safely thus”.

    They are used to enclose titles or articles, peoms, short stories, newspapers, chapters of books, songs and periodicals e.g. HHHHHHHHHH













    Have you ever read the poem “casualties”?


    Evaluation: Write five sentences making use of the various punctuation marks taught.


    ReadingAssignment: Page 55-56 of complete English Course for senior secondary schools by OkamakaChiomaIbe


    Weekend Assignment: Questions 71-80, page370-372 of Countdown by Evans




    Revision and Examination





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