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  1. Military Rule In Nigeria: Historical Background, Reasons for Military Rule, Achievements of Military Rule in Nigeria
  2. Weakness of Military Rule in Nigeria Measures That Could be Taken to Prevent Military Intervention in Nigeria
  3. Local Administration in Nigeria Structure, Functions, Sources of Finance and Problems of Local Government: Features of 1976 Local Government Reforms in Nigeria Roles of Traditional Rulers in Government
  4. Nigeria and the World; (i) Interdependence of Nations (ii) Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy; Meaning, Nigeria Foreign Policy since Independence
  5. Nigeria and the World; Factors that can affect Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy, Formulation of Nigeria Foreign Policy; Features of Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy
  6. Africa as the Center Piece of Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy; Origin; Reasons for the Adoption of Nigeria as the Center Piece of Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy
  7. How Nigeria has Demonstrated that Africa is the Center Piece of Her Foreign Policy; Ways by which Nigeria maintains Friendly Relations with African States
  8. Non-Alignment; Origin, Meaning, Aims and Objectives
  9. Non-Alignment Problems; Factors that Stimulated the Formation of Non-Align Movement; Nigeria and Non-Aligned Movement
  10. International Organization- Organization of African Unity (O.A.U.); Historical Perspective, Aims and Objectives, Principles
  11. Organization of African Unity- Organs and functions, Aims and Objectives, Achievements and Problems
  12. Revision/ Examination



  • Essential Government by C.C. Dibie
  • Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele




The first military regime in Nigeria started in January 15th 1966, which was staged by five (5) Majors led by Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. It was a bloody military coup in the annals of Nigeria‘s politics. Prominent Politicians including the Prime Minister, Alhaji Tafawa Balewa, Premier of Western Region, S.L. Akintola, the Minister of Finance, Chief Festus Okotie Eboh, Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Premier of the Northern Region and many other top ranking officers in the armed force were killed.


This coup brought General Aguiyi Ironsi to power. On July 29th 1966, a counter coup was staged by Northern officers in the army and Aguiyi Ironsi Government was toppled and he was killed. Then Col. Yakubu Gowon took over from him. July 29th 1975 Coup brought an end to the 9 years rule of Yakubu Gowon when he was busy attending O.A.U. summit in Kampala Uganda. General Murtala Mohammed who was the coup leader took over as the Head of State. General Murtala Mohammed was assassinated in an aborted coup led by Lt. Colonel Buka Suka Dimka on February 13, 1975. General Olusegun Obasanjo the next in command to Murtala Mohammed took over as the Head of State. General Olusegun Obasanjo eventually handed over power to a democratically elected Government of President Shehu Shagari on 1st October, 1979.


On December 31st 1983, the civilian government was terminated by a coup headed by General Mohammed Buhari. On August 27th 1985, General Ibrahim Babangida, the Chief of Staff to Mohammed Buhari took over from him and became the President and Commander In-Chief of the Armed Forces. On December 1985, unsuccessful coup was led by late General Mamma Vatsa. Then on April 1990, another unsuccessful coup was led by late Major Gideon Orka. However, Babangida retired from the army after handing over in 1993. He set up an interim government with Chief Ernest Shonekan as the Head of State. Late general Abacha sacked the interim government and assume the Military Head of State of Nigeria. Abacha died on the 8th of June 1998 and was succeeded by General Abdulsalam Abubakar, who eventually handed over power to a democratically elected President on 29th May, 1999.



  1. Account for the coming of the military into Nigeria‘s politics.
  2. Why was February 13 1975’s, coup regarded as aborted?



  1. When the process of changing political leadership is in doubt, the military may intervene.
  2. Politicization of the army.
  3. Nepotism, tribalism and favoritism which pervert justice.
  4. Regional differences; Differences among regions were so acute as to precipitate crises leading to direct assumption of power.
  5. Mismanagement of the national economy e.g Alhaji Shehu Shagari.
  6. Corruption and abuse of office by political leaders in the 1st and 2nd Republics.
  7. Clumsy handling of census exercise e.g Nigeria in 1962 and 1963 census.
  8. Lack of free and fair election e.g Western Nigeria election of 1965.
  9. Long stay in office; Most Nigerian leaders want to make themselves life president.
  10. Bad administrations in Nigeria have contributed to frequent coups that occurred in the country.



Give five reasons for military intervention in Nigeria‘s politics.



  1. Preservation of the unity of Nigeria the civil war was fought in order to preserve the unity of Nigeria.
  2. Infrastructural development; such as construction of roads, bridges, air ports and establishment of institutions.
  3. The creation of more states which gives room for self determination by different ethnic groups in the country.
  4. The National Youth Service Corps (N.Y.S.C.) was established to foster unity among the different ethnic groups in Nigeria.
  5. The military brought about a positive change in the Nigeria‘s foreign policy.
  6. The establishment of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) by Gowon and Eyadema.
  7. Changing in the pattern of driving; this was done on 2nd April, 1972.
  8. Creation of a new federal capital territory by the military administration of Murtala/Obasanjo.
  9. Teaching hospitals, Polytechnics, College of Education and Universities were established.



  1. Highlight 5 achievements of military regime in Nigeria.
  2. State the pattern of driving before 1972.



  1. Mention the names of the officers that were killed during the first bloody military coup in Nigeria.
  2. How has bad administration contributed to military intervention in politics?



Essential government by C.C. Dibie pages 213 to214



  1. The first military coup in Nigeria took place on (a) Jan. 15, 1965 (b) Feb. 15,1966 (c) Jan. 15, 1966
  2. The first military coup in Africa happened in (a) Egypt (b) Nigeria (c) Ghana
  3. Who handed over power to a democratically elected president in 1979? (a) Murtala Mohammed (b) Olusegun Obasanjo (c) Gen. Buhari
  4. ____ was the military President between 1985- 1993 (a) Gen. Yakubu Gowon (b) Gen. Ibrahim Babangida (c) Gen.Olusegun Obasanjo
  5. ____ is associated with military rule (a) Popular consent (b) Accountability (c) Decrees



  1. What are the characteristics of the military rule?
  2. Describe the structure of the military rule






  • Weaknesses of Military Rule
  • Measures that could be taken to prevent Military Intervention in Nigeria
  • Structure of Military Rule in Nigeria


  1. The military are not trained in the act of governance.
  2. Military regimes are by their nature autocratic; they are insensitive to the opinions or the demands of the people.
  3. The Nigerian civil war; the military was responsible for the civil war that claimed many lives.
  4. Military rule is based on fear because they possessed weapons of coercion especially the gun.
  5. Mismanagement and wastage of public fund.
  6. Increase in the rate of crime in the country.
  7. Violation of fundamental human rights.
  8. Lack of respect for the rule of law; the military do not respect the rule of law because military rule is conducted without a constitution.
  9. The military derive pleasure in passing harsh laws (draconian law) which some times take retro active effect.
  10. Failure to conduct an acceptable population census.



  1. State 5 failures of the military regime in Nigeria.
  2. Discuss the military involvement in the Nigerian Civil War.



  1. Military intervention could be prevented with the eradication or reduction in the level of corruption in Nigeria by politicians.
  2. It can also be prevented through accountability and transparency on the part of politicians.
  3. Necessary atmosphere should be created for the conduct of free and fair elections.
  4. It can be prevented if elected officials are responsive to the yearnings of the people.
  5. A law should be made to depoliticize the military and be completely separated from politics.
  6. It can be prevented if politicians learn to avoid mismanagement of public fund.
  7. The people should resist military rule through peaceful mass disobedience.
  8. Fundamental human rights should be respected by everybody in the country especially the politicians and military.
  9. The masses should be given political education so as to be able to fight for their right when it is being infringed upon.
  10. Politicians should learn how to avoid ethnic politics in order not to attract military rule.



  1. State 5 measures that could be taken to prevent military intervention in politics.
  2. What is it to depoliticize the military?



  1. The Armed Forces Ruling Council: This consist of the Head of State and the Commander In- Chief of the Armed Forces of Nigeria, the Service Chiefs, Inspector General of Police, the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of the Federation and the Secretary to the military Government. This was the supreme decision making body in the country
  2. The Council of Ministers: This consists of the President, Vice President and the ministers some of whom were military officers, while others were politicians. The council performs executive functions with the President as the Chairman.
  3. The Council of States: This was an innovation introduced by Murtala Mohammed. It was an advisory body to the S.M.C./A.F.R.C. It was usually presided over by the Chief of Staff supreme headquarters. It is composed of the Head of State, Chief of General Staff, Minister of Defense; service Chiefs of the Army, Air force and Navy, Inspector General of Police, Attorney General and all military Governors.
  4. The Judiciary: This is headed by the Chief Justice of the country and various Judges of the court of appeal and high court.
  5. The Civil Service: It was made up of both the Secretary to the military government and the Head of Service. Apart from this, the structure of the civil service remains the same with that of the civilian regime.



  1. Discuss the structure of the military rule.
  2. Make a list of the members of the Council of States.



  1. Why do people reject military rule?
  2. Discuss the reasons why the military involve in politics



Military Rule in Nigeria

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie, pages 214- 219



  1. The following are the failures of military regime except

    (a) provision of infrastructure (b) increase in crime rate (c) making of harsh laws

  2. One of the following is a feature of military rule

    (a) periodic elections (b) use of decrees (c) respect for the rule of law

  3. P.R.C. stands for (a) Peace Reconciliation Council (b) People’s Redemption Council

    (c) Provisional Ruling Council

  4. Which military regime introduced S.A.P.? (a) Babangida (b) Abacha (c) Obasanjo
  5. Oil boom was experienced in Nigeria‘s economy during ____ regime

    (a) Aguiyi Ironsi (b) Murtala Mohammed (c) Yakubu Gowon



  1. Explain (5) weaknesses of the military.
  2. What is Retro-active effect? How is it related to military rule?






Structure, Function and Sources of Finance in Local Government.

Problems and Features of the 1976 Local Government Reforms in Nigeria.

Roles of Traditional Rulers in Government.



The structure of Nigerian local government has continued to change due to differences in the constitutional reforms that guide its operations. In the aborted third republic, the Babangida local government reforms made provision for the Chairman, Vice Chairman, Secretary, Director of Personnel Management and Supervisory appointees. The Director of Personnel Management came from the senior cadre of the civil service at the local level.


However, the 1976 local government reform published in August 1976 by Olusegun Obasanjo changed the multiple system of local government to a single tier all purpose local government. All the local government were made third tier after the federal and state government.



  1. Local government officials act as the elected representatives of a given section and a group of people.
  2. It helps to establish and maintain cemetery and homes for the less privileged.
  3. Local government involve in the collection of rates such as Radio and Television.
  4. As a representative of the people, Councilor act as a link between the people he is representing and the government.
  5. Construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, drains, parks and other public highways.
  6. Local government is involved in the registration of birth, death and marriage.
  7. Local government is involved in the enactment of bye-laws.
  8. Local governments are involved in the naming of streets, roads and numbering of houses.
  9. Local government license bicycles, wheel barrows, canoes and carts.
  10. Local government assesses privately owned houses for the purpose of levying such rates.



  1. National Assembly
  2. State House of Assembly
  3. Grants receive from both federal and state government
  4. Collection of rates from radio and television licenses, markets, shops and stores.
  5. Commercial ventures like transportation and recreational centers
  6. Fees from registration of birth, death and declaration of age, kioks, marriage and registration of land.
  7. A local government council may borrow money from financial institution to finance a project.
  8. Gift and donations from public spirited individuals and government through occasional launching.



  1. State five sources of local government revenue
  2. List four functions of local government.



  1. Shortage of trained personnel: Some local government officials are untrained or ill-trained and so inefficient.
  2. Shortage of fund: Some or majority of local councils can not finance various projects which a normal local council should undertake.
  3. Bribery and Corruption: Bribery and corruption are common in most local councils; in forms of embezzlement and misappropriation of funds.
  4. Political Interference: Political leaders at different times have interfered in the internal affairs of local councils.
  5. Poor leaders of the council or absence of good leadership also constitute problem.
  6. Favoritism and Tribalism: These are more evident in the areas of appointment, promotion, transfer and discipline of staff in local councils.
  7. Illiteracy among councilors: Most councilors in the local government are illiterates and as a result they can not contribute to the development of the council.
  8. Lack of effective communication.



  1. Uniform system of local government: It introduced large-sized local government area throughout the country
  2. The federal government was involved in the funding of the local government
  3. Service board/ Commissions were introduced in all the states
  4. Single Tier: All the local government were made all purpose single tier local government.
  5. Appointment: The reform introduced a full time chairman of local government and Supervisory Councilor.
  6. Systematic training of local government staff by the federal government was established.
  7. Councilors were paid fixed enhanced monthly salary instead of allowances.
  8. The traditional rulers had no significant role in the local government throughout the country.



  1. Enumerate 5 features of the 1976 Local Government Reforms in Nigeria
  2. Briefly explain how favoritism and tribalism could cause inefficiency in the local government council.



  1. They perform political and administrative role; they help maintain law and order, peace and unity
  2. Some traditional rulers were appointed as ministers, though without port-folio. They were not given any specific function to perform
  3. Some traditional rulers were also appointed as Governors; for example the late Aderemi Adesoji, the Ooni of Ife, was made the regional governors of the Western region in 1960.
  4. They are symbols of unity; they help to unify different segments of the society.
  5. They are representatives of the people at the grassroot and also serve as a link between the people and the government.
  6. President of customary court: Some traditional rulers were appointed as customary court president.



Highlight four roles of the traditional rulers in government



  1. Discuss the problems facing Local government in Nigeria
  2. Describe the structure of Nigeria local government



Local Administration in Nigeria

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie, pages 220-222

Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele, pages 199-202



  1. Local government is referred to as (a) third- tier government (b) first- tier government (c) second-tier government
  2. The following are the features of the 1976 local government reforms except (a) single tier government (b) appointment of chairman (c) political interference
  3. One of the following is a source of local government revenue (a) extortion (b) collection of rates (c) embezzlement
  4. The major problem facing the local government is (a) poor leadership (b) shortage of fund (c) tribalism
  5. Constituency refers to (a) electoral district (b) pooling booth (c) wards



  1. Define local government (b) State 4 features of local government.
  2. Highlight 5 features of the 1976 local government reforms in Nigeria.






  • Interdependence of Nations
  • Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy; Meaning, Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy before Independence



The world has become mutually interdependence as a result of mainly evolution in the areas of transportation and communication. No nation is an island, it becomes imperative that the nations of the world should come together and derive more benefits from one another. It is in the bid to come together to derive mutual benefit that led to the interdependence of states and nations.


Nigeria as a country is not excluded from this interaction. It is through Nigeria‘s interaction with other countries in the international community and her contribution towards the maintenance of peace that Nigeria maintains friendly relations with other nations of the World. Nigeria interacts with other nations in the areas of politics, economy and socio-cultural fields. It is this interaction among nations that constitute the making of the comity of nations.



  1. It is for the economic needs of the people.
  2. To promote political influence.
  3. To promote the necessary socio-cultural relationship among nations for better understanding
  4. To promote national interest



  1. It fosters friendly relations among the nations of the world
  2. It promotes world peace.
  3. Socio-Cultural: It makes possible to exchange ideas in areas of education, sports religion and cultural matters.
  4. It enhances the defense of the territorial integrity of a nation.
  5. It helps to attract foreign aids.



  1. It leads to cultural/social problems.
  2. It leads to unnecessary interference in the internal affairs of a state.
  3. It leads to indiscriminate dumping of inferior or poorly produced goods.
  4. Economic dependence: Heavy dependence on foreign assistance does not allow for interdependence economic policies.
  5. It is injurious to a nation’s culture.



  1. State 4 benefits of interactions among nations
  2. State 3 negative effects of interactions among nations.



Foreign policy refers to the decisions and actions taken by the policy makers of a state to pursue her interest within the global system. It can also be seen as a prudent course of action adopted by a state to achieve a certain national interest. The primary task of those involved in foreign policy is to promote the national interest of the country. The main target of foreign policy is to influence the decision and actions of other nations in the international system.



The aims and objectives of Nigeria‘s foreign policy were first identified by the Prime Minister, Alhaji Tafawa Balewa and enunciated by Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo as follows:

  1. To promote the national interest of the country and the citizens.
  2. To promote friendship and co-operation among others nations.
  3. To uphold the principle of non-alignment with any power bloc.
  4. To show respect for the sovereign equality of all nations.
  5. To defend the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Nigeria.
  6. To defend and promote world peace
  7. To assist African states in search of solution to their problems.



  1. What is Foreign Policy?
  2. State four aims and objectives of Nigeria‘s foreign policy



Since independence, there has been a succession of military and civilian administration whose foreign policy differs in terms of ideology, style and the personality of the leaders.

Nigeria foreign policy since independence is grouped into the following different phases;

  1. The Balewa Era (1960-1966)
  2. Gowon Era (crisis and civil war period, 1966-1970)
  3. Gowon Era (post war era, 1970-1975; reconciliation, reconstruction and rehabilitation)
  4. Murtala/Obasanjo Era (1975-1979)
  5. The second republic Era (1979-1983)
  6. Buhari/Idiagbon Era (1983-1985)
  7. Babangida’s Era (1985-1993)
  8. Shonekan/Abacha’s Era (1993-1998)
  9. Abubakar Era (1998-1999)


BALEWA ERA (1960-1966)

  1. The government pursued the policy of non-alignment
  2. It was involved in the decolonization process in Africa
  3. The government recognized Africa as the center piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy
  4. It broke diplomatic ties with France over the testing of an atomic bomb in Sahara Desert
  5. It supported the expulsion of South Africa from the Common Wealth in 1961


GOWON ERA (1966-1975)

  1. Nigeria‘s foreign policy shifted from the West to the East
  2. The administration applied the 3Rs (Reconciliation, Reconstruction and Rehabilitation) after the Civil War
  3. The administration accepted the principle of non interference in the sovereignty of African States
  4. It played a crucial role in the establishment of ECOWAS



  1. This regime favoured decolonization and self determination of African States
  2. It gave its support to the struggle against apartheid policy in Africa
  3. The regime inaugurated a national agricultural programme called; Operation Feed the Nation (O.F.N.) in 1978.


SHAGARI ERA (1983-1985)

  1. The administration supported Zimbabwe’s independence
  2. This regime witnessed lack of dynamism and radicalism in Nigeria‘s foreign policy
  3. The regime was involved in financial mismanagement of her economic resources.



  1. This regime expelled all the west Africans living illegally in the country.
  2. Relations with Britain was adversely affected during this regime.
  3. This administration maintained a strong anti-apartheid posture against South Africa


BABANGIDA ERA (1985-1993)

  1. This regime tried to bring Nigeria back to the fore front of international relation
  2. This regime launched a crusade against the dumping of toxic and retro-active waste in the continent
  3. It introduced economic diplomacy into Nigeria‘s foreign policy.
  4. Nigeria was committed to a functional ECOWAS.
  5. Nigeria became very active in the area of conflict resolution and peace keeping. operation. This led to the establishment of ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG)



  1. This administration helped in restoring peace in Liberia.
  2. The regime adopted the confrontational posture with the international community.
  3. The regime was accused of abuse of human rights and as a result Nigeria was
  4. suspended from the Common Wealth.


ABUBAKAR ERA (1998-1999)

  1. The policy of reconciliation was embarked upon by this administration
  2. Those who were imprisoned by Abacha regained their freedom, while a transition programme was announced and carefully implemented.



Examine Nigeria‘s foreign policy under Gowon’s regime.



  1. State four demerits of interactions among nations
  2. Examine Nigeria‘s foreign policy under Babangida’s regime
  3. What were the achievements made by Murtala/Obasanjo in Nigeria‘s foreign policy?



Nigeria and the World

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 223-227

Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 202-203



  1. The main target of Nigeria‘s foreign policy is

    (a) to fight other nations (b) to influence the policy of others (c) to oppress others

  2. Operation Feed the Nation was introduced during (a) Obasanjo (b) Gowon (c) Babangida
  3. How many years did Abacha spend in office as a head of state? (a) 9 (b) 5 (c) 6
  4. Which among the past military/civilian regime witnessed area boy diplomacy?

    (a) Buhari (b) Babangida (c) Abacha

  5. Who introduced Structural Adjustment Programme (S.A.P.) in Nigeria?

    (a) Babangida (b) Obasanjo (c) Buhari



  1. Examine Nigeria‘s foreign policy under Abacha’s regime
  2. Identify four advantages of interaction among nations






  • Factors that Can Affect Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy
  • Formulation of Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy
  • Features of Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy



  1. Geographical location of Nigeria is one of the factors that affect the formulation and implementation of foreign policy. The geographical size of Nigeria as the largest coupled with its population, natural resources etc imposes leadership roles on the country.
  2. Demographic Factor: Demography means the population of the country. In terme of population, Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the entire black world. The large population of Nigeria contributes a lot to her strength and as a result, the country is expected by other countries in Africa to play a leadership role.
  3. Historical Experience: Nigeria‘s foreign policy can also be conditioned by its historical experience. Nigeria was colonized by Britain and this colonial experience can affect her foreign policy.
  4. National Interest: The primary task of those involved in foreign policy is to articulate the interest of the country. This should form the basis of Nigeria‘s foreign policy. The interest of the people must be promoted, which has the capacity of shaping a nation’s foreign policy.
  5. The Military Strength of Nigeria: The country’s military strength might be an advantage to her foreign policy.
  6. Government: The type of government we have can also affect our foreign policy. Since Nigeria gain independence we have had two main types of government; military and civilian
  7. Public Opinion: The opinion of people on issues of national importance can affect Nigeria‘s foreign policy. For example , the demonstration of University of Ibadan students against the Anglo-Nigeria Defense Pact in 1961 and the rejection of I.M.F. loan in 1985.
  8. Ideology: Countries relates with countries that have the same ideology than with those with opposing ones.



  1. State 5 factors that affect Nigeria‘s foreign policy
  2. List two countries that share the same ideology with Nigeria.


  1. The President: The formulation of Nigeria‘s foreign policy is the primary function of the President of the country.
  2. Consultation: Consultations are made with Nigeria diplomats, foreign mission experts, the business community and leaders of thought for advice on issues from time to time.
  3. The Minister and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The President is assisted in policy formulation by the Minister and the officials of the Ministry of foreign affairs. This ministry is involved in carrying out matters as they relate to the welfare of Nigerians living abroad. Also promote and enhance a conducive atmosphere for a cordial relationship between Nigeria and other nations of the world.



  1. Friendship and co-operation with other nations which recognize and respect their sovereignty.
  2. Non- Alignment with any of the power blocs and consideration on the issues of their merits, having regards for Nigeria‘s national interest.
  3. Africa regarded as the center piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy.
  4. Belief in the sovereign equality of States and non interference in the internal affairs of other states.
  5. Eradication of colonialism in Africa e.g Apartheid in South Africa and Liberation movement in Southern Africa.
  6. Helping African countries to attain political independence.
  7. Peaceful Resolution of Conflict: Joining other states to find peaceful resolution to crisis as in ECOMOG troops in Liberia and Sierra Leone.



  1. Highlight five features of Nigeria Foreign Policy
  2. What is the primary function of the President of the country?



  1. How is Nigeria foreign policy formulated?
  2. How has history affected Nigeria‘s foreign policy?
  3. What are the goals of Nigeria‘s foreign policy?



Nigeria and the world

Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 205

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 227-228



  1. The following factors affect Nigeria foreign policy except (a) demography (b) poverty (c) national interest
  2. The following are responsible for the formulation of Nigeria‘s foreign policy except (a) Senator (b) President (c) Minister of foreign affairs
  3. The power to pardon any citizen charged with any criminal offence lies with the (a) legislature (b) judiciary (c) executive
  4. The verdicts of judges which are binding on lower courts are called (a) judicial order (b) precedents (c) oath
  5. The concept of separation of powers was popularized by (a) Baron de Montesquieu (b) Harold Laski (c) Thomas Hobbes.



  1. Explain the factors that can affect Nigeria‘s foreign policy
  2. Explain the relationship between national interest and foreign policy.






  • Origin of Africa as the center piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy
  • Reasons for the Adoption of Africa as the Center Piece of Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy



The origin of this concept ‘Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria‘s policy’, could be traced to the administration of the first republic in Nigeria (1960-1966) headed by the Prime Minister, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. According to him,’ we belong to Africa and Africa must take the first attention in our foreign relations’. By Africa being the centre piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy, it means that Africa should be given a place of pride in Nigeria‘s foreign policy formulation. A significant milestone was reached in the conceptualization of the nation’s foreign policy when Africa was officially declared as the centre piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy by the regime of Murtala/Obasanjo.


The following are the principles of the concept ‘Africa the centre piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy’.

  1. Sovereignty and equality of all African states.
  2. Total eradication of racial discrimination and colonialism in Africa.
  3. To oppose aggression, support the demand for the restoration of fundamental human rights.
  4. Promoting friendly association among independent African states.
  5. Respect for and non- interference in the internal affairs of other African states



  1. Mention 4 principles of the concept ‘Africa the centre piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy.
  2. Trace the origin of Africa being the center piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy.



  1. Size and Population: Nigeria made Africa the centre piece of her foreign policy, because it recognized the fact that by virtue of her size, population and wealth, she has a historical mission in Africa.
  2. Decolonization of African States: Nigeria declared Africa as the centre piece of her foreign policy because she realized that her independence will be meaningless if it does not lead to the independence of other African States. This is why decolonization is the main objective of Nigeria‘s foreign policy.
  3. Friendly Association: By making Africa the centre piece of her foreign policy, Nigeria hoped to promote friendly relations, to bring Africa countries together so that they can speak with one voice in international organizations such as United Nations, Common Wealth and so on.
  4. Assistance: Nigeria made Africa the centre piece of her foreign policy so as to assist other African countries and foster understanding among them
  5. Leadership: Nigeria is looked upon for leadership in Africa and to realize such expectation she made Africa the center piece of her foreign policy.
  6. Charity Begins at Home: Nigeria being part of Africa, decided to start her foreign policy making at home by making Africa the center piece of her foreign policy and to claim their first attention in their external relations.



Explain 4 reasons for the adoption of Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy.



  1. Explain the origin of Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy
  2. Explain the term ‘decolonization’



Africa as the Center Piece of Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy

Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 206-207

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 229-231



  1. The concept of Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy originated in the (a) second republic (b) first republic (c) third republic
  2. Who was the military President of Nigeria between 1983 -1985? (a) Buhari (b) Obasanjo (c) Shagari
  3. The origin of Africa as the center piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy can be traced to —- administration (a) Murtala Mohammed (b) Tafawa Balewa (c) Buhari
  4. All the following were the principles of the concept Africa the Center Piece of Nigeria‘s Foreign Policy except (a) promotion of colonialism (b) decolonization (c) sovereignty and equality of all Africa States.
  5. The concept of Africa as the center piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy was officially declared in _____ regime (a) Buhari (b) Murtala/Obasanjo (c) Babangida



  1. Explain the origin of the concept of Africa as the centre piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy
  2. Mention 4 main principles of the concept.




  • How Nigeria Has Demonstrated that Africa is the Centre Piece of Her Foreign Policy
  • Ways by which Nigeria Maintain Friendly Relations with Other Countries



  1. Anti-racism and Anti-colonialism: Nigeria has shown that Africa is the centre piece of her foreign policy by ensuring total eradication of colonialism in any part of Africa. For example, the support for the M.P.L.A, this led to the liberation of Angola. Shagari donated 10Million naira to Zimbabwe for her independence celebration in 1980.
  2. Support of O.A.U: Successive administration in Nigeria has supported the Organization of Africa Unity politically, financially and in the areas of diplomacy. Nigeria believes that O.A.U is the best.
  3. Nigeria has demonstrated that Africa is the centre piece of her foreign policy formulation by establishing friendly relations with all African states.
  4. Assistance to Sister African States: To show that Africa is truly the centre piece of Nigeria‘s foreign policy formulation and also for the spirit of brotherhood, Nigeria has provided technical aid and expertise to sister African States.
  5. Resolution of Conflicts: Nigeria is committed to peaceful resolution of political conflicts and Inter- state disputes. Nigeria took active role in the settlement of political crisis in Liberia and Sierra Leone through the formation of ECOWAS.
  6. Encouragement of Democracy: In the bid of demonstrating her interest in Africa, Nigeria encourages democracy in all parts of Africa.
  7. Economic Co-operation: Nigeria is also involved in the promotion of economic cooperation. The establishment of ECOWAS in 1975 and African Economic Community are examples.
  8. Sports: Promotion of intra-Africa sports such as hosting important sporting events e.g All Africa games, Africa Nations Cup and so on.
  9. Cultural Assistance: Nigeria has also promoted cultural ties amongst Africa States e.g FESTAC
  10. Promotion of Unity: Nigeria has also demonstrated that Africa is the centre piece of her foreign policy by promoting unity and solidarity, especially at the international community.



Give 3 ways through which Nigeria demonstrate that Africa is the centre piece of her foreign policy formulation.



  1. Establishment of Bilateral economic/political relationship e.g Nigeria and Togo
  2. Promotion of Multi-Lateral economic/political relationship e.g Chad Basin Commission and Niger Basin Commission.
  3. Active participation in economic union e.g ECOWAS, Africa Petroleum Producers Association (APPA), Africa Economic Community (AEC), Africa Development Bank (A.D.B.)
  4. Grants and Aids: Sending of relief materials to victims of political instability or natural disaster. This is done through the Technical Aid Corps Scheme.
  5. Nigeria has also maintained friendly relations with other African countries through the initiation of peaceful settlement of crisis e.g Congo, Chad, Liberia, Zimbabwe and so on.
  6. Peaceful resolution of conflict with her neighbor e.g Nigeria and Chad, Nigeria and Cameroon over Bakassi Peninsula.
  7. Participation in peacekeeping operation e.g Congo, Chad, Liberia and so on.
  8. Active participation in cultural and sporting activities e.g African games, FESTAC 1977
  9. Active support for liberation movement in Africa e.g MPLA, SWAPO, A.N.C and so on.



State 5 ways by which Nigeria maintain friendly relations with other African countries



  1. Highlight the features of Nigeria‘s foreign policy.
  2. State the benefits of interactions among nations.



Foreign Policy

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 229-231

Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 208-209



  1. A.D.B stands for (a) African Development Bank (b) Advance Development Board (c) Alliance for Democracy Board
  2. FESTAC 1977, was held in (a) Ghana (b) Cameroon (c) Nigeria
  3. The policy of indignant was practiced in colonies controlled by (a) Britain (b) France (c) Portugal
  4. A public corporation is financed with (a) tax payers money (b) private fund (c) donations from philanthropist
  5. Which regime launched a crusade against the dumping toxic and radio-active wastes in the continent? (a) Obasanjo (b) Buhari (c) Babangida



  1. How has Nigeria contributed to liberation movement?
  2. Examine Nigeria‘s foreign policy under the Abdulsalam Abubakar regime






  • Origin of Non-Alignment
  • Meaning of Non-Alignment
  • Aims and Objectives of Non-Alignment


The first statement on non-alignment was made by late Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. He made the statement on September 2, 1946 in a radio broadcast. Non-Alignment is an international movement formed by different countries and mostly Third World countries in Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, Europe and so on. According to Nehru during his broadcast, he said ‘we decide as far as possible to keep away from the power of politics by groups, aligned against one another, which led in the past to World Wars and which may again lead to disaster.


Other founding fathers of this non-align movement were Josef Tito of Yugoslavia, Egyptian President, Gamai Abdel Nasser. A meeting was held on the 18th and 19th of June to discuss the rising tension in the World and the effect of this to World peace and security. This meeting which attracted about 25 States held in Yugoslavia eventually saw the formation of non-alignment. Presently we have 113 nations making up the movement.



Non-alignment can be defined as non-commitment of a nation to either the East or West on international issues. Non-alignment policy says that we should not side or be pre-committed to any of the parties involved in a war. We should only try to see whether the issue can be resolved. Nigeria‘s policy towards the great powers was based on the principle of Non-alignment, according to Tafawa Balewa. The essence of this doctrine is seen to him as ‘freedom of judgment of important international issues on the basis of Nigeria‘s national interest and that of World peace.


Furthermore, Non-alignment can be seen as the ability and freedom to take action on international, political, economic and social issues on the basis of justice.



  1. Trace the origin of Non-alignment
  2. What is Non-alignment?



  1. Eradication of all forms of colonialism, racial discrimination, neo-colonialism, especially in the Third World countries.
  2. Opposition to nuclear weapons and stopping the arms race and supporting all effort aimed at disarmament
  3. Dispute Resolution: To support peaceful resolution of national and international disputes
  4. 4 To safeguard their national independence and sovereign equality
  5. Division of the World: Opposition to the division of the World into antagonistic power blocs. The West represent U.S.A. and Western European countries (Capitalism), the East represents Russia and Eastern European counties (Communism).
  6. To participate in the making of global decisions affecting our future
  7. Political and Economic Goal: To pursue their own political, economic and social development without foreign interference.
  8. To adhere to the tenets of the U.N.O and the Commonwealth
  9. To use the U.NO. as a platform to attack colonialism and apartheid policy in South Africa.



  1. Identify five aims and objectives of Non-alignment.
  2. Discuss apartheid policy



  1. State five achievements of Non-alignment
  2. Why did Nigeria adopt the principle of Non-alignment?



Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 213-214

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie, pages 233-234



  1. The first statement on Non-alignment was made by (a) American President (b) Late British Prime Minister (c) Late Indian Prime Minister
  2. Non-alignment is all about (a) neutrality (b) commitment (c) antagonistic attitude
  3. N.A.M stands for (a) Nigeria Align Movement (b) Non-Align Movement (c) National Align Movement
  4. Which of the following countries is among the Third World countries? (a) Russia (b) Egypt (c) Britain
  5. One of the following is the aim and objective of Non-alignment (a) peaceful resolution of conflict (b) opposition to nuclear weapons (c) promotion of conflict



  1. Define Non-alignment.
  2. State 4 aims and objective of Non-alignment.






Problems of Non-alignment

Factors that stimulated the formation of Non-alignment

Nigeria and Non-aligned movement



  1. No Charter : Non-align movement have not enjoyed the respect an organization of its standard and status deserves because it has no charter, permanent executive body, Secretary General and other institutions of a well established international body.
  2. No Military set up: As a result of its military and economic importance, Non-aligned movement lacks the instrument of coercion to compel obedience to its resolutions.
  3. Poverty: Majority if not all members of the movement are poor. Being a member of poverty stricken countries, Non-aligned movement has become toil of the World powers politics.
  4. Failure to Remain Neutral: Non-aligned movement supposed to be a neutral body, but this body has not been able to achieve or maintain genuine neutrality. This has led to the withdrawal of some members of the movement like Burma and Libya.
  5. Differences in Ideological Stance: Non-aligned movement is a bundle of contradiction in the sense that some members are for Capitalism and others for Socialism. This has really affected the movement’s aims and objectives.
  6. The control of I.M.F. and World Bank: These two international banks are being controlled by developed countries and as such, is affecting the policy of Non-alignment. Most of the members of Non-aligned movement depend on I.M.F and World Bank loans to raise their economy, which means they should be ready to obey their conditions.
  7. Different Cultural Background: Non-aligned movement is a composition of a vast number of nations with different political system, diverse views and aspiration which give rise to different/. expectations from the problems that face international body.
  8. Absence of a leader: There is no acceptable leadership in the movement, for example U.S.A leads the NATO Pact, Russia leads the WARSAW Pac, but Non-aligned movement has no clear leadership.
  9. Finally, the greatest problem of the Non-aligned movement (N.A.M.) has been the inability to successfully mediate between members that are quarreling.



  1. Poverty is the major problem of Non-aligned movement, explain.
  2. How is the control of I.M.F and World Bank a problem to Non-aligned movement?



The following factors or events contributed to the formation of Non-aligned movement;

  1. International Groupings: The formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) by Capitalist countries and the formation of WARSAW Pact by socialist countries in 1949 and 1955 respectively.
  2. Arms Race: The competitive accumulation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction by the World big powers.
  3. Bi-Polarization of the World: The opposition of bi-polarization of the World by Nehru of India and Tito of Yugoslavia
  4. The Aspiration and Desire of Independence States: The desire of the newly independent countries to pursue their political, economic and social development without external interference from either the West or the East.
  5. Globalization: The wish of these newly independent countries to participate in the making of global decisions affecting their future without having anything to do with the super powers.
  6. The visit of late President Tito of Yugoslavia to India in 1954 followed by a meeting held between Tito and Nehru in New Delhi.
  7. The Independence of India in 1947; this development encourages territories struggling for self rule, especially in Africa, Asia and so on.



  1. What is Arm Race? How has it stimulated the formation of Non-alignment?
  2. What is the full meaning of NATO?




Nigeria joined the Non-aligned movement in Cairo in 1964. The following reasons were given for adopting the principle.

  1. To interact and cooperate freely; it was adopted by Nigeria so as to cooperate and interact freely with any nation within the comity of nations.
  2. It was also adopted in order to allow Nigeria to pursue her economic and policies without dictation or interference from either the East or West.
  3. The Mouthpiece of Africa: It was adopted as a policy so that Nigeria would be able to concentrate on issues affecting Africa, since Nigeria regard itself as the mouthpiece of Africa on international issues. The recognition of M.P.L.A in Angolan crisis, the nationalization of BP now AP and Baclays Bank now Union Bank, are examples.
  4. Sovereignty: It was adopted as a policy so as to guide the sovereignty of Nigeria.
  5. It was adopted as a policy in order to give leaders a free hand in putting the interest of the country above any other considerations in foreign policy decision.



  1. Why did Nigeria adopt the policy of Non-alignment?
  2. What is the relevance of nationalization of BP and Barclays Bank to Nigeria‘s Non-align movement?



  1. Explain 4 factors that stimulated the formation of Non-alignment.
  2. Ideological difference is one of the problems facing Non-aligned movement; discuss



Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 213-214

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie, pages 233-234



  1. All the following are problems of Non-alignment except (a) independence (b) poverty (c) no military set up
  2. Nigeria‘s Non-aligned policy means that she will (a) relate only with member countries (b) have nothing to do with the super powers (c) not take side on international issues based on ideological consideration.
  3. One of the underlying principles of Nigeria‘s foreign policy is (a) non-commitment towards African unity (b) respect for sovereign equality of all states (c) interference in the internal affairs of other countries.
  4. The foreign policy thrust of the Babangida regime was (a) economic diplomacy (b) African interest (c) military aggression
  5. Nigeria‘s relations with other countries are underscored by its policy of (a) peaceful co-existence (b) Afro centrism (c) political diplomacy.



  1. Nigeria has not been able to fully maintain its principle of non-alignment; give reasons for it.
  2. Mention 6 names of countries that are members of non-align movement.






  • Organization of African Unity (O.A.U.) Historical perspective
  • Aims and Objectives of O.A.U
  • Principles of O.A.U



The Organization of African Unity (O.A.U.) was formed on the May 25th, 1963 in Addis Ababa Ethiopia and has its headquarters there. The organization came into existence after a long debate as to how the continent of Africa should be reorganized and strengthened so that their independence could be attained and maintained and to eradicate all forms of colonialism in Africa. Before the formation of O.A.U, there were three main organizations which compromised to form the organization. The three groups were;

  1. Monrovia Group
  2. Casablanca Group
  3. Brazzaville Group


  1. Casablanca Group: This group was made up of Morocco, Ghana, Libya, Guinea, Algeria, United Arab Emirate, Mali and came into being on January 1961.
  2. Monrovia Group: This Group consisted of Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Tunisia, Somalia and Togo. This group met in Liberia on May 1960.
  3. Brazzaville Group: This group was made up of twelve member countries. These include Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, Chad, Congo, Dahomey, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Upper Volta, Madagascar, Niger and Senegal. This group adopted their declaration to join O.A.U. on December 13, 1960.



  1. Explain how O.A.U. was formed
  2. List 4 countries under the Monrovia group.



The O.A.U formed in 1963 has 32 members with the following as its aims as provided in its charter.

  1. Promotion of Unity: One of the aims and objectives of O.A.U is to promote the unity and solidarity of African States.
  2. Living Condition: To coordinate and intensify their cooperation and effort to achieve a better life for the people of African States.
  3. Common Defense: Members agreed to defend their sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African States.
  4. To eradicate all forms of colonialism in Africa
  5. Promotion of International Peace: Member States agreed to work with other organizations like U.N.O to promote international peace and Cooperation having due regard for U.N Charter and Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  6. To promote peaceful resolution of conflicts among member states through negotiation, mediation, consultation and arbitration.
  7. United Front: To speak with one voice on World affairs so as to present a united front.
  8. To preserve the African personality, culture and tradition.



  1. Mention five objectives of the O.A.U.
  2. How has O.A.U promoted unity in Nigeria?



The main principles for interaction among members state of O.A.U are:

  1. Sovereignty: All the members of O.A.U are sovereign and equal. No state should be under the control of any other state.
  2. Non-interference in the internal affairs of other states.
  3. Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of members states
  4. Peaceful settlement of dispute by negotiation, mediation, reconciliation or arbitration.
  5. Affirmation of the policy of non-alignment with regard to all blocs
  6. Resistance to all forms of political assassination and as well as subversion.
  7. Absolute dedication to the total emancipation of all African States.



State 5 principles of O.A.U



  1. List 4 countries under Casablanca group
  2. List 4 countries under Monrovia group
  3. Mention the names of the countries that formed O.A.U.



International Organization

Comprehensive Government by J.U. Anyaele pages 215-216

Essential Government by C.C. Dibie pages 232-234



  1. O.A.U was formed in (a) 1963 (b) 1964 (c) 1960
  2. O.A.U has its headquarters in (a) Ghana (b) Ethiopia (c) Addis Ababa
  3. The following belong to the Casablanca group except (a) Egypt (b) Mali (c) Liberia
  4. O.A.U has ____ member states (a) 23 (b) 32 (c) 35
  5. Brazzaville declared their membership of O.A.U in

    (a) Dec. 19, 1960 (b) Dec. 14, 1960 (c) Dec. 18, 1960



  1. Mention the countries under the Casablanca group
  2. Account for the formation of O.A.U.






  • Organs and functions of O.A.U
  • Achievements of O.A.U
  • Problems of O.A.U



  1. Assembly of Heads of States and Government
  2. The Council of Ministers
  3. The General Secretariat
  4. The Commission for Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration


  1. The Assembly of Heads of States and Government: The Assembly of heads of states and government is the supreme and most powerful organ of the organization. It is the highest decision making machinery of the Organization. This organ is made up of Heads of States of all member States. The organ meets once in a year but an extra-ordinary meeting can be convened if approved by two-third majority of its member States.



  1. Appointment of Secretary General: It is the function of the Assembly of Heads of States and Government to appoint Secretary General of the organization.
  2. Admission of New Members: The Assembly of Heads of States and Government decide on the admission of new members States into the organization.
  3. Amendment of the Charter: It is the duty of the Assembly of Heads of States to approve proposals for any amendment to the charter of the organization.
  4. Coordination of Policies: The Assembly of heads of State discusses issues of common interest to Africa so as to coordinate and harmonize the general policy of the organization.
  5. The body reviews the structures, functions and activities of all the organs and specialize agencies created by the organization.
  6. The organ also has the duty of looking into the problems of members states and helps to settle such problem.
  7. The body appoints ad-hoc committee to settle disputes involving member nations.



The council consists of foreign affair Ministers of member States or such other ministers as may be determined by a member state. It prepares the agenda for the meeting of the Assembly of Heads of States and Government and implements the decision of the Assembly. It also prepares annual budget of the organization. The council meets twice a year but can hold extra-ordinary meeting if approved by two-third majority of member states.



  1. The council prepares the agenda for the meeting of the Assembly of Heads of States and Government.
  2. The council approves the budget of the organization.
  3. It implements the decision of the Assembly
  4. The council makes recommendation to the Assembly for the appointment of Secretary General of the organization.
  5. The council recommends a new independent state to the Assembly for admission into the organization.
  6. The council is responsible to the Assembly and deals with all matters referred to it by the Assembly.
  7. The council is responsible for coordinating and harmonizing inter-African cooperation.
  8. It prepares the annual budget of the organization.



The General Secretariat is the administrative headquarters of O.A.U and it is located at the organization’s headquarters in Addis Ababa. The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary General, who is assisted by crops of Staff. The Secretary General is appointed by the Assembly of Heads of States and Government on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers for a period of three years subject to re-election.



  1. The General secretariat carries out all the administrative work of the organization.
  2. This body prepares programme or agenda for the meeting of the Council of Ministers.
  3. It supervises and executes the decisions of the Council of Ministers
  4. The secretariat prepares the annual report on the activities of the organization.
  5. The secretariat has the duty of circulating news to member states of the organization.
  6. It prepares the annual budget of the organization for the approval of the Council of Ministers.
  7. The Secretariat controls the finance of the organization
  8. The facilities needed for all meetings of the organization are provided by the secretariat.



This commission is responsible for the peaceful settlement of disputes between member states. It was set up in 1965 and has twenty members elected by the Assembly from a list submitted by the Secretary General. This commission sits at Addis Ababa in Ethiopia and it has a President, vice President and a registrar. In addition to this commission, O.A.U has other specialized agencies which carry out different functions and they include;

  1. The Economic and Social Commission
  2. The Educational and Cultural Commission
  3. Health Commission
  4. The Defense Commission
  5. Scientific, technical and Research Commission



  1. State five functions of the Council of Minister of O.A.U
  2. Give five functions of the Secretary General of O.A.U



The achievements of O.A.U include the following:

  1. Resolution of Conflict: The O.A.U facilitates peaceful resolution of conflicts among member states. Indeed it has encouraged the peaceful resolution of conflict among member states, such as Somalia and Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda etc.
  2. Eradication of Colonialism and Apartheid: The O.A.U played an important role in bringing colonialism and apartheid to an end in the continent. It did not only condemn them but also supported liberation movements in countries like Zimbabwe and Angola.
  3. Economic Cooperation: The O.A.U encourages economic cooperation among member states. The African Development Bank (A.D.B.) which renders assistance to member states is one of the economic initiatives of O.A.U.
  4. Promotion of African Culture: The O.A.U supports efforts to project African culture to the outside world. The Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) is a point in time.
  5. Settlement of Refugees: O.A.U provides refuge for people displaced by war and environmental disaster. Such assistance includes provision of relief materials to the refugees.
  6. Common Voice: On some issues, the O.A.U has provided opportunity for common position at the international arena. Such issues like trade and disarmament has attracted common and uniform stand by African countries speaking through O.A.U.
  7. It provides African leaders forum for discussion on issue of importance to Africa and the entire world.
  8. O.A.U in collaboration with other international organization like U.N.O, has contributed to world peace and security.



  1. Highlight 5 achievements of O.A.U
  2. How has O.A.U been able to settle dispute in Africa?



  1. Financial Problem: One of the major problems facing O.A.U since its inception is financial problem. Activities of O.A.U have been impeded by insufficient fund. Some member states default in their contributions. This has over the years hindered the execution of many O.A.U resolutions.
  2. Political Instability: Constant change of leadership result in policy changes and this affects the degree of support for the organization’s decisions.
  3. Economic Dependence: Although members of the O.A.U are politically independent, economically, they are not free from external control and this forced them to depend on economically advanced nations. This economic dependence which is the aftermath of colonialism makes member states to dance to the tune of foreign nations at the expenses of O.A.U.
  4. External Influence: Many African countries are still attached to their formal colonial powers. Some times there is divided loyalty by the member nations to the O.A.U and their formal colonial masters.
  5. Lack of a Standing Army: The organization has no standing army since its 26th years of birth. The organization can not fight colonialism and apartheid because of this problem.
  6. Inter State Rivalry and Suspicion: Sometimes there is supremacy struggle between leaders and different motives are read to suggested proposals.
  7. Persistent Conflict: The frequent and recurrent wars and serious conflict between and within states shows that the organization has not been very effective in guaranteeing peace and security in the continent.
  8. Linguistic Problem: Language barrier tend to slow down any effective means of communication adopted by the organization this leads to its failure in so many ways.
  9. Religious Difference: Member-states of O.A.U belong to different religious beliefs and this has equally turned into two parallel lines that can never meet on any issue. This religious difference has also caused a lot of conflicts within and between member-states of the organization.
  10. Poverty: Most member states of O.A.U are very poor and they depend on foreign powers. Therefore, there is tendency for these African states to be more loyal to those foreign powers than the O.A.U itself.



Explain five problems facing O.A.U



1. Explain external control as one of the problems of O.A.U.

2. How has economic dependence hindered the success of O.A.U?

3. Identify the specialized agencies of O.A.U.



  1. Which of the following is not an aim of O.A.U? (a) Defense of the sovereignty and independence of African states (b) Enthronement of undemocratic government in Africa (c) Promotion of unity and solidarity in African states
  2. Nigeria belongs to all the following international organization except (a) European Union (b) United Nation Organization (c) Common Wealth of Nations
  3. The following are the problems of O.A.U except (a) economic dependence (b) political independence (c) political instability
  4. The organ of O.A.U that is responsible for the implementation of the decision of the Assembly of Heads of States is (a) the Council of Ministers (b) the Secretariat (c) the Economic Council
  5. The most powerful organ of O.A.U is (a) the Council of Ministers (b) the Assembly of Heads of States and Government (c) the General Secretary.



  1. Describe the duty and functions of the General Secretariat.
  2. Give reasons why you think that the O.A.U has failed.

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