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 10. Reproduction in (a) plants (b) animals Questions

1.  a) Name the part of an ovule that develops into each of the following parts of a seed after

fertilization  i) Testa ii) Endosperm

b) What is parthenocarpy?

2.  State three roles of placenta during pregnancy.

3.  Name three
main methods through which HIV/AIDS is transmitted

4.  (a) Name the processes that lead to fruit formation without fertilization

(b) Name the hormone that causes leaf, flowers and fruit abscission

 (c) What is the role of ecdysone hormone in insects

5.  State the roles of oviduct in female reproductive system

6.  The diagram below represents a mature embryo sac. Study it carefully and answer the questions

Image From  that follow:




 (a) Identify structures X and Y

(b) Why is cross pollination more advantageous to a plant species than self pollination?  

7.  The diagram below shows a phenomenon which occurs during cell division.

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 (a) Name the part labeled T.

(b) (i) State the biological importance of the part labelled T.  

(ii) Identify the type of cell division in which this phenomenon occurs.

8.  (a) When are the two organisms considered to belong to the same species.

(b) Explain the term alternation of generations.

9.  (a) Explain why Larmack’s Theory of evolution is not accepted by biologists today.  

(b) State the significance of mutation in evolution.

10.  (a) Give two roles of the placenta.

 (b) Explain why hormone testosterone still exerts its influence even when vas deferens have

been cut.

11.  Name two mechanisms that hinder self fertilization in flowering plants

12.  State three ways in which plants compensate for lack of movement  

13.  (a) What do you understand by the term double fertilization?  

 (b) State two adaptations of animal dispersed fruits

14.  Name the hormone that;

 (a) Stimulate the contraction of uterus during birth  (b) Stimulates the disintegration of the corpus inteum when fertilization fails to take place  

15.  State three ways in which flowers parent self pollination

16.  The diagram below represents a stage in the development of human foetus








 (a) State one function of each of the structures labelled A and B  

 (b) Apart from the size of the foetus what else from the diagram illustrates that birth was going to

  occur in the near future

 (c) Explain why a pregnant woman is supplied with doses of iron tablets regularly

17.  Name the type of placentation where;

 (i) Placenta appears as one ridge on the ovary wall

 (ii) Placenta appears at the centre of the ovary with ovules on it and the dividing walls of carpels


Image From EcoleBooks.com18.  The diagram below represents a mature fruit from a dicotyledonous plant, observe it and

 answer questions that follow  

Image From





 a) To what group of fruits does the specimen belong?

 b) Suggest the possible agent of dispersal of the fruit

19.  Explain why menstrual periods stop immediately after conception?

20.  a) Why is sexual reproduction important in evolution of plants and animals

 b) The calyx cells of a certain plant has 22 chromosomes. State the number of chromosomes

present in the plant’s

 i) Endosperm

 ii) Ovule cell

Image From EcoleBooks.com21.  The diagram below shows a pollen – tube entering the ovule of a flowering plant  

 Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From







Image From

 a) Name the parts labeled A, B and D  

 b) Name the kind of fertilization exhibited by the above flowering plant.  

22.  Donkey and zebra are closely related yet not of the same species. Explain

23.  Name two factors in the environment which organisms respond to  

24.  What is meant by the terms:-    a) i) Epigynous flower  

  ii) Staminate flower

b) Name the protective membranes surrounding the brain  

25.  The diagram below illustrate a process in a given species of organism

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 a) Name the organism that undergoes the process above    

b) Identify the process shown to be taking place  

26.  State two ways by which HIV/AIDS is transmitted from mother to child

27.  (a) State the role of centrioles during cell division

 (b) (i) Explain the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis  

  (ii) What is the main product of the dark stage of photosynthesis?

28.  (a) At what stage of meiosis is the chiasmata formed?  

 (b) (i) What is the significance of the above part in living organisms?

  (ii) State two importance of meiosis in living organisms?

29.  (a) State two ways in which the male parts of a wind pollinated flower are adapted to

their mode of pollination

 (b) Differentiate between monoecious and dioecious plants  

30.  (a) What is seed dormancy?

 (b) State two ways in which seed dormancy can be broken  

31.  (a) Explain two importance of the adult stage in metamorphosis in insects

 (b) What is the importance of the juvenile hormone in insects?  

32.  Describe the possible effects of discharging hot effluent from a factory into a slow flowing  river

33.  State two disadvantages of external fertilization in animals  

34.  State three roles of placenta in mammals  

35.  (a) The diagram below shows a stage during cell division

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(i) Name the stage of cell division

  (ii) Give a reason for your answer

 (b) Name two structures in plants where male and female gametes are produced

36.  State two advantages of metamorphosis to the life of insects  

37.  List four differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

38.  Give a reason why two species in an ecosystem cannot occupy the same niche

39.  State the functions of the following hormones in the menstrual cycle :

 (i) oestrogen

 (ii) luteinizing hormone (L.H)

 (iii) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

40.  The diagrams below represent two gynoecia A and B obtained from two different plants.  









 (a) What name is given to;   Gynoecium A?

    Gynoecium B?

 (b) State the observable difference between the gnoecia A and B  

(c) State the role played by Heterostyly in plants.  

41.  State the difference between the sperm cell and the ovum.

42.  (a) Name the parts of the flower in which pollen grains area formed.

(b) Name two nuclei found in pollen grains.  

43.  The diagram below represents a stage in cell division.












 (a) Name the stage of all division shown in the diagram above.  

(b) Give reasons for your answer.

44.  Name the hormone that:

 (a) Stimulate the contraction of uterus during birth.

(b) Stimulate the disintegration of corpus luteum when fertilization fails to take place.  

45.  State three ways in which seed dormancy benefits a plant

46.  (i) State two major structural differences between fruit and a seed  

 (ii) Why is it advisable to use biological control of pests?

47.  State the functions of the following parts in the male reproductive system

  (a) Somniferous tubules

  (b) Sertoli cells

48.   (a) Name the parts of a flower responsible for gamete formation  

  (b) State one feature of pollen grains from a wind pollinated flower

49.  Name the mechanisms that hinder self-fertilization in flowering plants

50.  The eggs of birds are relatively much larger than those of mammals. Explain

51.  Distinguish between the following terms:  

 Pollination and fertilization

52.  a) Describe the various mechanisms of fruit and seed dispersal.  

 b) Describe the varying events that follow a flower after fertilization.

53.  Describe how fruits and seeds are suited to their mode of dispersal  

54.  The diagram below represents some hormones, their sources and functions in a mammal:












 (a) Identify the master gland described above

(b) Name hormones (ii), (iii), (v) and (iv)  

 (c) Explain the consequences of deficiencies of hormone (ii) in man

 (d) Other than stimulating the development of uterine wall, suggest one other function

of hormone (vi)  

55.  The diagram below represents some hormones, their sources and functions in mammals.  












 a) Name the hormones I, II and III

b) Name hormones IV and state its function

c) Name the control labelled A & B

 d) Name one secondary sexual characteristic common to both males and females

56.  (a) State the role of spleen in human defense mechanism

 (b) State two ways by which the HIV spread may be controlled through patients in hospitals

 (c) What do you understand by the word Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

 (d) Why is immunization against diseases encouraged by the government

(e) State how natural active acquired immunity is attained by an individual

57.  Explain how seeds and fruits are adapted to the various methods of dispersal  

Image From EcoleBooks.com58.  The diagram below represents female reproductive system;











 a) Name the part labeled; A, B, C and D

 b) State two functions of structure A

 c) How is part C adapted to its function?

d) Of what significance is part E to reproduction?  

59.  The diagram below represents a human foetus in a uterus

Image From












 (a) Name the part labelled S

 (b) (i) Name the blood vessels labelled A and B
(ii) State the difference in composition of blood found in vessels A and B

(c) Name two features that enable the structure labelled P carry out its function

(d) State the role of the part labelled R  



60.  An experiment was carried out to investigate the rate of growth of pollen tube against time.

The results are shown in the table below:

Time in minutes

Growth of pollen tube in millimeters















 (a) (i) On the grid provided draw a graph of the pollen tube growth against time.

 (b) (i) At what intervals was the growth of the pollen tube measured?

(ii) What was the length of pollen tube at;   130 minutes

(iii) At what time was the length of the pollen tube 18mm?  

(iv) With reasons, describe the growth pattern of the pollen tube between:

  • 0 to 120minutes
  • Reason
  • 120 to 180 minutes
  • Reason

  (v) State the importance of the growth of pollen tube to the plant  

 (c) State the changes that take place in a flower after fertilization  


10. Reproduction in (a) plants (b) animals Answers

1.  a)  i) integuments  ;

ii) Primary endosperm nucleus;

 b) This is fruit development without fertilization;


2.  – Secretion of progesterone and oestrogen;  

 – Controls exchange of material between maternal and foetal blood;

 – Prevents entry of pathogens from the maternal to the foetal circulatory system;


3.  – Sexual intercourse with infected persons;

– Transfusion with infected blood;

– sharing contaminated needles;

– Infected mother to child through breastfeeding;

– Contact with infected blood/body fluids through cuts or wounds; (mark the first 3 points)


4.  (a) Par thenocapy;  

 (b) Ethylene;  

 (c) Promoted differentiation of adult features;  


5.  – Site for fertilization;

  – Conducts on a from ovary to the uterus;  


6.  (a) X – Polar nuclei; Y – Egg cell;

 (b) – Results to variation; that makes the plant to be adapted for survival;


7.  (a) Chiasma; reject – chiasmata

 (b) (i) Provide a chance for the exchange of genes (along the portion of chromosome);

  (ii) Meiosis;


8.  (a) When they can freely interbreed to produce fertile/viable offspring;

(b) Is the occurrence of two distinct reproductive forms in the life cycle of an organism; the

diploid sporophyte phase and the haploid gametophyte phase;

9.  (a) Acquired characteristics are not inherited/inherited characteristics are found in  

reproductive cells only;

(b) Mutations bring about variation which when advantageous can be passed on from one

generation to the next; and this can lead to emergence of new species;


10.  (a) Gaseous exchange; means through which foetus get nutrients from the mother;  

offers a means for elimination of wastes by the foetus; supplies antibodies to the embryo

from the mother; secrets progesterone hormone that maintains pregnancy;

 (b) because testerrone is transported through the blood


11.  – Protandry

– Protogyny;

– Self sterility/incompatibility


12.  – Ability to pollinate;

– Ability to photosynthesis;

– Ability to disperse seeds/fruits;

– Ability to absorb water and mineral salts from the soil;


13.  (a) Fusion of one male nucleus with an egg cell to form a diploid zygote; and fusion  

of the other male nucleus with two polar nuclei to form tripoid endosperm;

(b) – Are brightly coloured to attract insects

– Have seed coat that is resistant to digestive enzymes

– Have hooks for attachment to passing animals

– Are freshly/succulent to attract insects  


14.  a) Oxytocin;

 b) Progesterones;

on different individual plants;

-some plants are self –sterile in their pollen grains transferred to stigmas in the same plant fail to germinate;

-in some plants stamens and carpel on the same plant mature at different times;

-in many plants the stigmas are located higher than the anthers;


15.  -some plants are dioecious which means that staminate and distillate flowers are borne


16.  a) A – Has umbilical vein and artery to supply foetus with nutrients and removal of waste


 B – Protects embryo from shock/regulate temp. of developing embryo/ suspends and supports


 b) Foetus head is turned towards the cervix;

 c) To supplement iron synthesized by the mother since it (iron) is needed for haemoglobin

formation in the foetus;

17.  i) Marginal; √  

 ii) Free central;


18.  a) Cypsela b) Animal


19.  i) Production of the hormones progesterone and oesterogene continues;

 ii) These hormones inhibit the production of follicles;

  Stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenising hormone (LH);

 iii) This inhibits the maturation of more follicles;  


20.  a) It brings about useful variations which make the off springs better adapted for survival b)  i) 33;

ii) 11;

21.  a)  A – Antipodal cells;  B – Embryo sac; D- Synergid b) Double fertilization


22.  They cannot freely interbreed to produce a viable /fertile offspring OR- do not have hereditary

 distinction to interbreed to produce a fertile viable offspring;  


23.  Adverse temperature , wind/air current, pH, light noise  ;


24.  (a) (i) Epigynous –a condition where other floral parts arise/positioned above the ovary

/inferior ovary

  (ii) Staminate flower – Male flower (accept – has stamen only / male parts only );  

  (b) Meninges;


25.  (a) Yeast  ;    (b) Budding;


26.  – Through breast feeding if mother’s nipple and baby’s mouth have rushes/wounds  

– During delivery;

– During pregnancy;


27.  a) Production of spindle fibres  

 b)  i) Absorbs light energy; which is used to break down water molecules into O2 gas and

H+/ atoms

ii) Glucose;


28.  a) Prophase I Reject prophase alone

 b)  i) There is crossing over of genes that leads to variations;

ii) Leads to formation of gametes;

Brings about genetic variation;

  It helps retain a constant diploid chromosomal constitution in a species at fertilization;


29.  a) Stamens hanging outside the flower; large anthers loosely attached to flexible filaments;

Large amounts of small; light and powdery pollen grains to be easily blown by the coid;

 b) Monoecious plants have both male and female flowers bone on separate plants;


30.  a) Inability of seeds to germinate despite all the conditions necessary for germination are


 b) Scarification;

  Increase the concentration of hormones which stimulate germination/ increase auxin conc;

Allow the embryo to mature before planting seeds

Remove germination inhibitors;


31.  a) Allows the adult to reproduce  

  Allows the species to disperse in order to colonize new habitats;

 b) Leads to the formation of the larval cuticle;


32.  – Hot water kills organisms in the water;

 – Reduces oxygen content in the water leading to suffocation;

 – Chemicals in the element may lead to entrophication;


33.  – Chances of fusion of gametes are low

 – Large amounts of gametes are produced leading to wastage

 – Changes of survival of the young ones are low since there is lack of parental care


34.  – Allow nutrients to pass from mother to Foetus

  – Allow diffusion of excretory products from Foetus to mother’s blood for excretion

 – Produce hormones Oestrogen & Progesterone / that retains pregnancy.

 – Prevents passage of foreign particles e.g. pathogens.


35 .  a) i) prophase I  

 ii) Chiasmata Formation / cross over

 b) _Ovary

– Anthers


36.  – Ensures no competition for dispersal;  

 – Survival of pupa stage;


Mitosis Meiosis

– Two diploid daughter cells are formed  – Four haploid daughter cells are formed;

– No crossing over – There is crossing over because of chiasmata; formation;

– Takes place in one cell division – takes place in two cell division;

– Leads to growth  – leads to gamete formation

– Takes place in somatic cells – takes place in reproductive cells;


38.  Due to (stiff)competition for available resources which leads to elimination/exclusion;


39.  i) healing and repair of the uterine wall following menstruation stimulates the pituitary

Gland to secrete L.H; (award any one)

  ii)-cause ovulation

 -changes the remnants of graafian follicle to corpus uteum;

 -initiates secretion of progesterone; (award any one.

iii)-accelerates growth and maturity of graafian follicle;

  -stimulate the graafian follicle to secrete oestrogen; (award any one.)

40. (a) A – Syncarpous:   B- Apocarpous; Rj: Wrong spellings

(b) A fused ovaries B — separate ovaries:

(c) Hinder self pollination? fertilization:




– Spear shaped.

– Posses a tail.

– Has acrosome .

No vitelline membrane.

  • Spherical shaped
  • No tail
  • No acrosome
  • Has vitelline membrane.

42.  (a) anthers; (b) – tube nucleus; – Generative nucleus;  

43.  (a) – Metaphase 1; rej. Metaphase.

 (b) – Homologous chromosome arranged on the equator;.

  – Spindle fibres formed and attached at the centromere of the chromosome;

44.  Progesterone;

45.   – Seed dormancy allows the plant to escape harsh conditions of the environment

  – It also allows time for the seed to disperse;

  – Seed dormancy allow time for the seed to fully mature (after ripening period);

46.   (i) – A fruit has two scars while a seed has a single scar

  – Fruits are covered by epicarp while seeds have seed coats/testa

 (ii) Biological control helps to prevent pollution f the environment


47.   (a) Site for sperm formation  (b) For nourishment of sperm cells /support  


48.   (a) Ovary; anther  (b) Small/light/smooth  


49.  – Self sterility;

 – Dioecious plants;

– Protandry and protogyny;  


50.  In birds the embryo develops externally. It is totally dependent on food stored in the egg for

its nourishment; In mammals the embryo receives nourishment from the mother through the placenta


51.  Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma;

 Fertilization is the fusion of the nucleus of a male gamete with the nucleus of a female

 gamete to form a zygote;  

52.  a) Water dispersal  

  • Such seeds and fruits enclose air in them to lower their density for buoyancy;
  • They are fibrous/ spongy to lower the density for buoyancy;
  • Have impermeable seed coat or epicarp to prevent water from entering during flotation so as to avoid rotting;
  • The seeds can remain viable while in water and only germinate while on a suitable medium;

Wind dispersal – They are light; and small; to be easily carried by wind currents due to lower


  • Have developed extension which create a larger surface area; so as to be kept afloat in wind currents e.g. * Parachute like structures;

* Wing like structures;

 Animal dispersal – Brightly colored to attract animals

-Fleshy to attract animals;

– Some have hook like structures to attach on animals fur

Self dispersal  – They have weak lines on the fruit wall along which they burst open to release

seeds, which get scattered. This occurs when temperature changes suddenly


  • The zygote formed when egg nucleus fuses with one male nucleus develops into the embryo of a seed
  • The triploid nucli develops into the primary endosperm of the seed
  • The inner and outer interguments develops into the seed testa
  • The ovary wall differentiates into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp forming a fruit
  • The ovule then develops into a seed
  • The corolla dries up and withers away
  • The calyx may persists shortly as it photosynthesis but afterwards , shrivels, dries and withers away
  • The Androecin shrivels,dries and withers away
  • The stigma together with the style shrivels, dries and withers away

53.  Wind dispersal.  

  • Parachute of hair, increase surface area to be carried by wind /float
  • Wing like structures, increase surface area to be carried by wind /floats.
  • Small/light, seed/fruits to be carried by wind have censor mechanism/split open particularly and shaken by wind to throughout the seeds.

Animal dispersal

  • Juicy/succulent/fleshy, to attract animals; hooked; to stick on animals bodies and be carried away.
  • Hard seed coat; to resists digestive enzymes. Hence come out a long with feaces/dropping of animals.
  • Brightly coloured; to attract animals that carry them away.
  • Scented; to attract animals that eat and scatter their seeds.

Water dispersal;

  • Fibrous fruit wall/mesocarp with air spaces to store air hence make them buoyant/float in water;
  • Air floats make them buoyant/float on water.
  • Self dispense mechanism
  • Fruits dry and crack/open violently along the lines of weakness throwing away the seeds.

54.  (a) Pituitary gland  

 (b) (ii) Testerone

  (iii) Follicle stimulating hormone

(v) Leutinising hormone

(c) Sterility/lack of spermatogenesis. Failure of secondary sexual characteristics.

(d) Inhibit production of F.S.H

  Inhibit production of L.H

55.  (a) I – F.S.H (Follicle stimulating Hormone);

II- Lutenizing Hormone (LH);

III. – Androgen/Testerone/male Hormone  

 (b) Progesterone;- brings about protogenetion/development/thickening of uterine wall;  

 (c) A – Inhibition of L.H  

  B – Stimulation of L.H

 (d) – Growth of hair on the armpit and pubic region; – Development of pimples on the face;

56.  (a) Role of spleen in human defense mechanism:-

  – Form lymphocytes which ingest pathogens present in the blood;

  – Produce antibodies; which neutralizes poisons produced by the pathogens  

 (b) Ways of controlling HIV spread:

– Testing and transfusing blood free form the HIV

– Avoid sharing of cutting instruments (OWTTE) any two

 (c) Meaning of the word Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome:

  – Development of lack of immunity system resulting to various chains of infections  

 (d) Reason for encouraging vaccination prevent/control infection which is better/cheaper than


 (e) Is acquired when an individual is infected and naturally produces immunity and recover

from the infection  

57.  Seeds and fruits are adopted to the various methods of dispersal:-  

Water dispersed fruits and seeds

  • Mesocarp fruits has air spaces thus light/buoyant to float; therefore carried away by water; seeds are protected from soaking by water proof pericurp / testa;  


Animal dispersed fruits/seeds

Presence of hooks for attachment to animals thus carried away to other places; fruits are also brightly coloured;

-Succulent; aromatic /scented to attract animals; the seed coats are hard and resistant to digestive enzymes; the seeds are therefore dropped away in feaces/droppings’


Self dispersed seeds/fruits/explosive mechanism;

  • The dry pods/fruits splits along line of weaknesses/sutures; scattering seeds away form parent plant;


Wind dispersed fruits/seeds

  • censer mechanism; open/split; to disperse the seeds. Perforated capsule is usually loosely attached to stalk / long stalk is swayed away by wind scattering seeds
  • Presence of hairs /wing-like structures/floss/extension which increase surface area for buoyancy; making it easy for fruits/ seeds to be blown away;
  • Fruits /seeds are light due to small size; therefore, easily carried away by wind;


58.  a)  A- Ovary  

B- Oviduct/ fallopian tube

C- Uterus/ uterine wall

D- Cervix

 b)  Produce ova

Produce femme hormones/ Estrogen and progesterone

 c)  – Highly vascularized to supply nutrients to foetus/ drain away excretory wastes

– Inner wall lined with Endometrium for implantation of fertilized egg/ zygote

– Muscular for peristalisis to expel menses during menstruation/ parturition

– Great capacity to expand during gestation to accommodate developing foetus

 d)  -copulation/ Achieve orgasm in Human male followed by ejaculation

– birth canal


59 .  a) chorion; Rej Amnion/Amniotic membrane.

 b) i) A: (umbilical Artery; Rej Arteriole

B: (umbilical vein; Rej venule

ii) More food nutrients; more oxygen in umbilical vein/less food nutrients; more excretory

products in umbilical Artery;

Rej.(ii)if (i) is wrong

Rej oxygenated/deoxygenated

c) highly vescularized;

-large surface area; acc. Numerous villi for large surface area

-presence of secretory cells/are glandular; any 2 Rej. Source of hormones.

  d) cushion /absorbs shock/buoyancy;














60. (a)
























b) i) 30min/aftter every 30min; Rej if no units

  ii) 20.4 -20.8mm;

iii)105min-106min; Rej after 105/106 min.

iv) 0 + 120minutes

growth fast/growth rapid /rate of growth rapid/growth rate pattern rapid;

Rej. Exponential growth

 reason: pollen tube young/has enough nutrients in culture;

 to 180 minutes- grows slowly /rate of growth decline /decrease/growth rate pattern


reason: pollen tube mature/old/has exhausted nutrients;

  v) directs role gametes/nuclei/nucleus to ovules; Rej. Ovary/pollen grains for male gametes.

c) integument develop/changes to-seed coat/testa;


triploid nucleus-endosperm;

ovary wall- pericarp;

ovary- fruits;


corolla/petals/style/stamens/filament-dry out /fall off /wither(losing a scar);

calyx may persist(dry up &fall off) Rej. die/disappear.





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EcoleBooks | 10. Reproduction in (a) plants   (b) animals Questions And Answers


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