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15.  Support and movement in (a) Plants (b) animals Questions

1.  Explain how the following tissues are adapted to provide mechanical support in plants:-  

 a) Parenchyma  

b) Collenchyma   c) Selerenchyma

2.  The diagram below represents a bone in the mammalian skeleton  

 a) Identify the bone with a reason

 b) State the function of the part labeled D  

Image From EcoleBooks.com3.  The diagram below represents a mammalian bone

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) Identify the bone shown above

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 (b) State the function of the parts labelled R and S

 (c) State the region of the body in which the bone is found

4.  (i) Name two bones that form the ball and socket joint in the fore limb of a mammal  

 (ii) Name the fluid that is found in the above mentioned joint and its function

5.  State three types of skeleton found in Kingdom animalia

6.  State three differences between an animal’s muscle cell and plant’s palisade cell

Image From EcoleBooks.com7.  The diagram below represents a mammalian bone

 

  (a)Name the bone

(b) (i) Which bone articulates with the bone shown in the diagram at the notch

(ii) Name the type of joint formed when the bones in b(i) articulate

8.  (a) Name the hard outer covering of the members of the phylum Arthropoda

(b) State two roles played by the structure named in (a) above  

9.  (a) State the role of lignin in the wall of the xylem vessel

 (b) How does vascular bundles contribute to support in plants

10.  (a) Distinguish between tendons and ligaments

 b) State one way through which herbaceous plants achieve support  

11.  Name the

a)  i) Material used to strengthen the xylem tissue

ii) Tissue that is removed when the bark of a dicotyledonous plant is ringed  

  b) State the areas of the plant where translocated materials are taken

12.  Give three importance of mammalian skeleton

Image From EcoleBooks.com13.  The diagram below represents the anterior view of a rib

 

 

 Name the part labelled X

 

14.  The diagram below represents a bone obtained from a mammal  

 

 

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 a) Name the bone

 

 b) Name the:

i) Bones which articulate with the bone named in (a) above at the cavity labelled K  

ii) Joint formed by the two bones at K  

 c) State functions of part labelled J

 

15.  The diagram below represents a bone obtained from a mammalian skeleton:  

 

 

 

 

 

 (a) Identify the bone

 (b) Name the:

  (i) Bone it articulates with at point A

  (ii) Type of joint that forms at point B in articulation with other bones

Image From EcoleBooks.com16.  The diagram below represents a bone obtained form a mammal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 (a) Identify the bone

 (b) Name the structures labeled X and W  

 (c) Name the bone that articulate with structure labeled Z

 

17.  (a) Name the vertebra in a mammalian body that is characterised by presence of odontoid

process.

 (b) State the function of the odontoid process

18.  a) Name three supporting tissues in plants  

b) Study the diagram below and answer the questions which follow:

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 i) Identify the muscle represented by X and Y

 ii) Describe how muscles x and y cause straightening of the joint z

 c) Name the joint z  

19.  (a) What is the importance of locomotion in animals? (b) Explain how a bony fish is adapted for movement in its habitat  

 15.  Support and movement in (a) Plants (b) animals Answers

1.  a) have closely packed cells which when turgid provide mechanical support;

 b) Their walls are thickened with cellulose which offer mechanical support;

 c) Consists of dead cells thickened with lignin;

2.  a) Lumbar vertebra;  

 b)  – Broad neural spine;

– Large and broad centrum;

– Broad and long transverse processes;

 c) Passage of spinal cord;

3.  (a) Cervical vertebra;

 (b) R – (Facel) for articulation with the next verterbra;

S- (Transverse process) for attachment of muscles;

 (c) Treck region/ cervical region;

4.  (i) Humerous; Scapula;

(ii) Synovial fluid; Lubrication of bones/prevent friction;

5.  – Endoskeleton;  

– Hydrostatic skeleton;

– Exoskeleton;

6.

Muscle cell

Palisade cell

  • Lacks chloroplast
  • lacks cell wall
  • small in size
  • presence of centrioles
  • tiny and numerous
  • Has chloroplast;
  • has cell wall;
  • large in size
  • lack of centrioles;
  • large central cell vacuole

 

7.  a) Ulna;

 b) i) Humerus;

  ii) Hinge

8.  a) Exoskeleton;  

 b) Supports body tissue and organs, protects inner parts, reduces water loss/ evaporation, helps

in movement/ attachment of muscles;

9.  a) Provide mechanical strength / support/ it is a strengthening tissue;

 b) Xylem vessels and tracheids have lignified walls; to provide support;

one is damaged man is not blinded;

10.  a) Tendons are structures which attach skeletal muscles to bone while ligaments are structures

that hold two bones together;

 b) Use of turgor pressure / turgidity; use of tendrils and climbing stems; tissue distribution in

stems (parenchyma) sclerenchyma / collenchyma); use

of xylem (thickened tracheids & vessels) use of spines and thorns e.g roses.

11.  a) i) Lignin;

  ii) Phloem;

 b) Growing areas of root, stem/ shoot, meristems

  Storage organs – Fruits, seeds, stems, roots, leaves;

12.  – Maintain shape of the body  ;

 – Protect delicate organs of the body e.g. heart, brain;

 – Place/ area of attachment for other organs of the body;

13.  Capitulum  

14.  (a) Scapula;

 (b) (i) Humerous;

(ii) Ball and socket joint

For muscle attachment;

15.  a) Femur;  

 b) Reloic girdle/ pubis of peloic girdle;

 c) Hinge joint;

 Rj. thoracic alone or vertebra alone

 b)X-neutral spine;

  W-centrum;

16.   (a) Axis;  

  (b) Fits in the neural canal of atlas to permit for turning of the head:

17.  a)  – Sclerenchyma;

– Xylem;

– Collenchyma;

Accept Parenchyma

 b)  i) X – Biceps;

Y- Triceps;

Reject Flexor and Extensor

ii) X (Biceps) relaxes; as Y (Triceps) contracts;

 c) Hinge joint;

18.  a)locomotion enables animal to move from one place to another in search of food; mates;  

to escape from predators; to disperse/avoid unfavourable environments;

b)-have streamline body which reduces fiction; the scales overlap backwards and he lies flat

close to the body, thus enhancing he streamline shape;

  -they have air-filled swim bladder tat helps them to maintain a density that is equal to that of

  the surrounding water; helping the fish to float; (making forward movement easy)

  -tail fin long/has large surface area to increase the amount of water displaced resulting in an

  increase in forward thrust;

  -they have strong tail muscles which enable the tail to move from side to side against

water;(pushing

 the fish to move forward)

-the have paired pectral and pelvic fins; which are used for steering; for bringing about

downward or upward movement; as breaks//for braking; and for preventing pitching;

  -they have unpaired fins, dorsal and anal fins; which increases the vertical surface area  preventing

 fish from rolling or yawing;

  -the fish has inflexible head which help, fish to maintain forward thrust;

-have fleshable backbone onto which myotomes are attached; the muscles contract and relax to bring about undulation movement;

  -fish also secretes mucus which covers body and reduces friction during movement;

 

 

 

 




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EcoleBooks | 15. 	Support and movement in (a) Plants   (b) animals Questions And Answers

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