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SECOND TERM E-LEARNING NOTE

SUBJECT: BASIC TECHNOLOGY CLASS J.S 3

SCHEME OF WORK

WEEK TOPIC

  1. WORKING MACHINE
  2. INTRODUCTION TO MACHINE TOOLS
  3. METAL FINISHING
  4. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION I
  5. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II
  6. AIR- MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
  7. RURAL AND URBAN WATER SUPPLY
  8. PLUMBING FOR DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY, DOMESTIC PIPE LINE FITTINGS AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM
  9. ENERGY SOURCES- WATER AND SOLAR
  10. ENERGY SOURCES- SOLAR DEVICES
  11. REVISION
  12. EXAMINATION

 

Reference Materials

 

  • NERDC, INTRODUCTORY TECHNOLOGY FOR JSS, BOOK 3
  • EVANS, INTRODUCTORY TECHNOLOGY FOR JSS, BOOK 3

 

 

WEEK 1 DATE______________________

TOPIC: WOOD WORKING MACHINES

 

CONTENT

  • Introduction
  • Wood Working Machines
  • Circular Sawing Machine
  • Surface Planing
  • Thicknessing Machine
  • Drill Press Machine
  • Wood Lathe
  • Band Saw

 

INTRODUCTION

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Wood working machine are machines used for wood processing and making the wood ready for use. These machines are used for heavy woodwork operation and also for mass production.

 

In the past, nearly all-sawing operations were carried out by hand: a lot of energy was put into it and it was more time consuming. In modern days, various machines through improved technology are now available.

 

Evaluation

  1. State the reasons for using wood working machines.
  2. Mention two manual wood working tools

 

WOOD WORKING MACHINES

Wood working machines include the following:

  1. Circular sawing machine
  2. Surface planing
  3. Thicknessing machine
  4. Drill Press machine
  5. Wood lathe
  6. Band saw

 

Circular Sawing Machine: This is a woodworking machine used to re-saw or prepares timber into suitable sizes for articles of joinery, furniture e.t.c. Circular saws include the ripsaw and cross cut saw. Other special purpose saw and are fitted onto the machine as their uses arises include upper saw, hollow ground saw, ground-off saw, wobble saw or drunken saw, novelty saw, planer saw.

 

There are other sawing machines that can do the same job as circular sawing machine does a hand feed bench type with tilting arbor, and rise and fall attachment would be most suitable.

 

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2. Band Sawing machine: T0his is a wood working machine having a compensating arrangement of a band saw that allows the upper pulley to move up and down and adjust to the changes in the saw and keep the tension of the blade constant.

 

 

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  1. Surface Planing Machine: This is a woodworking machine that enables the sawn timber to be planed to remove marks thus ensuring a flat surface.

Planing is the most laborious operations in woodworking. The introduction of the planing machines enables construction of pieces to be planed to the required thickness joining edge to edge.

Surface planing machine is used for truing up the edges, removing the marks and for removing the “wind or twist” on the face of the wood. It can also handle chamfering, beveling, tapering and tenoning.

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  1. Thicknessing Machine:
    This is a woodworking machine that is used exclusively for planing wood to a specific thickness after surface planing operation.

In order to achieve a perfect operation, the front table is pulled backwards from the cutter block to allow the wood chips fly out.

 

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  1. The Drill Press: This another wood working machine, which can also be used as machine tools, used for performing various operations such as boring, sanding and mortising.

 

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  1. Wood Lathe Machine: This is a wood working machine, which can be used for metal working operations, employed where a number of turning will be made.

Generally, turning can be made on the lathe in two ways i.e. between centres and the faceplate- both inside and outside. The lathe bed must be sturdy. The headstock runs on double bearing which may be directly driven with about four speeds

 

Evaluation

  1. State 6 wood working machine
  2. Differentiate between surface planing machine and Thicknessing machine
  3. Draw and label the drill press.

 

Reading Assignment

Read WOOD WORKING MACHINES

 

Reference Materials  

NERDC, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 61- 66

EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 111- 115

 

Weekend Assignment

  1. Which of the following is not a wood working machine (a) Circular sawing machine (b) Surface planing machine (c) Milling machine (d) Thicknessing
  2. A machine that is used to resaw or prepare timber into suitable sizes for articles of joinery and furniture is known as (a) Circular sawing machine (b) Surface planing machine (c) Milling machine (d) Thicknessing
  3. A machine that is used exclusively for planing wood to a specific thickness after surface planing operation is called __ (a) Circular sawing machine (b) Surface planing machine (c) Milling machine (d) Thicknessing
  4. A wood working machine, which can also be used as machine tools, used for performing various operations such as boring, sanding and mortising is known as (a) Drill press (b) Surface planing machine (c) Milling machine (d) Thicknessing
  5. The largest wood working machine is ___ (a) Drill press (b) Wood lathe machine (c) Milling machine (d) Thicknessing

 

Theory

  1. Explain the functions of 6 wood working machine
  2. Draw and label drill press.

 

Week 2 DATE__________________

TOPIC: INTRODUCTION TO MACHINE TOOLS

 

CONTENT

  • Definition of machine tools
  • Shaping machine
  • Planing machine
  • Milling machine
  • Grinding machine
  • The drill press
  • The lathe machine

 

Definition

Machine tools are machines used for metal work operation. There are five basic machine tools. This includes the following:

  1. Shaping machine
  2. Planing machine
  3. Milling machine
  4. Grinding machine
  5. The drill press
  6. The lathe machine

 

Evaluation

1. Define machine tools

2. State 6 machine tools

 

1. The milling machine

A milling machine is a machine tool used to machine
solid
materials. Milling machines are often classed in two basic forms, horizontal and vertical, which refers to the orientation of the main spindle. Both types range in size from small, bench-mounted devices to room-sized machines. Unlike a drill press, which holds the workpiece stationary as the drill moves axially to penetrate the material, milling machines also move the workpiece radially against the rotating milling cutter, which cuts on its sides as well as its tip. Workpiece and cutter movement are precisely controlled to less than 0.001 in (0.025 mm), usually by means of precision ground slides and leadscrews or analogous technology. Milling machines may be manually operated, mechanically automated, or digitally automated via computer numerical control (CNC).

Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations, from simple (e.g., slot and keyway cutting, planing, drilling) to complex (e.g., contouring, diesinking). Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut and to wash away the resulting swarf.

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2. Planing machine (Planer)

Metal-cutting machine tool in which the work piece is firmly attached to a horizontal table that moves back and forth under a single-point cutting tool. The tool-holding device is mounted on a cross rail so that the tool can be moved across the table in small sideward movements. Since the cutting tool can be moved at almost any angle, a wide variety of grooves and surfaces can be generated. Mechanical planers, or surfacers, are also used to smooth wood to an even thickness. Planers perform the same operations as shapers but can machine work pieces up to 50 ft (15 m) long.

A machine for the shaping of long, flat, or flat contoured surfaces by reciprocating the work piece under a stationary single-point tool or tools.

 

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  1. Milling machine

This is a machine tool that rotates a circular tool with numerous cutting edges arranged symmetrically about its axis, called a milling cutter. The metal work piece is usually held in a vise clamped to a table that can move in three perpendicular directions. Cutters of many shapes and sizes are available for a wide variety of milling operations. Milling machines cut flat surfaces, grooves, shoulders, inclined surfaces, dovetails, and T-slots. Various form-tooth cutters are used for cutting concave forms and convex grooves, for rounding corners, and for cutting gear teeth.

A machine for the removal of metal by feeding a work piece through the periphery of a rotating circular cutter. It is known as miller.

 

 

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  1. The drill press

This is m machine tool for producing holes in hard substances. The drill is held in a rotating spindle and is fed into the work piece, which is usually clamped in a vise supported on a table. The drill may be gripped in a chuck with three jaws that move radially in unison, or it may have a tapered shank that fits into a tapered hole in the spindle. Means are provided for varying the spindle speed and (on some machines) for automatically feeding the drill into the work piece. See also
boring machine. A drilling machine, in which a vertical drill, moves into the work, which is stationary.

  1. The lathe machine

 

Lathe
(lāth), machine tool for holding and turning metal, wood, plastic, or other material against a cutting tool to form a cylindrical product or part. It also drills, bores, polishes, grinds, makes threads, and performs other operations. Its principal parts are the headstock (attached to the bed or base of the machine), which holds one end of the material in a rotating spur; the tailstock, which holds the other end, moves along the bed, and can be clamped in position at any point; the cutting tool; and the power feed, comprising the drive and its motive parts.

Machine tool that performs turning operations in which unwanted material is removed from a work piece rotated against a cutting tool. Lathes are among the oldest and most important machine tools, used in France from 1569 and important in the Industrial Revolution in England, when they were adapted for metal cutting. Lathes (usually called engine lathes) today has a power-driven, variable-speed horizontal spindle to which the work holding device is attached. Operations include turning straight or tapered cylindrical shapes, grooves, shoulders, and screw threads and facing flat surfaces on the ends of cylindrical parts. Internal cylindrical operations include most of the common hole-machining operations, such as drilling, boring, reaming, counter boring, countersinking, and threading with a single-point tool or tap. See also
boring machine.

Lathe: A machine for shaping, boring, facing, or cutting a screw thread in metal, wood, etc., in which the work piece is turned about a horizontal axis against a fixed tool

The lathe machine is regarded as the father of all machine tools because apart from being used for turning cylindrical surface (external and internal) it can perform other operations which are peculiar to other machines.

Thus, it is possible to carry out the following operations on the lathe machine:

  • Turning (production of cylindrical of flat such as plumb bulb, centre punch)
  • Facing (production of flat surfaces)
  • Screw cutting (external and internal)
  • Grinding (external and internal)
  • Slotting
  • Taper turning (production of conical surface )

 

Parts of the lathe machine

  • Bed: This provides a plane surface for mounting and moving accessories at a constant level.
  • Head stock: This holds the main spindle and houses the arrangement for driving and speed variation
  • Main spindle: This rotates the work and transmits movement to saddle.
  • Tailstock: It is used to support work being turned between centres.
  • Saddle and cross slide: These are used for mounting the tool for cylindrical work.
  • Lead screw: Moves the saddle at rates relative to the rotation of the work.
  • Compound slide: This permit movement of the tools at angles other than a right angle (e.g. for conical work)
  • Centres: These support work drilled at end centres
  • Steadies: These support work to prevent bending. They can be either of fixed type bolted to the end of the bed, or of the traveling type bolted to the saddle which prevents vibration during machining of long and slender shafts.

Wood holding methods

Work holding methods on a lathe machine include:

  • Catch and center: This method is used when matching ordinary work between centres. Matching between centres is used when chuck matching is impossible.
  • Face plate: The pace plate has slots for clamping or holding jobs with T-bolts
  • Chuck: A chuck holds cylindrical work which is to be done in setting. It may be of the three-jaw, self-centering, chuck which grips irregular jobs more efficiently than three-jaw chuck.

 

  1. SHAPER

 

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A shaper is analogous to a planer, but smaller, and with the cutter riding a ram that moves above a stationary workpiece, rather than the entire workpiece moving beneath the cutter. The ram is moved back and forth typically by a crank inside the column; hydraulically actuated shapers also exist.

Operation

Shaper linkage. Note the drive arm revolves less for the return stroke than for the cutting stroke, resulting in a quicker return stroke and more powerful cutting stroke.

A shaper operates by moving a hardened cutting tool backwards and forwards across the workpiece. On the return stroke of the ram the tool is lifted clear of the workpiece, reducing the cutting action to one direction only.

The workpiece mounts on a rigid, box-shaped table in front of the machine. The height of the table can be adjusted to suit this workpiece, and the table can traverse sideways underneath the reciprocating tool, which is mounted on the ram. Table motion may be controlled manually, but is usually advanced by an automatic feed mechanism acting on the feedscrew. The ram slides back and forth above the work. At the front end of the ram is a vertical tool slide that may be adjusted to either side of the vertical plane along the stroke axis. This tool-slide holds the clapper box and toolpost, from which the tool can be positioned to cut a straight, flat surface on the top of the workpiece. The tool-slide permits feeding the tool downwards to deepen a cut. This adjustability, coupled with the use of specialized cutters and toolholders, enable the operator to cut internal and external gear tooth profiles, splines, dovetails, and keyways.

The ram is adjustable for stroke and, due to the geometry of the linkage, it moves faster on the return (non-cutting) stroke than on the forward, cutting stroke. This action is via a slotted link or whitworth link.

USES

The most common use is to machine straight, flat surfaces, but with ingenuity and some accessories a wide range of work can be done. Other examples of its use are:

Evaluation

1. State the function of the following:

  • Shaping machine
  • Planing machine
  • Milling machine

2. State the function of the following:

  • Grinding machine
  • The drill press
  • The lathe machine

 

Reading Assignment

Read “MACHINE TOOLS”

 

Reference Materials  

  1. NERDC, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 84 – 112
  2. EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 116-123

 

Weekend Assignment

  1. Which of the following is a machine tool (a) Circular sawing machine (b) Surface planing machine (c) Milling machine (d) Thicknessing machine
  2. Which of the following is used to rotates the work and transmits movement to saddle of a lathe (a) the bed (b) the headstock (c) the saddle cross slide (d) main spindle
  3. Which of the following provides a plane surface for mounting and moving accessories at a constant level on a lathe machine (a) the bed (b) the headstock (c) the saddle cross slide (d) main spindle
  4. Which of the following permits movement of tool at angle other than right angle ( e.g. for conical work) (a) the compound slide (b) the head stock (c) the slide cross slide (d) main spindle
  5. The following are work holding methods except (a) catch and carrier (b) face plate (c) saddle (d) chuck

 

Theory

1. State the function of the following:

  • Shaping machine
  • Planing machine
  • Milling machine

2. State the function of the following:

  • Grinding machine
  • The drill press
  • The lathe machine

 

 

WEEK 3 DATE____________________

TOPIC: METAL FINISHING

CONTENT

  • Definition
  • Buffing (buffering)
  • Scratching and brushing
  • Spot or copper finishing
  • Lacquering
  • Enameling
  • Tinning and Plating
  • Painting
  • Hammered finishing

 

Definition

Metal finishing can be defined as process of working on metal surface for decorative and preservative treatment.

Metal finishing is essential so as to prevent rusting to make the metal look nice and takes time to wear out.

Metal finishing includes the following:

  1. Buffing (buffering)
  2. Scratching and brushing
  3. Spot or copper finishing
  4. Lacquering
  5. Enameling
  6. Tinning and Plating
  7. Painting
  8. Hammered finishing

 

Evaluation

  1. Define metal finishing
  2. State 8 methods off metal finishing

 

 

  • BUFFING

This is the process of polishing metal surfaces using a special wheel with soft leather that mops the metal. The mops are usually soft leather or calico, charged periodically with the polishing compounds such as lime, Tripoli, crocus and rouge, emery flour or pumice

 

Buffering is the smoothing and brightening of a surface by an abrasive compound pressed against it by a soft wheel or belt.

 

 

  • SCRATCHING

These are processes of making ornamental profiles on metals and hardened steel. Scratching is done by thoroughly cleaning the surface of the metal, covering it with a melted wax or asphalt and allowing it to dry. The face of the metal is then scratched with a scriber to show the metal as desired for marking.

 

  • SPOT OR COPPER FINISHING

Spot finished is a form of ornamental finishing. The emery and oil will then be clean round the spot made be a wooden drill, which will as patterns. While copper finishing is the application of copper of different colours to spot.

 

  • LACQUERING

The lacquer to be used here is different from that described under wood finishes. This lacquer prevents rusting or corrosion of the metals because it is harder and tougher than enamel. A thin film of this lacquer is used for cans of soft drink so that the metal beneath can be seen.

 

 

  • ENAMELING

This is used to apply colours on as decoration to metal surface. The surface finishes are hard and glossy when dry. Enameling is done by applying powdered glass.

It is applying

  1. heating (hot enameling)
  2. Brushing
  3. Spraying
  4. Cold enameling for plastic

Car body are enameled (dipped, painted and baked)

 

  • TINNING AND PLATING

Tinning of a piece of metal is done by coating the finished products (steel) with tin. This prevents poisoning as in electric kettle originally made with copper.

 

 

  • PAINTING

This takes various forms. These include: galvanizing (dipping of the object in melted zinc and then heating to produce an alloy). Bronzing (painting with a powdered brass or bronze mixed with banana oil)

. Red lead painting (uses as protective coats for machinery. It is necessary that object to be painted must be thoroughly sanded and prime coated.

 

 

  • HAMMERED FINISHING

This involves the use of punches with different points or rounded ends on the both sides of metal. It is then painted black or given a smoke finish, while the high spots are polished with abrasive paper and lacquered.

 

Evaluation

1. State 8 methods of metal finishing and explain.

 

Reading Assignment

Read METAL FINISHING

 

Reference Materials  

  1. EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 124 – 129

 

 

 

 

Weekend Assignment

  • Which of the following is the process of polishing metals with wheel having soft leather mops? (a) spot finishing (b) buffering (c) scratching (d) enameling
  • Which metal finishing methods prevents poisoning of metal originally made with copper? (a) spot finishing (b) buffering (c) scratching (d) enameling
  • Which of the following is a form of ornamental finishing? (a) spot finishing (b) buffering (c) scratching (d) enameling
  • Which of the following is used for cans of soft drink? (a) lacquering (b) buffering (c) scratching (d) enameling
  • The following are methods of metal finishing except___ (a) lacquering (b) buffering (c) sanding (d) enameling

 

Theory

  1. State and explain 5 methods of metal finishing
  2. Briefly discuss the following (i) galvanizing (ii) bronzing

 

 

 

Week 4 DATE_____________________

TOPIC: BUILDING CONSTRUCTION I

 

Content

  • Definition of Building Construction
  • Types of Building
  • Stages In Building Construction
  • Doors
  • Windows

Definition of Building construction: These are the techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures. Early humans built primarily for shelter, using simple methods. Building materials came from the land, and fabrication was dictated by the limits of the materials and the builder’s hands. The erection sequence involved, as now, first placing a foundation (or using the ground). The builder erected the structural system; the structural material (masonry, mud, or logs) served as both skeleton and enclosure. Traditional bearing-wall and post-and-beam systems eventually gave way to framed structures, and builders became adept at sealing and fireproofing with a variety of claddings (exterior coverings) and finishes. Steel-framed buildings are usually enclosed by curtain walls. In modern-day construction, sheathing the skeleton of the building is only the beginning; specialists then begin the bulk of the work inside, installing plumbing, electrical wiring, HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning), windows, floor coverings, plasterwork, moldings, ceramic tile, cabinets, and other features.

Evaluation

  1. Define building construction
  2. Briefly explain important steps in building construction

Types of building

  • Bungalow: It is dwelling built in a style developed from that of a form of rural house in India. The original bungalow typically has one story, few rooms, and a maximum of cross drafts, with high ceilings, unusually large window and door openings, and verandas on all sides to shade the rooms from the intense light and tropical heat. A house that is built on one level
  • One-storey building: A house that has a ground floor and the first floor only.
  • Multi-storey building: A house that has many levels.
  • Skyscrapers: A very tall building.
  • Detached building: A house that is joined with another building at one side.
  • Semi-Detached building: A house that is joined with another building at one side.

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  • Duplex: A house that is made up of two apartments.
  • Mansion: A very large house.
  • Terraced houses: These are blocks of building that are constructed together side by side.

Evaluation

1. State 10 types of building and explain

Stages in building construction

  1. Deciding on the types of building and where to locate it.
  2. Designing the building and producing the working drawings for the builders.

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Stages in building construction

  1. Deciding on the types of building and where to locate it.
  2. Designing the building and producing the working drawings for the builders.
  3. Building operations:
  • Setting out the size
  • laying the foundation
  • Erection of the walls
  • Construction of the floors
  • Roofing of the building.

Evaluation

  1. Briefly explain the blue print of the above building plan
  2. State the stages of building construction

DOORS

Movable barrier installed in the entry of a room or building to restrict access or provide visual privacy. Early doors were hides or textiles. With monumental architecture came pivoting doors of rigid, permanent materials; important chambers often had stone or bronze doors. Pompeiian doors looked much like modern wooden doors; they were constructed of stiles (vertical planks) and rails (horizontal planks) fastened together to support panels and occasionally equipped with locks and hinges. The typical Western medieval door was of vertical planks backed with horizontal or diagonal bracing. In the 20th century, a single, hollow-core panel door became most common. Other types include the revolving door, folding door, sliding door (inspired by the Japanese shoji), rolling door, and Dutch door (divided horizontally so that the lower or upper part can be opened separately).

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Functions of doors

  1. They serve means of shutting and opening the entrance or exit.
  2. They serve as barriers against dangers and attacks
  3. They serve as protection of lives and properties.
  4. They serve as means of ventilation.

 

Types of doors

  1. Interior doors
    1. Panel doors
    2. Flush doors
    3. French doors
    4. Louver doors
  2. Exterior doors: They are used for decorative purpose only. They are carefully chosen to suit the architectural design of the building.
  3. Sliding doors: They are space-saving doors, which are for closets in bedrooms.
  4. Folding Doors: These are doors, which are easily installed.
  5. Revolving Doors: They are usually traffic control doors within a building

 

Evaluation

  1. State 4 functions of doors
  2. State 5 types of doors

 

WINDOWS

Windows, today, are more of architectural features rather than mere necessary opening in a wall.

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Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

 

Function of windows

  1. It is used for admitting light and air.
  2. It serves as barriers to dangers and attacks.
  3. It is used to allow ventilation.

 

We have the following architectural designed windows:

  1. Bull’s eye windows
  2. Semi-circular headed windows.
  3. Cant bay windows
  4. Dormer windows

 

 

Evaluation

  1. State 4 functions of windows
  2. State 5 types of windows

 

 

Reading Assignment

Read BUILDING CONSTRUCTION I

 

Reference Materials  

  1. NERDC, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 218 -228
  2. EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 130 -138

 

 

Weekend Assignment

  1. The following are types of building except (a) Terraced house (b) Sheraton hotel (c) Bungalow (d) Sky scraper
  2. Blocks of building that are constructed together side by side is called ____ (a) Terraced house (b) one-storey (c) Bungalow (d) Sky scraper
  3. The following are building operations except (a) setting out (b) erection of walls (c) roofing (d) contracting
  4. The type of floor that consists of a series of closely spaced reinforced I-beams framing into girders is called __ (a) one-way ribbed slab (b) one-way reinforced floors (c) two-way reinforced floors (d) pre-cast concrete floors
  5. The following are examples of interior doors except (a) panel doors (b) flush doors (c) French doors (d) revolving doors

 

Theory

  1. State the functions of door.
  2. State the different types of floor

 

Week 5 DATE_____________________

TOPIC: BUILDING CONSTRUCTION II

CONTENT

  • Floors
  • Types of Floors
  • General Floor Finishes
  • Roof

FLOORS

This is a flat bottom surface in or on any structure. It is a rigid building assembly that divides space horizontally into stories. It forms the bottom of a room. It may consist of joist-supported wood planks or panels, decking or panels supported by wood or steel beams, a slab of stone or concrete on the ground, or a reinforced-concrete slab carried by concrete beams and columns. The floor assembly must support its own dead load plus the live load of occupants, activities, and furnishings. The horizontal supports beneath its top surface—and the vertical supports into which they frame—must be sufficiently large and spaced closely enough to prevent sagging of the assembly

Types of floors

  • Solid Floors: These are concrete which may simply be finished with smooth surface or laid with tiles (plastic and linoleum floor tiles), which are not normally laid down in specifications.
  • Suspended Floors: It consists of wood, which is nailed over solid lengths of timber, ends of which are supported by the main walls of building.

 

Evaluation

  1. Describe a floor
  2. State the types of floor

 

We have the following types of solid floors:

  • One-way reinforcing system: The reinforcing elements are laid to run in one direction
  • Two-way reinforcing system: The reinforcing elements are laid to run in two directions.

 

  • Concrete slab floor with light gauge decking: These are light gauge steel deck, covered with a concrete slab.
  • One-way ribbed slab floor: This type of floor consists of series of closely spaced reinforced I-beams framing into framing into girders.
  • Pre-cast concrete floor system: It involves the production of standard pre-cast members, which use ordinary reinforcing bars

 

 

General floor finishes

Surface of floors in dwelling houses may be terrazzo finished, painted, waxed, tiled, or carpeted. Other types of finish are in the form designs such as parquetry flooring e.t.c.

  1. Parquet floor
  2. Terrazzo floor
  3. Tile floor or linoleum (rubber)

 

Evaluation

  1. State 5 types of flooring system.
  2. State 3 general floor-finishes.

 

ROOF

Roof is a building structure that provides covering for the entire building and protects any internal decoration or fittings from the weather and thereby rendering the house habitable.

 

Types of roofing

There are different kinds of roof today but we are going to emphasize only the most common ones found around and these include: Gambrel, Shed, Hip, Butterfly, Gable, or Pitched, Flat (made of galvanized metal sheet or concrete), Monitor, Half monitor, Arched, Combination, Lean-to, Collar and Mansard roof respectively.

 

COMMON ROOFS

  1. Hip roof: The hip roof has four slanting surfaces from a peak known as ridge. It has a shortening effect on the length of the building roof.
  2. Pitched roof: (Gabble): It has two surfaces sloping away from the ridge. A typical characteristic of pitched roof is a cavity wall at gable end, and vent between the fascia and suffit, which prevents the rafter timbers from disintegration.
  3. Shed roof: This is the simplest form of roof construction, having only one slope usually to the rear of building.
  4. Butterfly roof: This is a double shed roof which slopes inwards
  5. Half roof
  6. Half Monitor roof
  7. Monitor roof
  8. Combination roof
  9. Arched roof
  10. Mansard roof

 

 

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Evaluation

  1. State 5 types of roofs.
  2. Sketch 5 types of roofs.

 

Reading Assignment

Read BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

 

Reference Materials  

  1. NERDC, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 218 – 228
  2. EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 130 – 138

 

 

Weekend Assignment

  1. ____ is a building structure that provides covering for the entire building (a) door (b) windows (c) roof (d) floor
  2. Which of the following is geometrically inclined (a) Bull’s ye window (b) French window (c) panel window (d) combination window
  3. The following are functions of windows except (a) It is used for admitting light and air.(b) It serves as barriers to dangers and attacks. (c) It is used to allow ventilation. (d) It is used for collection of rain
  4. The following are types of roof except (a) Shed (b) Hip (c) Butterfly (d) panel
  5. The type of roof that is suitable for factory is (a) hip roof (b) butterfly (c) monitor (d) panel roof

 

Theory

  1. Mention 9 types of roof
  2. State the functions of windows

 

 

 

 

 

Week 6 Date—————————–

Topic: AIR- ITS MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

 

Content

  • Introduction
  • Mechanical
    Properties of Air
  • Experiments and Deductions
  • Air: Technological Applications

 

Introduction

We feel the pressure of air, as it surrounds us like water surrounds the fish in the sea. The presence of air is felt as it blows over our body on windy days, or as it blows away light object thrown out of moving vehicle.

Air contains nitrogen, oxygen and other gases. Air thins out gradually as we go higher above the sea level. The blanket of air that covers the earth is about 72km thick. At high levels, air contains insufficient oxygen to support life. Hence, provision for the supply of more oxygen has to be made for aircraft flying at high altitude.

 

Properties of Air

The properties of air such as: its weight; pressure and variation of pressure; temperature and speed, are utilized in technology to produce machine.

Although air is very light, one cubic meter of it weight about 1.2kg

Atmospheric pressure is due to a weight of column of air about 72km above sea level. The pressure exerted by air at sea level is approximately 10,500kg/m2.

 

Evaluation

  1. Briefly describe the properties of air.

 

 

Experiments and Deductions

  1. Air has weight

If two balloons (one inflated and the other deflated) are placed at ends of a lever balance. The end of the balance attached to the inflated balloon (containing air) goes down. This shows that air has weight

  1. Air exerts pressure

A plastic bottle that has been evacuated (removal of air from the bottle) is crushed by the atmospheric pressure. This shows that air exerts pressure.

Air pressure decreases the higher we go, hence, at high altitude, the inside of an aircraft is pressurized.

Atmospheric pressure can support about 10m column of water or 75cm column of mercury.

For fluid in a container to flow out freely through a punched hole in the container, the pressure inside the container must be equal to or greater than the external pressure of the surrounding air.

The pressure of air in a container can be increased by increasing the mass of air it contains or by squeezing the container to decrease the volume of air

 

  1. Air speed’s relationship with Pressure and Temperature

When air moves fast, it’s pressure decreases. Cold air is heavier than hot air; hence the surrounding cold air pushes a hot-air balloon up.

The surrounding air which is denser than the very light air in an airship punches the airship up.

The lift of an aircraft is contained is obtained that air moves faster on the upper side of the wing (low pressure and slower on the under side (high pressure). The same principle applies to kite.

 

Evaluation

  1. State 3 experiments that describe properties of air.

 

Air: Technological Applications

Air, in the static condition as well as in motion, exhibits some properties as demonstrated above. Some of the properties are utilized in the following systems such as balloons, kites, airships, vacuum cleaners, aircraft propulsion and lift, wind power e.t.c.

 

Balloons

When air is heated, it expands and becomes less dense i.e. lighter, as it increases in volume. This is the basis of operation of the hot-air balloons, which have in use since the eighteenth century. A balloon is filled with hot air, which is much lighter than the surrounding cold dense air. The denser outside air then lifts the balloon off from the ground. The balloon continues to rise until it gets to denser air up.

 

When the balloonist wants to descend, he lets air out of the balloon, which gradually descends to the ground.

 

Kites

Kite flying is one the favorite sports that people get involved in sunny windy days in open fields.

It is highly desirable that the string attached at a point such that the air has a longer path over the top of the kite than underneath. Hence, this will lead to a much higher speed and consequently low pressure on the top side, and on the underside a lower speed and much higher pressure. The effect is a lifting up of the kite into the air due to pressure difference

 

Airship

Airship is basically a balloon in operation. It can be described as an elongated balloon. While the hot air balloon uses hot air to provide lift, airships use lighter-than-air gases, such as hydrogen and the inert helium gas, to fill the envelope.

Airship is fitted with propellers, and some control mechanism so that it can move in any direction as it floats in the air.

 

Vacuum Cleaners

A vacuum cleaner is a household gadget for cleaning carpets. It removes big and small dust particles, which are sucked into the bag or container.

Operation

An electric fan draws dust-laden air through the machine into the container through which the air passes, leaving the dust particles behind. As the fan blows air away into the container, air is continuously sucked from the other side through the nozzle; which is in contact with the carpet. The sucked air carries pieces of dust and dirt with it towards the fan. The cloth bag contains tiny holes through which only air can pass and later filtered until it leaves the machine finally as clean air.

 

 

 

Evaluation

1. Describe 3 Technological Applications of air.

 

Reading Assignment

Rea -AIR- ITS MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

 

Reference Materials  

  1. NERDC, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 170 -180
  2. EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 139 – 157

 

 

Weekend Assignment

  1. The presence of air is felt as it blows over our body on (a) windy days (b) cold days (c) dry days (d) hot days
  2. Wind has the ability to blow away (a) light object (b) high rising building (c) sky scraper (d) heavy building
  3. The end of the balance attached to the inflated balloon (containing air) goes down. (a) air has weight (b) air is weak (c) air is strong (d) air flexible
  4. The following are technologies from the application of air EXCEPT (a) balloon (b) airship (c) vacuum cleaner (d) printer
  5. The pressure of air in a container can be increased by increasing the mass of air it contains or by squeezing the container to decrease the volume of air True or False.

 

Theory

  1. State 2 properties of air with proof
  2. Explain the following technologies from the application of air (a) balloon (b) airship (c) vacuum cleaner

 

 

WEEK 7 DATE______________________

TOPIC: RURAL AND URBAN WATER SUPPLY

 

CONTENT

  • Sources of water
  • Quality of water
  • Water purification
  • Transmission and distribution of water system

SOURCES OF WATER

There are two main sources of water supply for rural and urban areas the surface sources and the underground sources

 

Sources of water are broadly classified as under ground sources and surface sources.

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comRainfall

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com Surface sources underground sources

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comNatural Artificial Natural Artificial

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.com

 

Upland surface water, Rainwater, springs shallow, deep and,

Lakes, rivers catchment’s reservoir artesian wells

 

Evaluation

  1. State and explain two main sources of water

 

 

The surface sources are the lakes, rivers, upland surface water while the underground water includes the springs and wells.

 

 

SURFACE WATER: It originates from rainfall. It is a mixture of surface run off and ground water. This includes the rainwater collected directly from the roof, from the rivers, ponds and lakes and runs off from natural catchments into the natural or artificial lakes.

 

Rain water can be collected from the roofs of the building into the storage drums and tanks or buckets via overhanging collection trough. Rain water is the softest natural water, although it can be contaminated if the collecting surfaces are not well maintained

 

THE UNDERGROUND WATER:
It is that portion of rainfall, which has percolated into the earth to form underground deposits. Examples include walls and springs.

Spring water is the water that has traveled as a result of its geological conditions. it is not different from wells.

 

Underground water is practical and safe in nature due to the following reasons:

  • It is ,in most cases, free from diseases.(filtration into the ground)
  • It may taken without further treatment.
  • It is practical to dig at any convenient locations.
  • It serves the purpose of direct water supply.

 

Evaluation

  1. State two examples of surface water
  2. State two examples of underground water

QUALITY OF WATER

Ordinary raw water contains micro-organisms and dissolved substances which are a health hazard, and must therefore be removed by treating the water.

Water meant for human consumption must:

  1. Be free from chemical substances and micro-organisms
  2. It must not be turbid i.e. cloudy
  3. It must be colourless, tasteless and odourless.

 

WATER PURIFICATION

The process by which water could be treated involves any of the following methods:

  1. Filtration
  2. Clarification
  3. Aeration
  4. Disinfect ion

Filtration: Urban water supply is filtered to remove particulate matter.

Clarification: This done to remove the suspended materials so that the water becomes clear.

Aeration: To remove various dissolved gases (methane, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide etc)

Disinfect ion: This is the process of using chlorine to destroy undesirable organism in water, to improve coagulation of water, to control the odours in water and sludge in the purification chamber and to eliminate hydrogen sulphide in water.

 

 

Evaluation

  1. State the qualities of clean water.
  2. State and explain 4 processes of water purification

 

 

TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Rural Water Supply is mainly from rivers and shallow wells. Water from the well can be brought to the surface manually or with the aid of a windless, hand pump or motorized pump.

There are two main pumps for pumping water- reciprocating plunger pump and the rotary pump. When the well is not the too deep (i.e.5m) the pump can be installed at the ground level. For deep wells, the pump is lowered down into the well.

Household treatment of water can be accomplished by boiling water and/or using water filter of appropriate grade (V or N or W)

 

Urban Water Supply: An urban water supply scheme (WSS) involves a collection or water impounding system (dam), a purification system, a transmission and distribution system.

The treatment of water involves the following processes: aeration, clarification, filtration and disinfection.

Pipelines are laid to convey treated water to the distribution reservoir, and the distribution lines to various service outlets.

 

The clear and pure water from the treatment plant is pumped through pipeline into the city reservoir for distribution to various service outlets  

Evaluation

  1. Briefly describe the transmission and distribution of water the following:
  1. rural areas
  2. urban areas

DISTRIBUTION RESERVOIR

Distribution reservoirs help to store excess water during the period of low demand and discharge it during the period of high demand. They are usually centrally located on an elevation to ensure distribution by gravity i.e. no pumping.

 

This helps to maintain a regular water supply to meet the hourly variation of water demand. The reservoirs are sited on high position above the ground at least 10m higher than any storey building in that area. This is to ensure distribution by gravity.

 

Evaluation

  1. State the classification the sources of water.
  2. Mention 3 qualities of a good water
  3. Mention the water purification processes

 

Reading Assignment

Read RURAL AND URBAN WATER SUPPLY

Reference Materials  

  1. EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 158 – 170

 

Weekend Assignment

  1. There are ____ main sources of water supply for rural and urban areas. A) one (b) two (c) three (d) four
  2. The following are examples surface sources except (a) lakes (b)rivers (c) upland surface water (d) spring
  3. Which of the following is a/an example of the underground water? (a) springs (b) lakes (c) rivers (d) upland surface water
  4. The process by which water could be treated involves any of the following methods except (a) Filtration (b) Clarification (c) Aeration and Disinfect ion (d) Chromatography
  5. Which of the helps to store excess water during the period of low demand and discharge it during the period of high demand? (a) Distribution reservoirs (b) filter tank (c) sedimentation tank (d) overhead tank

 

Theory  

  1. State two sources of water and give 2 examples each
  2. Briefly describe the transmission and distribution of water the following:
    1. rural areas
    2. urban areas

 

Week 8 DATE_____________________

TOPIC: PLUMBING FOR DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY

CONTENTS

  • Definition of plumbing
  • Domestic pipeline
  • Pipeline system for domestic water supply
  • The drainage system

 

Definition of plumbing

Plumbing can be defined as the system of arranging and connecting pipes with others things (fittings and machines) that supply water to and drain liquids wastes out of the building.

 

Domestic pipeline fitting has the following components

  1. Stops Corks
  2. Drain Corks
  3. Valves (gates valves bul-valves)
  4. Taps
  5. Elbows
  6. Tees

 

Evaluation

  1. Define plumbing
  2. State 6 domestic pipeline fitting components

 

 

  1. Stop Cork: This is used to control the flow of water through water supply pipes.
  2. The stop Cork has a crutch handle, which is turned clockwise or anticlockwise to raise or lower the jumper on valve seating.
  3. Drain Cork: It is connected to a water supply pipe in order to drain off water.
  4. Gate valve: It is a valve that is used in controlling the flow of water in the distribution pipes.
  5. Taps: We get supply by opening a tap at the end of the supply line.
  6. Elbows: These are connected to the water supply pipe to change the direction of flow through an angle. For example, it is important when a horizontal pipe is to be connected to a vertical pipe. One end of the elbow turns through the required angle (90, 112½ , 135 , 157½ )
  7. Tee: A tee is used for joining three pipes meeting at a junction from one of the pipes the flow divides into the two other pipes.

 

Evaluation

  • Explain 5 domestic line fitting and state their uses.

 

 

PIPELINE SYSTEM FOR DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY

Pipes referred to as the mains are laid underground to distribute water to various outlets. The water from the street mains enters the compound of a building in a 30m-diameter pipe (community pipe). It connects to a side of the water authority stop Cork which buried in a pit at least 80cm deep.

The main pipes are laid underground to distribute water to various outlets. The main is connected to the kitchen sink to outside tap and up to the elevated tank. Baths, water closet, washing hand basin and hot water system are supplied directly by gravity through a 22m diameter pipe from the overload storage tank.

 

WATER STORAGE TANK

Water storage tank is important when one considers the fact that regular supply of water cannot be guaranteed. Storage tank is important because:

  1. The demand for water varies during the day from the peak period demand in the morning to low demand later in the evening.
  2. Water is distribute from the storage tank generally at low pressure, thus if there is ay leakage along the supply line, It will not as serious as leakage along the high-pressure supply mains.
  3. There are occasions when the water Authority have to cut off supply to effect repairs unless one has a storage tank there will be no supply to the building.

SINKS

They are made from stainless steel or enameled steel. Sinks are provided with piller bib taps depending on the orientation of water supply pipe. It has over flown hole to provide passage for water in case of the tap being carelessly left open. A’s tipper is used to block the water passage when the tap is open to provide a pool of water for washing.

When blockage occurs, a sink plunger down or a force cup may be used. The plunger placed over the waste outlet is then plunged down forcibly as many times as necessary.

The plunging action generates a lot of compressive force, which moves the obstruction out of the way. If the plunging fails to remove the blockage the clearing “ey” will have to be unscrewed. A wire can then be used to probe into the piping to dislodge the offending materials.

BASINS

Wash basins are usually made of ceramic. It has almost the same component as the sinks.

BATH TUBS AND SHOWERS

Baths are of different sizes and shapes. They are made of enameled cast iron or acrylic plastic. Cold water taps as well as hot water tap is provided. It also has a stopper to stop water flow as often required.

For a body wash, there is a great advantage in installing a shower:

  1. It ensures economical use of water than a bath tub.
  2. Showers are more hygienic.

WATER CLOSET

The water closet is one of the most important components of a household’s plumbing installation.

Human wastes are got rid off through the W.C. Any malfunctioning will lead to an unhealthy environment. The cisterns contain at least two gallons of water.

HOT WATER SYSTEM

Hot water system is required mainly for providing warm water for bathing and for brushing the teeth at washbasin. This can be achieved. This can be achieved by installing an electric water heating system. The hot water is piped to the bathtub and washbasin

 

Evaluation

  1. Mention 5 outlets of water in our homes
  2. State two advantages of showers over the bathtub.

 

 

THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM

The importance of drainage cannot be over-emphasized. A drainage system must be provided with a pipe to get rid of liquid waste from kitchen sink, the bathtub, and the wash hand basins, water closets.

The effluents flushed from the W.C travel through the ‘soil’ pipe into the inspection chamber, which constituted the junction for all drains. The water drained from the water basins travel through a separate pipe first into a gulley where in solids are removed before the drain enters into the inspection chamber,

After the inspection chamber, the liquid waste either goes into the public sewage works or a septic tank. The septic tank is an underground chamber into which sewage from the house enters and leaves as clean effluent. The inlet of the septic tank is slightly higher than the outlet, this is to ensure that when fresh discharge of sewage enters the tank, an equal volume of old liquid in the tank is displaced into the filter tank, anaerobic bacteria (bacteria which cannot live in the pressure of free oxygen) act on the sewage to break down the solids to liquid, gas and mineral sludge.

The liquid effluent from the tank enters the second chamber or filter tank where aerobic bacteria (bacteria which live in the presence of oxygen) complete the sewage purification process by oxidation.

For septic tank to be able to perform the above-mentioned point, than these practice should be noted.

  1. The use of disinfectants destroyed the disease germs in a toilet and at the same time destroy the bacteria in the septic tank, thus it slows down the bacterial action in the waste.
  2. Household chemicals like bleaches, detergents etc when used excessively and sent into the septic tank interfere with the bacteria decomposition of waste. The rate of absorption of the soil is thereby reduced liquid effluent from the soil may then find its way to the surface consequence the surrounding area get polluted.
  3. The empty of large volume of water may result in the churning up of the solids that are still being broken down by bacterial action as well as the sludge. Such products may also flow into the filter or drainage field to cause clogging
  4. It is important to establish the absorption properties of soil in an area where septic tank is to be installed.

 

Evaluation

1 Define the following terms

  1. Aerobic bacteria
  2. Anaerobic bacteria
  3. Sewage

2. Mention three practices to be noted in the use of septic tank in our home.

 

Reading Assignment

Read PLUMBING FOR DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY

Reference Materials  

  1. EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 171-181

 

Weekend Assignment

  1. The system of arranging and connecting pipes with others things (fittings and machines) that supply water to and drain liquids wastes out of the building is called___ (a) plumbing (b) bricklaying (c) rendering (d) setting out
  2. The following are components of domestic pipeline fitting has the following except (a) Drain Corks (b) Valves (gates valves bul-valves) (c) Elbows (d) bore hole
  3. Which of the following is used to control the flow of water through water supply pipes? (a) Drain Cork (b) Stop cork (c) Elbow(d) bore hole
  4. Which of the following is used to get rid off of human wastes? (a) the Water Closet (b) bath hub (c) storage tank (d) sink
  5. The system that is used to get rid of liquid waste from kitchen sink, the bathtub, the wash hand basins and water closets is called___ (a) A drainage system (b) liquid system (c) power system (d) cleaning system

 

Theory

1 Define the following terms

  • Aerobic bacteria
  • Anaerobic bacteria
  • Sewage

2. Explain 5 domestic line fitting and state their uses.

 

 

WEEK 9 DATE_____________________

TOPIC: RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

CONTENT

  • RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
  • SOLAR ENERGY (Renewable)
  • PYRANOMETERSImage From EcoleBooks.com
  • SOLAR CELLS

 

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

The importance of energy in all human activities cannot be overemphasized. We need energy in order to travel from one place to another, to communicate to cook our foods, to light our homes streets, offices etc.

We have non-renewable energy sources i.e. with time they will be exhausted eg fuel.

 

Evaluation

  1. State the importance of energy to daily human activities

 

 

 

The Renewable energy resources

These include water power, solar energy, biogas, wind etc

 

WATER (renewable)

Water flowing down a dam built across a river or stream possesses a considerable amount of mechanical energy which can be converted to hydro-electric power by turbine or electric generator set placed at the end of falling water. Water power is used to turn wheel round as water falls down from the dam and impinges on the wheel. Such rotating wheel possesses mechanical energy which can be used to drive a series pumps to supply water for homes use or irrigation of the land. It can also to be to turn a turbine to generate electric for the community.

Water power system includes water wheel and pelton impulse wheel. The water wheel is useful for converting water power to mechanical power. The pelton impulse wheel works on the basic principles that a high velocity jet of water possesses kinetic energy which can be used to mobbed any object on which it impinges

Pelton wheel can be used to generate electricity without using gear driving between the wheel and generator

 

Evaluation

  • Briefly explain how water power can be utilized.

 

 

SOLAR ENERGY (Renewable)

One of the forms of energy from the solar energy is the heat energy reaching the earth from the sun. The radiation from the sun has the following characteristics:

  1. Solar radiation is intermittent i.e. any point on the earth receive radiation during the day while it cut off as night approaches.
  2. The radiation are partially absorbed by atmospheric gases like oxygen , ozone , carbon dioxide and water vapour .They can also scattered by cloud masses molecules of air , particles , dust and smoke.
  3. The radiation reaching the earth is split into beam radiation or diffuse radiation. Beam radiation reaching surface of the earth without scattering while diffuse is the re-radiation from scattering particles in the atmosphere. The instrument for measuring solar radiation is called radiometer.

Image From EcoleBooks.com

Evaluation

  1. State the characteristics of the radiation from the sun.

 

PYRANOMETERSImage From EcoleBooks.com

Pyranometers are radiometers designed for measuring the irradiance on a plane surface, normally from solar radiation and lamps.

The Kipp & Zonen range of thermopile-based pyranometers has been in production for several decades and is respected around the world for the measurement of solar irradiance to World Meteorological Organisation and ISO 9060 standards.

The instruments are used in meteorological research, solar energy research, material testing, climate control in greenhouses, building physics, science and many other applications.

The CMP series of pyranometers have ergonomic features to facilitate installation, maintenance, and exchange for recalibration.

A waterproof socket is fitted for the signature yellow signal cable, which is available in a range of lengths. The integral bubble level is raised to the top of the housing and can be viewed without removing the sun shield. The screw-in drying cartridge can be reactivated with convenient refill packets.

Pyranometers are easy to use, require no power, and are all supplied with calibration certificates that are traceable to WRR (World Radiometric Reference). All instruments have environmental protection class 67.

Evaluation

  1. What is a pyranometer?

 

 

SOLAR CELLS

This is otherwise called photovoltaic cell. It converts sunlight directly to electricity. Photovoltaic is capable of converting from 3% to 20% of incidence solar energy into direct current electricity. It behaves like a low voltage battery.

The photo-voltaic cell is a very promising source of electrical energy. Most especially for system which requires small electrical power to drive them

 

Evaluation

1. State the function of a photovoltaic cell.

 

Reading Assignment

Read RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

Reference Materials  

  1. EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 185 – 190

Weekend Assignment

  1. We need energy for the following reasons except (a) to travel from one place to another (b) to cook our foods (c) to light our homes streets, offices (d) to see a spirit
  2. The following are examples of renewable energy resources except (a) water power (b) solar energy(c) biogas (d) Petrol
  3. Which of the following is used for converting water power to mechanical power (a) the water wheel (b) the water engine (c) the water rod (d) the water pump
  4. Which wheel can used to generate electricity without using gear driving between the wheel and generator? (a) the pelton wheel (b) the water wheel (c) the nekton wheel (d) the drain wheel
  5. The instrument for measuring solar radiation is called___ (a) radiometer (b) thermometer (c) hydrometer (d) hygrometer

 

Theory

  1. State the importance of energy to daily human activities.
  2. State the function of a photovoltaic cell.

 

 

 

 

WEEK 10 DATE________________

TOPIC: ENERGY RESOURCES-Solar Powered Devices

 

CONTENT

  • Renewable energy
  • Solar power
  • Solar powered devices

     

RENEWABLE ENERGY

Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity.[1]
New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly.[1] The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.[1][2]

power” title=”Wind power”>Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide power_capacity” title=”Installed wind power capacity”>installed capacity of 157,900 megawatts (MW) in 2009,[3][4] and is widely used in power_in_the_European_Union” title=”Wind power in the European Union”>Europe, power_in_China” title=”Wind power in China”>Asia, and the power_in_the_United_States” title=”Wind power in the United States”>United States.[5] At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21,000 MW[6][7][8] and power_stations” title=”Photovoltaic power stations”>PV power stations are popular in power_in_Germany” title=”Solar power in Germany”>Germany and power_in_Spain” title=”Solar power in Spain”>Spain.[9]
power” title=”Solar thermal power”>Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 MW SEGS power plant in the power_plants_in_the_Mojave_Desert” title=”Solar power plants in the Mojave Desert”>Mojave Desert.[10] The world’s largest power” title=”Geothermal power”>geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country’s automotive fuel.[11] Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA.

While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development.[12] Globally, an estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV systems. Micro-hydro systems configured into village-scale or county-scale mini-grids serve many areas.[13] More than 30 million rural households get lighting and cooking from biogas made in household-scale digesters. Biomass cookstoves are used by 160 million households[13]

Evaluation

  1. Define renewable energy
  2. State the percentage of renewable used in recent year.

 

SOLAR POWER

Solar power is the generation of electricity from sunlight. This can be direct as with photovoltaic (PV), or indirect as with power” title=”Concentrating solar power”>concentrating solar power (CSP), where the sun’s energy is focused to boil water which is then used to provide power. Solar power had the potential to provide over 1,000 times total world energy consumption in 2008,[citation needed] though it provided 0.02% of the total that year. If it continues to double in use every two to three years, or less, it would become the dominant energy source this century. The largest solar power plants, like the 354 MW SEGS, are concentrating solar thermal plants, but recently [clarification needed] multi-megawatt photovoltaic plants have been built. Completed in 2008, the 46 MW power_station” title=”Moura photovoltaic power station”>Moura photovoltaic power station in Portugal and the 40 MW Waldpolenz Solar Park in Germany appear to be characteristic of the trend toward larger power_stations” title=”List of photovoltaic power stations”>photovoltaic power stations. Larger ones are proposed, such as the 100 MW Fort Peck Solar Farm[citation needed], the 550 MW Topaz Solar Farm, and the 600 MW Rancho Cielo Solar Farm

 

Evaluation

  1. Define solar power
  2. State and explain the two types of solar power you know

 

SOLAR POWERED DEVICES

Solar energy is utilized for:

  1. Drying clothes and agricultural products.
  2. Distillation of water:
  3. Production of hot water and hot air for various purposes.
  4. Generating electricity either directly or indirectly

Image From EcoleBooks.com

SOLAR CROP DRIER

Solar crop drier has been developed to minimize contamination and to maximize effectiveness of incidence solar energy, essentially used to remove moisture in order to dehydrate pepper, vegetables, fish e.t.c.

It consists of four parts Box, The cover, the Tray and the insulator.

The operation of the drier is simple. The drier cover allows solar radiation to enter into the box but prevents heat from being emitted from interior of the box back to the surrounding. The trapped heat is used to removing moisture fro m the materials to be dried.

Solar drier is faster than ordinary exposure of the material to the sunshine. It also protect dried material from the rain and contaminant

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

Evaluation

  1. What is renewable energy? Give examples.
  2. Mention three areas of application of solar energy as a renewable sources

 

Reading Assignment

Read ENERGY RESOURCES-Solar Power Devices

Reference Materials  

  1. EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 185 – 190

 

Weekend Assignment

  1. The energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished) is called ___ (a) renewable energy (b) non-renewable energy (c) artificial energy (d) potential energy
  2. Solar energy is utilized for the following except (a) Drying clothes and agricultural products. (b) Distillation of water (c) Production of hot water and hot air for various purposes. (d) flying a air plane
  3. In 2008, about____of global final energy consumption came from renewables. (a) 19% (b) 29% (c)39% (d) 49%
  4. The generation of electricity from sunlight is called __(a) solar power (b) solar conversion (c) solar digester (d) solar engine
  5. Solar crop drier has been developed for the following except (a) to minimize contamination (b) to maximize effectiveness of incidence solar energy(c) to remove moisture in order to dehydrate pepper, vegetables and fish. (d) to increase food product

 

Theory

  1. Mention three areas of application of solar energy as a renewable sources
  2. a) Define solar power
  • State and explain the two types of solar power you know

 

 

 

 




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EcoleBooks | 2ND TERM JSS3 BASIC TECHNOLOGY Scheme of Work and Note

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