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The First World War (1914-1918)

  • The First World War was fought from 1914-1918.
  • It was the first mechanized war in world history i.e. most of the fighting was done using machines.

 

Qn. Why was it called a world war?

-It was experienced by all countries in the world.

-It involved countries from all parts of the world.

 

Qn. Which country was blamed for starting the First World War?

-Germany

 

Qn. Which country in East Africa was most affected country by the First World
War?

-Tanganyika

 

Qn. Why was Tanganyika the most affected country in East Africa by First World
War?

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  • It was a battle field.

 

Causes of the first World war

-Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the Archduke of Austria -Colonial rivalry among European countries -Some countries wanted to show their power.

-European countries wanted to test their manufactured weapons

-lack of international organisation to solve conflicts so, the solution was war.

-Formation of the alliance system.

 

Qn. Name the countries that formed the Triple Alliance
-Austria.

-Germany

-Italy

 

Qn. Which countries formed the Triple Entente?

-Britain

-France

-Russia

 

Qn. Name the Archduke of Austria who was killed by a Serbian student

-Franz Ferdinand

Qn. Who killed the Archduke?

-Gavril Princip.

 

Qn.why was the Archiduke killed?

– Austria had captured Bosnia from Serbia.

 

Effects results of the First World War

-Many people were killed

-Many people were displaced

-A lot of property was destroyed

-It caused famine

-It led to decline in trade

-It led to the raise of nationalism

-African countries began demanding for their independence -It led to the rise of USA as the new super power.

-It led to the formation of the League of Nations

 

Qn.Name the treaty that was signed to end the First World War

-Versailles treaty

 

The League of Nations

It was formed in 1919 after the First World War

 

Reasons for the formation of League of Nations

-To prevent the outbreak of another world war

-To maintain world peace

-to stop the struggle for colonies

-To encourage all countries of the world to work together for peace.

 

Achievements of the League of Nations.

-It helped to settle some political disputes

-It helped to resettle the refugees

-It helped to raise funds for development.

 

Failures of the League of the Nations

-It failed to prevent Second World War from breaking out

-It failed to form an army

-It failed to unite all member states.

 

Reasons for the failures of the League of Nations

-It lacked an army

-Hostility of defeated members

-Lack of trust among member states

-The rise of directors like Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini -The major super power, USA was not a member.

NB:

-The League of Nations punished Germany for starting the first world war by removing all colonies from it.

-The colonies were called Mandate territories.

 

Qn. What are mandate territories?

Mandate territories are countries which were ruled by other countries on behalf of the League of Nations after the First World War.

 

Examples of Mandate territories

-Tanganyika —given to Britain

-Rwanda——–given to Belgium

-Burundi——–given to Belgium

-Cameroon——given to France

-Togo————-given to France -Namibia——–given to South Africa.

 

THE SECOND WORLD WAR (1939-1945)

Qn.which event sparked off the Second World War?

-Germany’s attack on Poland.

Qn. What were the causes of the Second World War?

-Germany wanted to regain her lost glory.

-The weaknesses of the League of Nations.

-The rise of dictators in Europe.

 

Qn. Why did Uganda join the Second World War?

-To support Britain

Qn. How did USA join the Second World War?
-When Japan attacked an American base.

Qn. How did USA react to Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbour?
-By bombing two Japanese cities using nuclear booms.

Qn. Name the two Japanese cities which were bombed by USA in 1945.

-Nagasaki

-Hiroshima

Qn. How did Second World War come to one end?

-After Germany and Japan surrendered.

 

 

 

Effects/results of Second World War

-Many people were killed

-Many people were displaced

-A lot of property was destroyed

-Many African countries began demanding for independence -It led to the formation of the United Nations Organization (UNO)

NOTE:

-The UNO formed trusteeship territories.

 

Qn. What are trusteeship territories?

Trusteeship territories were countries which were ruled by other countries on behalf of UNO after the Second World War.

 

Examples of trusteeship territories

-Tanganyika—-given to Britain

-Rwanda——–given to Belgium

-Burundi——–given to Belgium

-Cameroon—–given to France

-Togo———–given to France -Namibia——-given to South Africa.

 

THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UNO)

-It is the largest international organisation in the world.

It was formed in 1945 after the Second World War

-its headquarters is in New York City in the United States of America.

 

Reasons for the formation of UNO

-To prevent any more world war

-To maintain world peace

-To improve the living standards of the people in the world.

-To promote economic development among member states

-To promote international co-operation among member states

-To promote friendly relations among countries of the world

-To promote friendly relations among countries of the world

– To promote and defend human rights

 

Examples of fundamental human rights

-Right to life

-Right to privacy

-Right to vote

-Right to belonging to a tribe, Family Clan, Country,etc

-Right to own property

-Right to freedom of speech

-Right to freedom of association

-Right to freedom of worship

-Right to freedom movement

-Right to marriage

-Right to fair trial in the courts of Law.

NOTE: The UNO was changed to UN United Nations

-Its headquarters remained in New York

The UN has an emblem which appears on its flag surrounded by Olive branches. -The olive branches stand for peace.

 

Qn.Name the countries which is not a member of the UN

-Taiwan

  • Vatican City
  • Kosovo

 

Qn. Why are the above named countries not members of the UN?
They did not sign the UN Charter.

 

Organs of the UN

  1. The General Assembly
  2. The UN Secretary council
  3. The Secretariat
  4. The International Court of justice(ICJ)
  5. The International criminal court(ICC)
  6. Economic and Social Council

 

 

The UN General Assembly

-It consists of representatives from all member states

-it meets once a year

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE UN GENERALASSEMBLY

-To discuss world peace and security

-To approve the UN budget

-To admit new members to the UN

NOTE: During meetings of the UN General Assembly, simultaneous translations are used to ease communication. -Six languages are used i.e

  1. English
  2. French iii.  Chinese
  1. Russian
  2. Arabic vi.  Spanish

 

The UN Secretariat

-It is headed by the secretary General

-It has headquarters new York

-The secretary general serves for renewable period of 4 years.

-The current secretary general of the UN is Antonio Guterres from Portugal

He replaced Ban-ki-Moon from the Republic of Korea(South Korea)

 

Functions of the UN Secretariat

  1. To make agenda for the UN General Assembly
  2. To make a budget for the UN iii.  To organize UN conferences iv.  To monitor peace keeping operations

 v.  To run other organs of the UN.

 

Duties of the UN Secretary General

-To organize UN conferences

-To make agenda for the general assembly

-To monitor peace keeping operations

-To make a budget for the UN

 

3. The UN Security Council

-It consists of 15 member states.

-Five are permanent members while 10 are non-permanent members.

 

Permanent members of theUN Security Council

-USA

-Russia

-China

-Great Britain

-France

 

Functions of the Security Council

-To maintain world peace

-To send peace keepers to countries having civil wars

-To receive applications from countries that want to join the UN

-To receive applications from individuals that want to become secretary General of the UN when the post falls vacant.

  • The International Court of Justice (ICJ).

-It has headquarters in The Hague in Netherlands.

 

Functions of the International Court of Justice.

To settle international disputes

  • To act as the legal advisor of the UN.

 

  • The International Criminal Court (ICC)

-It is located in The Hague in the Netherlands.

 

Qn. What is the function of the ICC?

  • To try and sentence war criminals.

 

The Economic and Social Council

-It is responsible for the economic and social affairs of the UN.

-It improves the standard of living of the people in the world.

-It fulfils its objectives through its specialized agencies.

 

Qn.Name the specialized agencies of the UN.

  1. United Nations Children’s Fund(UNICEF)
  2. United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). iii.  United Nations High commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). iv.  Food and Agricultural organisation (FAO).

v.  World Food Programme (WFP). vi.  World Health Organisation (WHO). vii.  International labour organisation(ILO)

  • United Nations Development programme(UNDP)
  • International monetary Fund(IMF)
  • United Nations Fund for Population Activities(UNFPA)
  • International Development Association(IDA)
  • United Nations Environment Program(UNEP)
  • United Nations Human Rights Commission(UNHRC)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

UN AGENCY

ABBR

HEADQUARTERS

FUNCTIONS

1

United Nations

Children’s Fund

UNICEF

New York

-it supplies scholastic materials to schools. -it provides funds for building VIP latrines in schools

-it provides food to children at school -it organizes immunization programmes

-it provides safe drinking water by building spring wells -it provides wheel chairs for disabled children

-it sponsors education for orphans and other needy children.

-it promotes children’s rights

-it provides technical and financial assistance to government

    

-it provides employment.

2

United Nations High commissioner for refugees

UNHCR

GENEVA

Switzerland

-it registers all refugees in affected countries -it resettles refugees -It provides food for refugees

It provides shelter to refugees

-it provides medical care to refugees -it provides employment to people.

3

United Nations Education, scientific and cultural organisation

UNESCO

Paris(France)

-to promote scientific research -to promote the preservation of culture -to improve education standards in the world

-it provides

employment

4

Food and

Agricultural

Organisation

FAO

Rome(Italy)

-it promotes the production of food in the world

-it sends experts to teach better nutrition in developing countries

5

International

Labour

Organisation(ILO)

ILO

Geneva(Switzerland)

-it protects the rights of workers in the world -it advocates for better wages and working conditions for workers. -It advocates for better housing conditions for workers. -it provides

employment

 

6

United Nations Development programme

(UNDP)

New York USA

-It promotes development of industries in poor countries

-It gives grants to poor countries to improve on their infrastructure -it sends experts to improve on the economy of a country

-it provides

employment

7

World Food Programme

WFP

Rome Italy

-it distributes food to people in famine affected areas.

-it provides

employment

8

World Health Organisation

WHO

Geneva Switzerland

-it approves newly invented drugs

-it approves the use of newly invented drugs internationally

-it carries out research in the areas of diseases and drugs

-it prevents and fights the out break of epidemic diseases. -it provides medical support to under developed countries.

-it provides

employment

9

International Monetary Fund

IMF

WASHING TON

DC,(USA)

-it gives short term loans to countries with deficit budget.

-it provides

employment

 

1

0

United Nations Fund for population activities

UNFPA

Geneva

(SWITZERLAND)

-It prepares and keeps population data -it provides funds for population activities

-it provides

employment

1

1

International

Development

Association

IDA

Washington DC USA

-It provides loans with low interest to developing countries -it provides technical and financial assistance to member states in the area of the economy.

-it provides

employment

1

2

United Nations

Environment

Programme

UNEP

Nairobi (Kenya)

-it conserves forests and swamps

-it educates people about the importance of maintaining a clean

environment

-to control world pollution -it provides

employment

1

3

United Nations

Human Rights Commission/Intern ational Human Rights Commission

UNHCR OR IHCR

Geneva Switzerland

-it promotes respect for

human rights

-it protects people against torture and extra judicial killings -it visits prisoners and checks on their living conditions.

-it provides education to prison officers on how to handle prisoners

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Qn. Name the non functional organ of the UN
-The Trusteeship Council.

 

Achievements of the UNO/UN

  • It has maintained world peace
  • It has established the UN peace keeping force.
  • It has helped to resettle refugees in war affected countries
  • It has helped poor countries to develop by giving them loans
  • It has helped to check weapons of mass destruction
  • It has helped to settle some disputes
  • It has enabled different countries to air out their views.

Failures of the UNO/UN

  • It has failed to stop super powers from rejecting resolutions
  • It has failed to end civil wars in some countries
  • It has failed to stop border conflicts in some countries.
  • It has sided with super powers therefore failing to achieve its objectives.
  • It failed to end the 1944 Rwandan genocide
  • It failed to end the war between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir border.
  • It failed to end the war between USA and Vietnam.
  • It failed to end the war between North Korea and South Korea.

 

Challenges facing the UN

  • Lack of enough funds
  • Disunity among member states
  • Bad governance by some heads
  • Constant civil wars in some countries
    Increasing a number of refugees in the World.
  • Terrorism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

POST-INDEPENDENCE AFRICA

THE ORGANISATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)

-The OAU was an organisation that united all independent African countries.

-It was formed by the first 32 African countries to get independence.

 

Qn. When was OAU formed?

-In 1963

Qn. How was OAU formed?

 

After the 1963 Pan African Conference.

Qn.Where was  1963 Pan African conference held?

-In AddisAbaba

 

Qn. Name the president who spearheaded the formation of OAU?

-Kwame Nkrumah

Qn.Who suggested the name OAU?

-President Herbert Maga of Benin

 

Qn. What were the contributions of Haille Selassie?

-He hosted the meeting that led to the formation of the OAU

-He donated land for building OAU Head quarters

He was a founder member of OAU

– He was the first chairperson of OAU.

 

Qn.Where was the headquarters of OAU?

-In Addis Ababa

Qn. Who was the first secretary General of OAU?

-Diallo Telli from Guinea.

Qn. Who was the last secretary General of OAU?

-Amara Essy from Cote D’ivoire.

Qn. Who was the last chairman of OAU?

-President Levi Mwana Wasa of Zambia.

Qn.Where was the last meeting of OAU held?

-In Lusaka, Zambia.

Founder members of OAU
a) From East Africa
-Apollo Milton Obote. -Julius Nyerere -JomoKenyatta.

  1. From West Africa
    -Kwame Nkrumah.

-William Tolbert.

-Leopold Senghor.

-Mangai Milton.

 

  1. From North Africa
    -Abdel Nasser

-Mohammed Idris

King Hassan II

 

  1. From Southern Africa

-Kamuzu Banda

-Kenneth Kaunda

 

  1. From the Horn of Africa
    -Haille Selassie.

 

Qn.Why were the following countries not founder members of OAU?

i.  Eritrea –it was still part of Ethiopia ii.  South Africa -it was under Apartheid policy iii. Zimbabwe -it was not yet independent

 

Objectives of forming the OAU

-To end Colonialism in Africa

-To unite all independent African countries

-To defend the independence of African countries

-To promote cooperation between Africa and the outside world

 

The OAU charter (principles under which OAU operated)
-All members were to be independent and equal.

No interference in the internal affairs of another member state

Peaceful resolution of conflicts

Condemnation of political assassination.

Organs of OAU

-Assembly of head of state

-The OAU secretariat

-The council of ministers

-Specialized Standing Commissions.

  1. Assembly of Heads of State

-It was a meeting for all the heads of state.

-They met once a year in Addis Ababa.

Duties

-To discuss problems facing Africa

-To elect a chairperson to serve for a year

 

Qn Name the presidents of Uganda who have ever hosted OAU meetings.

  1. Idi Amin Dada
  2. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni

 

  1. The council of ministers

-It was composed of foreign ministers from member states

-They meet twice a year

 

Duties

-To prepare agenda for the heads of state meeting.

 

  1. The OAU Secretariat

-it was the chief co-ordinating and administrative organ of the OAU -It was headed by the OAU Secretary General.

The secretary General was the chief civil servant of OAU.

-He served for 4 years

 

Qn. What were the duties of the OAU Secretary General?

-To organize heads of state meetings

-To prepare the OAU budget

 

2. Specialized Standing Commissions
-Scientific and Research Commission -Organisation of African Trade Union.

-African Civil Aviation Commission

-Union of African Railways

-Supreme Council of Sports

-Pan African Postal Union

-Pan-African Telecommunication Union

-Pan African News Agency

 

 

Achievements of
OAU

-It ended Colonialism in Africa

-It helped to end Apartheid in South Africa

-It solved border conflicts between some countries

-It established the African Development Bank -It united all African countries

-It encouraged the formation of regional economic groupings

-it helped in promoting African culture

-It enabled African countries to speak in one voice in the UN General assembly

 

Failures of OAU

-It failed to end civil wars in some countries

-It failed to solve border conflicts between some countries

-It failed to end dictatorship in some countries -It failed to form the OAU peace keeping force -It failed to end famine in some countries.

 

THE AFRICAN (AU)

It replaced the OAU

Qn.when was the AU formed?

-In 2002

 

Qn. Where was the first meeting of AU held?

-In Durban, South Africa.

 

Qn. Who was the first president to chair or host the AU meeting?

-Thambo Mbeki of South Africa.

 

Qn.Name the president who suggested the formation of the AU
-Mwammar Gadaffi of Libya

Qn.why was OAU changed to AU?

-OAU had achieved its objectives of ending colonialism in Africa.

-To face new challenges

Qn.Where are the headquarters of African Union?

-To promote peace in Africa

-To promote unity among African countries

-To promote trade among African countries -To promote cooperation among African countries.

-To support and defend African interest

-To promote and protect human rights

Organs of the AU

  1. Assembly of the union
  2. African union commission
  3. Executive council of the union iv.  Pan African parliament
  1. The court of justice of the union
  2. Peace and security council

 

Assembly of the Union.

-It is a meeting of all heads of state or their representatives -it replaced the assembly of heads of state of OAU.

 

Duties of the Assembly of the Union.

-To discuss matters affecting member states.

-To elect a chairperson to serve for one year.

 

Qn.What title is given to the head of the Assembly of the Union.

-Chair person of AU

  1. African Union Commission

-It replaced the secretariat of OAU.

Qn. What title is to the head of the African union Commission?

Chairperson of the African Union Commission.

 

Duties of the African Union Commission

-To run the day to day affairs of the AU

-To make a budget for AU

-To organize AU meetings

 

  1. Executive council of the Union

-It consists of Ministers for foreign affairs from member states.

 

Duties of the Executive Council of the Union.
-to make decisions on policies of common interests -To prepare agenda for the assembly of the union.

 

  1. Pan African parliament

-It consists of representatives from each member state

 

 

-Duties of the pan African Parliament

-To make laws that governs the African union.  

-To discuss and solve problems facing Africa

-To ensure full participation of all African people in development 5. The Court of Justice of the Union.

-it consists of responsible judges from among the member states.

 

6. Peace and Security Council

  • It solves conflicts in the continent.

 

Achievements of the AU

-It has been involved in peace keeping

-It has established new organs

-It has spearheaded the search for peace

-It helped to settle disputes in some countries e.g. Kenya

-It established the Pan-African University

 

Challenges facing the AU

  • Terrorism

-Lack of enough funds

  • Lack of a peace keeping force.

-Constant civil wars in some countries

-Difference in political ideologies

-Over dependency on foreign aid

-Dictatorship in some African countries

  • Lack of genuine democracy for most African countries

-Poor governance by some leaders

-High rate of unemployment -High level of poverty -Famine in some countries.

Symbols of the African Union

  1. African union Flag
  2. African union Emblem

The African union Flag

Qn.Name the colours of the African Union Flag and their meaning.

  1. Gold-stands for Africa’s wealth
  2. Green-sands for Africa’s hope and desire for unity
  3. White-stands for purity of Africa’s need for friendship.

 

Comparison between UN and AU
a. Similarities UN and AU.

-Both aim at promoting peace among member states

-Both aim at promoting unity among member states

-Both promote international cooperation among member states

-Both aim at improving people’s standards of living -Both promote and defend human rights B. Differences between UN and AU.

-The UN unites countries of the world while AU unites countries in Africa.

-The UN has a peace keeping force while AU doesnot have a peace keeping force.

-UN has a bigger membership than AU.

-The resolutions passed by the UN are stronger compared to those of AU.

-The headquarters of UN are in New York while the headquarters of AU are in Addis Ababa.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE COMMON WEALTH ORGANISATION

-The common wealth is an organisation that unites Britain and her former colonies.

African members of the Commonwealth

-Uganda -Nigeria

-Rwanda -Kenya

-Malawi -Mozambique

-Zambia -South Africa

-Lesotho -Swaziland

-Ghana -Sierra Leone

 

Member countries of common wealth outside Africa

-India -Canada

-Australia -Britain-Trinidad and Tobago -Malaysia

-Solomon Islands – Cyprus

-Brunei -New Zealand -Jamaica

-Malta -Papua New Guinea – Dominica

-Burma -Sri Lanka. -Solomon Islands

 

Qn. Name the common wealth member that was not colonized

-Britain

 

Qn. Name the member countries of commonwealth that were not colonized by
Britain

-Rwanda

-Mozambique

 

Qn. How did Rwanda and Mozambique become members of common wealth yet
they were not colonized by Britain?

-By applying for membership.

Types of commonwealth nations

-Dominions

-Republics

  1. Dominions

-Dominion states are countries that are still being governed by laws made in the British parliament.

Examples of dominion states

-Canada

-Australia

-New Zealand

  1. Republics

-Republics are independent countries that are governed by laws made in their own parliaments.

 

Functions of the Commonwealth

-To unite Britain and her former colonies

-To promote good governance among member states

-To promote trade among member states

-To improve peoples standards of living

-To promote education, agriculture, health and sports.

 

Similarities among Commonwealth countries.

-They use English as official language

-They were colonized by Britain apart from Rwanda and Mozambique -They participate in Commonwealth meetings -They celebrate Commonwealth day.

-They have similar system of governance.

 

Activities that commonwealth countries participate in

-Commonwealth games

-Commonwealth meetings

-Trade

-Celebration of commonwealth day.

 

Organs of the Commonwealth

  1. Heads of state summit
  2. Commonwealth secretariat
  3. Prime ministers conference
  4. High commissioners’ conference

 

1. Heads of state summit

-It consists of the head of member states

-They meet after every two years to discuss problems affecting member states -The meeting is called CHOGM.

 

 

 

Qn.Write CHOGM in full?

Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting

 

Qn.Name the African countries that have hosted CHOGM

-Zambia -Nigeria

-Uganda – South Africa.

 

Qn.When did Uganda host CHOGM?

2007

 

Qn.who heads the Commonwealth?

-Queen of England

 

Qn. Where are the headquarters of Commonwealth?

-London.

 

  1. Commonwealth Secretariat

-It is headed by the secretary general of commonwealth

The current secretary General of commonwealth is Patricia Scotland from Dominica

 

Functions of the Commonwealth Secretariat.

-To organize commonwealth meetings

-To make agenda for the commonwealth meetings -To make a budget for the commonwealth -To run other organs of the commonwealth.

 

  1. Prime Minister’s Conference.

-It is a meeting of all prime ministers from member states

 

Duty

-To discuss matters of common interest

 

  1. High Commissioners’ Conference
    Qn.Who is a High Commissioner?

A high commissioner is a diplomat who represents a commonwealth country in another commonwealth country.

 

Qn. Who is an Ambassador?

-An ambassador is a diplomat who represents a country in a non-commonwealth country.

 

Duties of High Commissioners and Ambassadors

-To renew expired passports of their citizens in foreign countries.

-To protect the rights of their citizens in foreign countries.

-To represent the interests of their countries in foreign countries.

 

Differences between a High Commissioner and an Ambassador.

A High commissioner represents a commonwealth country in another country while an

Ambassador represents his country in a non commonwealth country.

-A high commissioner operates in a High commission while an Ambassador operates in an embassy.

 

Benefits of Commonwealth to member states
-They share ideas on political governance.

-They promote trade among themselves.

-They exchange scholarships.

-They work together in the field of military training.

-They get loans

-They get grants

 

Qn. What is a loan?

A loan is money that is borrowed and paid back with interest

 

Qn. How do Ugandan benefit from participating in Commonwealth games?

-They medals

-They make friendship with people from other commonwealth countries

-They became famous

 

 

Comparison between Commonwealth and UN
Similarities between Commonwealth and UN.

–Both aim at promoting peace among member states.

-Both aim at promoting unity among member states.

-Both promote international cooperation among member states.

-Both aim at solving conflicts peacefully

-Both aim at improving people’s standards of living -Both promote and defend human rights -Both promote trade among member states.

Differences between Commonwealth and UN

-Commonwealth unites Britain and her former colonies while UN unites countries of the world.

-Commonwealth has its headquarters in London while UN has its headquarters in

New York

-Commonwealth has a smaller membership than UN

-Commonwealth doesn’t have a peace keeping force while UN has a peace keeping force.

 

THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC)

-It is an international Humanitarian organisation

-It is the oldest organization in the world

-It was formed in 1863 by Henry Dunant from Switzerland.

-The headquarters of the Red Cross is in Geneva, Switzerland. Functions of the Red Cross

-To give first aid to war victims of natural disasters -To give relief aid to victims of war and natural disasters.

-To help to resettle refugees

-To organize blood donations -To protect volunteer people during war -To educate people on health programme.




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