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SECOND TERM E-LEARNING NOTE

 

SUBJECT: CIVIC EDUCATION CLASS: JSS 2

 

SCHEME OF WORK

 

WEEK  TOPIC

1.  Relationship among the Federal, State and Local government.

2. Rule of Law.

3.  Punishable Offences.

4&5  Protection of Human Rights and The Rule of Law.

6.  Consumer Rights.

7.  Democracy.

8.  Democratic Institution.

9.  Pillars of Democracy.

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10.  Revision.

11.  Examination.

 

REFERENCE

  • Fundamentals of Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemi.
  • Fundamentals of Civic Education for Basic 8 Workbook by Sola Akinyemi.

 

 

WEEK ONE

TOPIC: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

1.  Federal Government: Is the central government. It is in charge of defence, police, army, foreign affairs, currency matters etc. It supervises the states and local governments.

2.  State Government: the state governors are the heads of state governments. A state governor oversees the State Council of Chiefs, State Civil Service Commission etc. The State Executive Council is headed by the governor and is responsible for smooth running of the state.

3.  Local Government: is the third tier or third level of government in the country. It is headed by the local government chairman. The laws made by the local government are called bye-laws.

 

EVALUATION

State three areas of relationship among the tiers of government

 

Areas of differences between the federal, state and local government

These are the major differences in their functions:

1.  The Federal government initiates and implements i.e carries out policies for the whole country. However, the states and local government have their own areas of authority.

2.  The federal government has the power to control the states and local government but the states and local

governments cannot control the federal government.

3.  The federal, states and local governments receive money from the federation account and this money is called budgetary allocation.

4.  The Federal Executive Council is headed by the president. It is made up of the past heads of states, state governor and ministers.

5.  The Federal government has two legislative houses – the Senate and the House of Representatives.

6.  The states and local government have uni-cameral legislature each (i.e only one law-making house or office.)

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State three major differences among the tiers of government.
  2. Mention three characteristics of a federation.
  3. Mention three ways to nurture your talents.
  4. List three processes of discovering your talents.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

Fundamentals of Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemipgs 37-40.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1.  _________ commands the greatest power in Nigeria

 A. President B. Senate C. Army D. Governor

2.  Nigeria operates a federal, written and rigid constitution.

 A. Yes  B. No C. Yes and No D. I don’t know

3.  The Federal Executive Council, the highest policy making council in Nigeria, is headed by ______.

 A. Vice President B. Senate President  C. President D. All Nigerians

4.  ________is the highest court in Nigeria.

 A. Magistrate Court B. High Court C. Supreme Court  D. District Court

5.  Bye-laws are made by ______

 A. lawyers B. president C. governors D. local government

 

THEORY

1.  State four features or attributes of a federation.

2.  Write a short note on the supreme court.

 

 

WEEK TWO

TOPIC: THE RULE OF LAW

  1. The meaning of law.
  2. Features of the rule of law.
  3. Benefits of the rule of law.
  4. Limitations of the rule of law.

 

The meaning of law

Laws are the set of rules and regulations that guides the activities of any society which brings progress, peace and harmony. The rule of law implies supremacy of the law over all the citizens irrespective of social status, tribe or ethnicity. This implies that nobody is above the law.These laws are written in the constitution of every nation. According to A.V. Dicey, everyone is equal before the law.

 

EVALUATION

What are laws?

Features of the rule of law

  1. Equality before the law
  2. Principle of impartiality.
  3. Right to appeal.
  4. Principle of fair hearing.
  5. Principle of the supremacy of law.
  6. Fundamental human rights.

 

Benefits of the rule of law

  1. It gives room for appeal.
  2. It prevents unlawful detention.
  3. It ensures press freedom.
  4. It allows equality of all citizens.
  5. It guarantees the fundamental human rights.

 

EVALUATION

Mention three features of the rule of law.

 

Limitations of the Rule of Law

  1. State of emergency.
  2. Immunity of diplomats
  3. Immunity of head of state
  4. Unlawful detention and arrest.
  5. Customs and traditions.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State three benefits of the rule of law.
  2. Mention four limitations of the rule of law.
  3. Mention three factors that promote the value system.
  4. Mention two importances of values.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

Fundamentals of Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemipgs 70-75

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Who stated that everyone is equal before the law? A. Hernan Defoe B. A.V. Dicey C. WoleOgba

    D. Joseph Ebi

  2. These are limitations to the rule of law except____. A. Customs and traditions B. Immunity of Head of State C. Peace D. Unlawful detention and arrest.
  3. The laws of any nation are written in a____. A. constitution B. novel C. dictionary D. parchment
  4. The statement “nobody is above the law” means_____. A. supremacy of the law B. partial principle

    C. fair hearing D. right to appeal

  5. The most important feature of the rule of law is______. A. equality before the law B. fair hearing

    C. right to appeal D. principle of impartiality

 

THEORY

  1. Mention three limitations of the rule of law.
  2. State two benefits of the rule of law.

 

 

WEEK THREE

TOPIC: PUNISHABLE OFFENCES

Laws are the rules and regulations that help the society to be orderly so as to have peace, progress and harmony. The citizens in such a society are expected to maintain law and order. Failure to adhere to such will lead to chaos and anarchy. This normally leads to state of emergencies, curfews and so on. The person that runs away from the law is called a fugitive. There are offences that could mar the stability of the society. Some of them are as follows:

  1. Fraud.
  2. Murder.
  3. Rape.
  4. Theft and armed robbery.
  5. Kidnapping.
  6. Drug trafficking smuggling.
  7. Child trafficking.
  8. Electoral malpractices.
  9. Assault.

 

EVALUATION

What are rules?

 

PUNISHMENTFOR BREAKING THE LAW

  1. Death sentence/ capital punishment.
  2. The convict could be jailed.
  3. Amputation in some societies.
  4. Loss of rights, position or property.
  5. Flogging.
  6. Payment of fines.

     

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention three punishable offences.
  2. State three punishments for breaking the law.
  3. What is contentment?
  4. Mention three attributes of contentment.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

Fundamentals of Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemipg 76.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. A person that runs away from the law is regarded as a____. A. fraudster B. noble C. fugitive D. accused
  2. These are situations that could mar a society except______. A. kidnapping B. harmony C. child trafficking D. rape
  3. The highest form of punishment is____. A. death sentence B. flogging C. payment of fines D. amputation
  4. All of these bring chaos and anarchy in the society except_____. A. armed robbery B. fraud C. electoral malpractices D. payment of taxes
  5. A person that cheats is called____. A. cheat B. cheater C. cheatest D. thief

 

THEORY

  1. State three types of offences in the society.
  2. Mention two punishments for the breaking the law.

WEEK FOUR AND FIVE

TOPIC: HUMAN RIGHTS AND RULE OF LAW

Human rights are freedoms established by customs or international agreements that impose a standard of conduct on people. Some of the basic human rights are as follows:

  1. Right to life.
  2. Right to freedom of speech.
  3. Right to fair hearing.
  4. Right to association.
  5. Right to own property.
  6. Right to free movement.

     

EVALUATION

Mention three human rights.

 

These rights are vital towards the maintenance of law and order. However, they are to be protected from every form of oppression or assault. These are ways by which individuals protect the rights of the citizens.

  1. Representing the affected person in court: This is usually done by human rights activists notably the late legal icon Chief GaniFawehinmi. A good example was the case of late Dele Giwa which he pursued for many years before his death.
  2. Writing in print media: Humanrights abuses are often exposed through extensive writing in newspapers and magazines.
  3. Special programmes on electronic media: Some electronic media show some programmes which help individual to get exposed to cases of human rights abuses at work, neighbourhood and the community at large.

 

Other means of protecting human rights and the rule of law are:

  1. Hunger strike: Some individuals show their anger by going without food for a period of time until a change is affected. This is common in the continent of Asia. They do this so as to effect a change in government.
  2. Protest marches: This is another way of showing displeasure over particular situations. This is done through peaceful demonstrations and using placards to show that they are not happy about. In Nigeria, the likes of Chief Ganifawehinmi and Dr. BekoRansome-Kuti, had led such protests especially against the military regime.
  3. Media coverage: The mass media like the radio, television, newspapers, press conferences have been used to fight human rights’ abuses. Journalists have also used the pen to fight military oppression.

 

EVALUATION

State three ways human rights are protected by individuals or group.

 

OTHER GROUPS THAT PROTECT HUMAN RIGHTS OF CITIZENS

There are other organized bodies that assist in protecting the human rights and the rule of law in Nigeria. They are as follows:

  1. Trade Unions: Groups like Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT), Nigeria Medical Association (NMA), Nigeria Bar Association (NBA), form the major stakeholders in this union. They pursue common aims and objectives for the benefit of their members. They are under the umbrella of the Nigeria Labour Congress. The Nigeria Labour Congress has been at the forefront of the fight against human rights abuse in Nigeria.
  2. Students’ Union: They are also at the forefront of the fight against policies that affect the Nigerian students. Policies like the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), increase in pump price of petroleum products are some of the things they usually fight against.
  3. Civic Liberty Organization: It is the foremost indigenous rights’ organization in Nigeria. It is a non-profit, non-governmental human rights initiative.

     

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. Mention three groups that protect human rights of citizens.
  2. Mention two personalities known for their human rights activities.
  3. What is honesty?
  4. Mention three attributes of honesty

     

READING ASSIGNMENT

Fundamentals of Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemipgs86-89

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The full meaning of NUT is____. A. National Universal Tools B. Nigeria Union of Teachers C. National Union of Teachers D. Non Universal Treaty
  2. These are organized bodies that assist in protecting human rights in Nigeria except_____. A. Trade Union B. CLO C. NFF. D. Students’ Union
  3. These are basic rights of human except_____. A. right to life B. right to own property C. Right to free food D. right to free movement
  4. The umbrella name for trade unions is____. A. Nigeria Labour Congress B. Group Action C. Nigeria Conservative Fund D. Occupy Trade Act
  5. The mass media comprises the following except_____. A. Television B. Magazine C. Radio D. Pen

     

THEORY

  1. State three human rights of man.
  2. Mention two human rights activists in Nigeria.

     

     

WEEK SIX

TOPIC: CONSUMER RIGHTS

A consumer is a person that buys and uses a commodity produced by another person. Most consumers do not produce and that is why they consume most of the goods they have.There are some consumer rights and they are as follows:

  1. Safety: The consumer has the right to safety while enjoying a product. The product must be hygienically packed.
  2. Satisfaction of basic needs: There must be satisfaction on the part of the consumer while using a product.
  3. Redress: The consumer has the right to seek redress if he feels cheated by the producer.
  4. Representation to be heard: Consumers have groups that represent them so as to lodge complaints or make their observation known.
  5. Information: The consumer has the right to get adequate information necessary for deriving maximum satisfaction from the product he bought.

 

EVALUATION

Who is a consumer?

 

CONSUMER PROTECTION

Consumer protection is the various ways and methods that government and the private organizations ensure that consumers are not cheated or exploited by the producers and middlemen and that they derive satisfaction from the consumption of goods and services they pay for. The consumer must be aware of the latin expression “caveat emptor”, which means “buyers beware”.

 

REASONS FOR CONSUMER PROTECTION

  1. Substandard goods or low quality goods.
  2. Misleading or false advertisement.
  3. To ensure maximum satisfaction.
  4. Regular supply of goods.
  5. Inadequate instructions or direction.

     

EVALUATION

State two reasons for consumer protection

 

SOME AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE FOR CONSUMER PROTECTION

  1. Consumer Association.
  2. Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON).
  3. Ministry of Trade and Industry.
  4. Price Control Board (PCB).
  5. Manufacturers Association (M.A).

     

CONSUMER RESPONSIBILITIES

  1. Think independently: The consumer should not be carried away by the advertisement on the product by the manufacturer. He should know the quantity of what he wants to purchase.
  2. Beware: the consumer should check the product he wants to buy thoroughly to know if it is the original and at the right place.
  3. Demand and keep proofs of transactions: Documents like receipts, invoice warranty, pay slip are proofs that transactions took place between the seller and the consumer. These documents should be kept for future purposes.
  4. Respect the environment: The consumer must make sure that the environment is not littered with wastes of the products he has used.

     

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. List four universal rights of a consumer.
  2. Mention three responsibilities of the consumer.
  3. State four importance of discipline in a society.
  4. Mention four features of discipline.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

Fundamentals of Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemipgs 91-94.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. These are some agencies that are responsible for consumer protection except_____. A. SON B. M. A.

    C. PCB D. GSK

  2. “Caveat Emptor” is a____ word. A. Greek B. Latin C. French D. German
  3. All of these are consumer rights except_____. A. safety B. redress C. satisfaction of goods

    D. exploitation

  4. Another name for caveat emptor is____. A. we sell here B. buyers beware C. good product D. terms and conditions apply
  5. These are proofs that there was a transaction between a seller and a buyer except_____. A. invoice

    B. receipts C. pay slip D. watermark

THEORY

  1. State three responsibilities of a consumer.
  2. Mention two reasons for consumer protection.

     

     

WEEK SEVEN

TOPIC: DEMOCRACY

Democracy is the type of government where people exercise their political power to elect people into political offices through the means of an election. It is considered to be the best form of government because there are “Checks and Balances”. It is often defined as the government of the people, by the people and for the people. This was stated by the 16th president of America (Abraham Lincoln).

 

EVALUATION

What is democracy?

 

ORIGIN OF DEMOCRACY

The word DEMO (people) and KRATIA (government) form DEMOCRACY. It originated from ancient Greece where the adult males form the legislature. There was no separation of power. This means that the legislature, the executive and the judiciary were fused together.

 

FEATURES OF DEMOCRACY

  1. Rule of law.
  2. Periodic free and fair elections.
  3. Freedom of the press.
  4. Tolerance of opposition.
  5. Party system.

 

EVALUATION

State three features of democracy.

 

BENEFITS OF DEMOCRACY

  1. Equal opportunity for all citizens.
  2. Existence of the rule of law.
  3. It encourages tolerance.
  4. It encourages political stability.
  5. It gives legitimacy to elect people.

     

CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR A SUCCESSFUL OPERATION OF DEMOCRACY

  1. Supremacy of the constitution.
  2. Free and fair elections.
  3. Rule of law.
  4. Existence of opposition.
  5. Independence of the judiciary.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State four benefits of democracy.
  2. Mention three conditions necessary for successful operation of democracy.
  3. State three consequences of disobedience in schools.
  4. Mention four consequences of disobedience on the individual and the society.

     

READING ASSIGNMENT

Fundamentals of Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemipgs 97-101

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Democracy started from_____. A. England B. France C. Greece D. Germany
  2. KRATIA means____. A. people B. government C. institution D. state
  3. “Democracy is about the people” was propounded by____. A. James Sherwood B. Robin Johnson C. Abraham Lincoln D. Winston Churchill
  4. DEMO means____. A. government B. people C. politics D. amnesty
  5. These are features of democracy except____. A. rule of law B. chaos C. periodic elections D. party system

 

THEORY

  1. State three benefits of democracy.
  2. Mention two conditions necessary for the successful operation of democracy.

     

     

WEEK SEVEN

TOPIC: DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS

For democracy to thrive in any nation, there are some democratic institutions that enable it go on smoothly. Some of them are as follows:

  1. The Electoral Commission.

An electoral commission is charged with the responsibility of conducting and supervising elections in a country. The electoral body responsible for conducting and supervising election in Nigeria is the Independent Nigerian Electoral Commission (INEC). This body has been conducting elections in Nigeria since 1999. Some of its functions:

  1. It registers political parties that present candidates for elections.
  2. It is responsible for conducting elections in the states of the federation.
  3. It divides the country into constituencies.
  4. It reviews voters’ register before elections.
  5. It gives financial grants to political parties.

 

EVALUATION

Mention three functions of INEC.

 

  1. Political Parties.

A political party is an organized group of people with similar political opinion and ideologies working together for the purpose of winning elections into political positions. Some of the notable political parties in Nigeria are: the All Progressive Congress (APC), the Peoples’ Democratic Party (PDP) and the All Progressive Grand Alliance (APGA). Some of its functions:

  1. They promote national unity.
  2. They educate the electorates.
  3. They promote national stability.
  4. They promote interest in politics.

 

EVALUATION

Mention three political parties in Nigeria.

 

  1. Pressure Groups.

A pressure group refers to any group of people with common interest, engaging in activities that will influence

government’s policies to their own benefits. Examples of pressure groups in Nigeria are: Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT), Nigeria Medical Association(NMA), Nigeria Bar Association (NBA). Some of the functions of pressure groups are:

  1. They promote and protect the interest of members.
  2. They educate their members and the public.
  3. They help in promoting economic stability.
  4. They make government pay attention to peoples’ need.

     

CHARACTERISTICS OF PRESSURE GROUPS

  1. They are well organized.
  2. They are financed through members’ contribution.
  3. They exist to protect common interest of members.
  4. They rarely recruit members.

     

READING ASSIGNMENT

Fundamentals of Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemipgs 103-112

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State three groups in the pressure group.
  2. Mention three characteristics of pressure group.
  3. What is courage?
  4. Mention five characteristics of courageous people.

     

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. INEC is responsible for the division of the country into_____. A. constitutionally B. constituencies C. components D. border lines
  2. The current chairman of APC is_____. A. AlliModu Sheriff B. John Oyegun C. Harry Marshall D. Gbenga Daniels
  3. In this current dispensation, democracy started in____. A.2000 B. 1999 C. 2001 D. 2015
  4. These are the features of the pressure group except____. A. they exploit their members B. the rarely recruit members C. they protect common interest of members D. they are financed through members’ contribution
  5. The immediate past chairman of INEC was____. A. Prof. JegaB.Dr. OnuC.Prof. Obasi D. Chief Onasanya

     

THEORY

  1. State two functions of a political party.
  2. Mention three functions of the electoral commission.

 

 

WEEK EIGHT

TOPIC: PILLARS OF DEMOCRACY.

Pillars of democracy refer to theessential elements necessary for successful practice of democracy. They are structures that must be in place for the sustainability of democracy. Without them, democracy will be futile. They are as follows:

 

PEOPLE

Without the people, the society will not exist and without the people, democracy will not be in place because it is the people that will practice it. The role of the people to make it work in their nation is vital because everysystem of government need people for it to be functional. The following are the roles of the people in making

democracy that work. They are:

  1. Participation in election.
  2. Willingness to embrace democracy.
  3. Loyalty to the nation.
  4. Willingness to join a political party.
  5. Willingness to serve the nation.

 

EVALUATION

Mention three roles of people in a democratic setting.

 

THE ARMS OF GOVERNMENT

This refers to the organs of government. They are the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.

 

LEGISLATURE

The legislature comprises the Senate and the House of Representatives. They are the law making body of the government. The head of the Senate is called the Senate President while the head of the House is called Speaker. At the state level, there is only one House of Assembly and is headed by the Speaker. Some of its functions are as follows:

  1. Making laws.
  2. Passing appropriation bill.
  3. Acts as check on the activities of the executive and the judiciary.
  4. Confirming the appointment of political appointees forwarded to it.

 

EVALUATION

State three functions of the legislature.

 

EXECUTIVE

This is the organ that enforces laws and policies for the nation.The federal executive is headed by the president, the state is headed by the governor while the local government level is headed by the chairman. Some of its functions are:

  1. It appoints and removes members of the cabinet.
  2. It prepares annual budgets and its implementation.
  3. The presidency maintains foreign relations with other nations.
  4. It implements laws made by the legislature.

 

JUDICIARY

This is the arm of government that interprets the law made by the legislature which is made up of magistrates, judges and chief judges. The head of judiciary in Nigeria is the Chief Justice of the Federation. Some of its functions are as follows:

  1. It interprets the law.
  2. It settles disputes.
  3. It protects the constitution.
  4. It helps in preventing violations of laws.

 

EVALUATION

Mention three functions of the judiciary

 

THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION

An electoral commission is charged with the responsibility of conducting and supervising elections in a country. The electoral body responsible for conducting and supervising election in Nigeria is the Independent Nigerian Electoral Commission (INEC). The head of INEC is called Chairman. This body has been conducting elections in Nigeria since 1999. Some of its functions are:

  1. It registers political parties that present candidates for elections.
  2. It is responsible for conducting elections in the states of the federation.
  3. It divides the country into constituencies. (This process is called “delimitation”)
  4. It reviews voters’ register before elections.
  5. It gives financial grants to political parties.

 

RULE OF LAW

The rule of law is very vital in the sustenance of democracy. It preaches against all forms of governmental actions that can hinder true practice of democratic principles. It ensures supremacy of law in democratic setting. It allows checks and balances among the three arms of government. It forbids arbitrary arrest and violation of human rights. It also encourages independent judiciary.

 

GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS

  1. State three functions of the electoral commission.
  2. State three functions of the executive.
  3. Mention three reasonsfor a federal system of government.
  4. State three items in the Concurrent List.

     

    READING ASSIGNMENT

Fundamentals of Civic Education for Basic 8 by Sola Akinyemipgs 113-121

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. The head of the judiciary in Nigeria is called_____. A. judge B. chief judge C. chief justice D. high chief
  2. These are organs of government except____. A. judiciary B. police C. executive D. legislature
  3. Some of the roles of people are these except_____. A. participating in elections B. loyalty to the nation C. flouts laws of the land.
  4. The head of INEC is called____. A. boss B. cabal C. chairman D. president
  5. The lower chamber of the National Assembly is called_____. A. Senate B. House of Reps C. the Chamber D. the Commission

     

THEORY

  1. Mention three functions of the people in democracy.
  2. State two functions of the executive in democracy.



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