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  1. African countries crossed by the prime meridian are:
    1. Ghana
    2. Burkina Faso
    3. Algeria
    4. Mali
  2. African countries crossed by each of he major latitudes of the major latitudes a.


    i. Uganda ii. Kenya iii. DRC iv. Somalia

    v. Congo Brazzaville vi. Gabon


  1. Tropic of Cancer
    1. Egypt ii. Libya iii. Niger iv. Chad

    v. Mali vi. Mauritania vii. Western Sahara


  1. Tropic of Capricorn
    1. Namibia ii. Botswana iii. Zimbabwe iv. Mozambique v. Madagascar THE 16 POINT COMPASS DIRECTION

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A continent is a large mass of land that is surrounded by water on the surface on the earth.

There are seven continents in the world namely:


  1. Asia  –  43,608,000 sq km
  2. Africa    –  30,335,000 3.  North America  –  25,349,000 4.  South America  –  17,611,000 5.  Europe    –  10,498,000
  3. Australia    –  07,682,000
  4. Antarctica    –  13,340,000


These continents are surrounded by five major oceans. They are

  1. Pacific ocean
  2. Atlantic ocean
  3. Indian ocean
  4. Arctic ocean
  5. Antarctic / Southern ocean

There are other water ways that border Africa like the Mediterranean sea, Red sea, and the Suez canal.


Position of Africa

Africa is located between longitudes 170 W 520E and latitudes 380N 350S (latitudes) Diagram:

A map of the world showing all the continents and the oceans.

Number and names of countries found in Northern Africa, Central Africa, Western Africa, Southern Africa Eastern Africa and athe Horn of AFrica.


Ways of locating places on a map

1.  Using lines of longitudes and latitudes (Grid references method)

  1. The major longitude that crosses Africa is the Greenwich Meridian (Prime Meridian) 00


  2. The major latitudes that cross Africa are basically three and they are:
    1. Tropic of Cancer (23 ½ 0N)
    2. Equator (00)
    3. Tropic of Capricorn (23 ½ 0S) Note:

Longitudes are imaginary lines drawn on a map from North to South on the surface of the earth while latitudes are imaginary lines drawn on a map from East to West on the surface of the earth.

(a) Longitude is the distance east or west of Greenwich meridian. (b) Latitude is the distance north or south of the Equator.


Importance of longitudes and latitudes i) Longitudes:

These are used to determine time e.g. the prime meridian. The International Date line determines days and dates


ii)  Latitudes

Latitudes are used to determine climate e.g. the Equator


 Both longitudes and latitudes locate places on a map.


  1. Other major latitudes outside Africa are
    1. Arcatic circle
    2. Actarctic circle
  2. Another major longitude outside Africa is the International Date Line (IDL) marked 1800 East.

Other ways of locating places on a map
1. Using Using compass direction.

Review of the neighbours of Uganda and East Africa using the compass direction.

  1. Using landmarks
  2. Using neighbours


N.B: The method of locating places using longitudes and latitudes is called the Grid Reference



A map of Africa showing the major longitudes and latitudes.


Guided Activity

  1. What is a continent?
  2. Name the countries in Africa crossed by
    1. Greenwich meridian : ___________, ________, _______, _________
    2. Equator: _______, _________, ___________, _______, ________, ______, and _____
  3. Name the major latitudes that cross Africa.
  4. Why is the Equator marked 00?
  5. Using the atlas, list all the islands and the oceans that surround Africa.
  6. Name two Island countries of Africa.







Physical features are the natural landforms on the earth’s surface. They can also be called Relief features.

Relief means the general appearance of the land.

Examples of physical features include: mountains, lakes and rivers, plain, valleys, plateau, highlands, coral reefs, lagoons, natural harbours.

Review of the examples of landforms in Uganda, East Africa and then Africa.


Physical features of Africa include:

  1. coastal plain
  2. plateaus
  3. mountain ranges or highlands
  4. rift valleys
  5. lakes and river oceans, seas (Drainage features)


Formation of physical features

Lakes: A lake is a large mass of water


Types of lakes

(a)  Depression lakes (Down warped / Basin lakes) Formation:

They were formed as a result of down warping. Examples are: Lake Victoria, L. Kyoga, lake Wamala, Lake Chad, Opeta, Bisina, Kwania, Nakuwa



  1. They are shallow
  2. They usually have fresh water (iii) They have irregular shape.


These lakes have fresh water because they have both in lets and outlets. (b) Volcanic lakes:

Volcanicity is the process by which molten rocks (magma) is exposed on the earth’s surface


These are lakes formed as a result of volcanicity. They are:

  1. Crater lakes: found dead volcanic mountain e.g L. Katwe, L. Muhavura, Ngorongoro, Nyamunuka.
  2. Lava dammed lakes: formed as a result of lava blocking the drainage system e.g L. Bunyonyi , L. Mutanda
  3. Caldera lakes – An enlarged and deepened crater lakes


Rift valley lakes:

Formed as a result of faulting.

These include L. Tanganyika, L. Malawi, Lake Turkana, L. Naivasha, L. Natron, L. Eyasi, L. Baringo, L. Bogoria, L. Edward, L. Albert, L. Nakuru, L. Magadi, L. Manyara, L. Rukwa.


Characteristics of Rift valley lakes

i.  Most of them are salty. Why? They don’t have outlets/They have salty rocks under them ii. Most of them are deep.

iii.  Most of them are long (oblong) iv. Most of them are narrow. v. They do not have outlets vi.  They have salty rocks underneath


Oxbow lakes:

Formed as a result of river meandering and deposition.

N. B: A meander is a curved bend of a river,


Diagrams to show the formation of ox-bow lakes. (Refer to sharing our World BK 7 pg 16) man-made lakes: Examples are: L. Kariba, L. Nasser, L. Volta (largest man made lake in Africa)


Rivers of Africa

Africa has many rivers but there are two major types:


  1. Perennial rivers: These flow throughout the year.
  2. Seasonal rivers: These flow during the wet season and dry up during the dry season.

Most of the rivers have their sources in highland areas because these areas receive reliable rainfall.


Stages of A river

1-  Upper course / Youthful / Torrent

  1. Middle course / mature
  2. Lower course / old / serile


  • Water falls and rapids
    • water flows very fast
    • It has a V- shaped valley – Gorge
  • U shaped valley
    • water flows gently
    • meanders start developing


  • It forms Ox-bow lakes
    • Well developed meanders –  Deltas and estuaries
    • River meandering causes flood plains due to deposition at the old stage of a river.



Importance of Upper course

  • Water falls help to generate HEP

 Waterfalls and rapids attract tourists

 Water sporting games e.g. rafting

  • Middle course
    • It is most suitable for Navigation
    • It is also used for fishing


  • Lower course
    • Agriculture due to deposited silt.


Terms associated with rivers. (Define each of these terms)

  • Estuary
  • Delta
  • River bank
  • River mouth
  • River source
  • A tributary
  • Distributary
  • Confluence
  • Meander





Main tributary (ies)


Nature of mouth



Atbara, Blue Nile, R. BahrelGhazel


Congo (Zaire)


Ubangi, Kasai, Lukaga, Lualaba

Southern rift valley and Angola plateau



4000 km


Futa Djallon



3000 km

Linyonti, R. Kafue

Angola plateau



1700 km

Korocodile, Enruvuhu,

Magalawena, Suna, Singuendeze

High veld



1700 km

Fouta Djallon



1100 km

White, black Volta, Oti

Burkina Faso



2100 km

Vaal, Modder, Caledon

Drakensberg Mts.



Importance of lakes and rivers Rivers:

  • Some rivers help in the generation of hydro-electricity.
  • They are used for water transport.
  • They are fishing grounds.
  • They provide water for domestic and industrial use. –  They attract tourists who bring foreign exchange –  They help in the formation of rainfall.
  • They are used for recreation.
  • Employment


Guiding Activity

  1. Suggest any four values of lakes
  2. What are perennial rivers?
  3. Mention any two rivers which end in Estuary.
  4. Give a reason why most rivers in Africa originate from Highland areas.


Problems caused by rivers

  1. soil erosion
  2. Floods
  3. water borne diseases and vectors
  4. They keep dangerous water animals.
  5. They hinder road and railway construction.

Problems facing rivers

  1. Dumping of wastes
  2. silting
  3. prolonged drought
  4. bad fishing methods

Multi Purpose River projects in Africa.

These are projects set on rivers to serve many purposes.


Examples of multi purpose river projects in Africa.







  • Nalubaale Dam
  • Kiira dam
  • Aswan High dam
  • El Rossiers
  • Sennar dam
  • Gezira Irrigation Scheme







Generation of HEP





HEP & Irrigation


  • Nziro dam
  • Inga dam






 – Kainji dam




  • Kariba dam
  • Kafue dam
  • Cabora Bossa






HEP & Irrigation


  • The Volta Scheme
  • Akasombo dam
  • Kpong dam




HEP & fishing / irrigation & transport




 – seven folks scheme



Grand falls dam

Kamburu dam Mutonga dam masinga dam

Gitaru dam

Kindaruma dam

Kiambere dam








Irrigation & HEP

Irrigation & HEP

Irrigation & HEP

Irrigation & HEP

Irrigation & HEP





Vaal dam

Verwoed dam

S. Africa

S. Africa




Pangani dam




Mtera dam

Kilombero valley






Other values of multi purpose River projects

  • Multi purpose projects help to control floods.
  • Some are sources of water transport e.g. River Volta in Ghana.
  • They are a source of employment.
  • Some multi purpose projects are fishing grounds.
  • They promote industrial growth.


Factors considered when setting up multi purpose river projects – Constant flow of water.

  • Presence of strong rocks
  • Presence of reliable market
  • Presence of narrow steep sided gorge (deep valley)




Disadvantages of multi purpose river projects

  • They may cause people to be displaced and resettled else where. – A lot of money is spent on constructing the dam and resettling people – Some lines of communication are blocked when building the dam.
  • They occupy big areas which would have been used for other purposes.





There are three main types of mountains namely:

  • Volcanic mountains
  • Block mountains
  • Fold mountains


Formation of mountains

Volcanic Mountains

  • These are formed as a result of volcanic eruption.
  • A volcano is a feature through which hot liquid rock, water, steam or ash pass from the inside of earth to the earth’s surface.

    Volcanic mountains are formed when molten rock known as magma forces its way to the surface of the earth.


A diagram / formation of a volcano


Types of volcanic mountains

There are three types of volcanic mountains namely:

Active volcanoes

Dormant volcanoes (sleeping)

Extinct volcanoes dead


Active volcano is the one which can erupt anytime.

Dormant volcano is the one that has taken long without erupting but has signs of erupting again. Extinct volcano is the one which will never erupt at all.


A table showing volcanic mountains



Active volcanoes

  • Mt Nyiragongo
  • Mt Nyamulangira
  • Mt Oldonyo Lengai
  • Mt Cameroon
  • Mt Mufumbiro







Dormant Volcanoes

  • Mt Longonot
  • Mt Muhavura
  • Mt Moroto





Extinct Volcanoes

  • Mt Elgon
  • Mt Kenya
  • Mt Kilimanjaro







Economic activities carried out around volcanic mountains

  • Crop farming  –  Lumbering
  • Tourism    –  Animal rearing
  • Mining

Block Mountains / HORST

  • These are formed as a result of faulting
  • Block Mountains can also be called Horst Mountains.


Examples of Block Mountains

  • Mt Rwenzori in Uganda and DRC
  • Mt Uluguru in TZ
  • Mt Usambara in TZ
  • Mt Umatengo in TZ
  • Mt Ufipa in TZ


Mt Danakil in Ethiopia

  • Mt Pare in TZ
  • Mt Great Karas in Namibia


Formation of Block Mountains (Diagrammatic Illustration)


Fold Mountains

  • These are formed as a result of earth’s rifting / folding


Diagram showing formation of fold Mountains (Comprehensive BK 7 pg 7)


  • Cape ranges
  • Atlas mountains in Morocco


Importance of mountains and highlands They

help in the formation of rainfall

They act as natural boundaries between countries

They attract tourists who bring foreign exchange  They are sources of mineral deposits.

  • They have fertile soils for farming.
  • Some mountains are sources of rivers.
  • They are natural habitats for wild animals.


Disadvantages of mountains

  • Mountains make construction of roads and railways difficult.
  • When some volcanic mountains erupt, they kill people and destroy crops.
  • They harbour dangerous animals.
  • They are barriers to rain bearing winds.
  • They promote severe soil erosion


Problems facing people who live in mountainous areas

  • cold nights
  • poor transport and communication
  • land slides
  • soil erosion







A rift valley is a long depression on the earth’s surface with steep sides called escarpments –  It was formed as a result of faulting How does faulting occur?

Two theories were put forward to explain how the rift valley was formed.

  1. Tensional force
  2. Compressional force theory (Diagrams)
  • Faulting occurred due to tension, two blocks of land pulled away from each other.
  • Parallel faults formed and the land at the centre sank.

    The Great Rift Valley starts from Jordan in the Middle East through the Red sea i.e. Ethiopian Highlands.

    In East Africa it divides to form two branches

  • There are two major arms of the Great Rift Valley namely: o Eastern Rift Valley and o Western Rift Valley

    In Southern Africa, the rift valley ends in Mozambique near Port Beira.


Examples of lakes found in Eastern Rift Valley

L. Turkana

L. Naivasha

L. Natron

L. Baringo

L. Manyara

L. Eyasi

L. Magadi

L. Nakuru


Lakes in Western Rift Valley

  • L. Albert
  • L. Edward
  • L. Kivu
  • L. Tanganyika
  • L. Rukwa


Activities done in the Rift Valley

Mining farming Tourism


  • Cattle keeping


Disadvantages / problems experienced in Rift Valley: –  High temperatures due to low altitude –  They hinder road and railway construction.

  • soil erosion
  • Land slides



  • A plateau is a raised flat topped piece of land


Examples of plateaus in Africa;

  • Jos plateau in Nigeria
  • Ahagar plateau in Algeria
  • Yatta and Nyika Plateau in Kenya
  • Tibest plateau in Chad
  • Bie plateau in Angola

Activities done on plateaus;

  • Lumbering
  • Farming
  • Mining
  • Tourism
  • Fishing
  • Building / Construction
  • Industrialization




These include the following

  • Lagoon lakes
  • coastal plain
  • Coral reefs
  • Harbours
  • River deltas and Estuaries

Other features include;

  • Gulfs
  • Straits

Examples of Gulfs;

  • Gulf of Eden
  • Gulf of Eden
  • Gulf of Guinea
  • Gulf of Sirte
  • Gulf of Gabes


Define the terms


  • Coral reefs
  • Gulf
  • strait


Examples of Straits

  • Strait of Gibraltar
  • Strait of Babel Mandeb


Gulf is a large area of sea that is partly surrounded by land Strait is a stream of water separating two big land masses.

Peninsula – Narrow stretch of land penetrating into a water body.


Guided Activity

  1. Why are some Rift Valley lakes salty?
  2. What is another name for Block Mountain?
  3. Give any two lakes which are found in the Eastern Rift Valley.
  4. What are Coral reefs?
  5. Suggest any two economic activities carried out on a plateau.
  6. Explain the following terms; (a)  Active volcanoes
    1. Dormant volcanoes
    2. Extinct volcanoes
  7. Name the only block mountain in Uganda.
  8. Of what importance are mountains and highlands to man?
  9. Name the longest arm of the Rift Valley.
  10. State how mountains influence human activities in an area.






  • Climate is the average weather condition of a place recorded for a long period of time.


  • Weather is the condition of atmosphere at a given time.


Elements of weather

  • Rainfall, Humidity, Temperature, sunshine, wind, Air pressure , cloud cover, fog, mist


Weather instruments and their functions


Conditions of weather

  • Rainy    –   Humid
  • Sunny      –  Foggy
  • Cloudy      –  Windy
  • Misty

Terms associated with weather

–  Isotherms

–  Temperature

–  Isohytes

–  Rainfall

–  Isonephs

–  Cloud cover    

–  Isohels

–  Sunshine

–  Isobars

–  Atmospheric pressure


N.B  Contours are lines drawn on a map joining places with the same altitude.

How is weather forecasting important to:- (a)  Farmers

  1. Sailors
  2. Pilots
  3. Trader
  4. School children


How does weather influence:

  1. People’s ways of dressing
  2. Economic activities


How does climate affect (a)

People’s dressing

(b)  Economic activities


Climatic regions of Africa

  • Equatorial climatic region
  • Tropical climatic region
  • Temperate Climate
  • Montane Climate
  • Mediterranean
  • Semi desert Climate
  • Desert Climate

To draw the climatic regions of Africa


Equatorial climatic region 00 to 5

  • This region lies within North and South of Equator
  • In this region, the sun is always over head as a result the temperatures are usually high.
  • Equatorial climate described as hot and wet through out the year. – The temperatures are usually about 270C.
  • This region receives heavy rainfall; which is mainly convectional.
  • It usually occurs in the afternoons and
  • It is usually accompanied by lightning and thunderstorms.
  • Rainfall got is over 1500mm annually.


Countries which experience Equatorial climate

  • DRC
  • Congo – (Brazzaville)
  • Gabon
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Sierra Leone
  • Central African Republic
  • Areas around L. Victoria basin of E. Africa


Economic activities in the Equatorial regions

  • Crop farming
  • fishing
  • tourism
  • mining
  • hunting
  • lumbering

Teachers to draw a graph and table of Equatorial climate

Tropical climate region

Tropical climate is described as hot and wet.

  • This region lies in areas between 50 – 150N and 50 – 150 South of the Equator
  • It mainly receives convectional rainfall but some mountainous areas receive relief rainfall – The region has two dry and two wet seasons.
  • The amount rainfall decreases with the distance from the Equator.
  • Heavy rain is received when the sun passes overhead the Equator.
  • The period of the year when the sun overhead the Equator is called Equinox


  • Around 21st March and 23rd September


Countries which experience tropical climate


 –   Uganda    –  Zimbabwe

Southern Nigeria

 –  Kenya    –  Ghana

South Mali

 –  Tanzania    –  Gambia


 –  Malawi    –  Sudan


Economic activities carried out in Tropical region crop farming


  • Lumbering
  • fishing
  • mining
  • hunting
  • trade
  • industrialization


Table and graph to show tropical climate


Semi Desert

  • It has high temperatures 200C – 320C – The dry season is longer than 4 months.
  • The average annual rainfall is lower between 375 – 620mm


Areas which experience Semi climate  


  • N.E  Uganda    –  Central Tanzania
  • N.W Kenya    –  Northern Nigeria
  • Mali      –  Botswana
  • Niger


Economic activities in Semi desert areas

  • Animals rearing
  • Tourism
  • mining
  • Trade


Teacher to draw the graph showing the climate of semi desert (Kano)


The Desert climatic zone

Desert climate is described as hot and dry throughout the year.

  • Climate in this zone is very hot and dry.
  • The summers have very hot temperatures and they are dry.
  • Deserts lack rainfall because winds which blow from the dry land cannot pick up moisture.
  • The cool winds which blow from the sea cannot also pick up moisture.
  • It is very hot during the day and very cold at night. NB: Days are very hot due to absence of cloud cover.


Hot Desert in Africa
o  Sahara Desert o  Kalahari desert o  Namibia desert


  • The people who live in hot desert wear light and white clothes; in order to reflect heat.
  • They build flat topped houses.
  • They wear turbans to prevent heat from the sun. –  They get water from oases.

N.B  Agriculture is very difficult, in this climatic region except by irrigation.


Economic activities in desert areas

  • Tourism
  • Mining
  • Industrialization
  • Farming

 By irrigation e.g. Egypt along R. Nile.


farming around oases

  • trade


Countries which experience desert climate

  • Namibia      Chad    Egypt
  • Algeria      Southern Tunisia    Libya  Morocco





This region has four seasons; spring, summer, autumn and winter – The summers are hot and dry.

  • The winters are warm and wet
  • This region is found along the North western side of the continent. –  It also covers the South Western Coast (tip) of the coast


N.B: Mediterranean climate is also called warm temperate western margin.


Countries covered by this climate

  • Northern Morocco
  • Algeria
  • Tunisia
  • Libya
  • South Africa (Cape province)


Main economic activities carried out;

  • Agriculture – growing of citrus fruits
  • Tourism
  • Mining
  • Trade and Industry Examples of citrus fruits
  • Grapes
  • Dates
  • Oranges
  • Lemons
  • Tangerines


Characteristics of Mediterranean climate

  • hot and dry summers
  • warm and wet winters
  • There is moderate rainfall, mainly in winter season. – This rainfall is brought by the westerly winds.




  • The climate in this zone is experienced in areas of high altitude, between latitudes 200 and 300 north and south of the Equator.
  • This region covers the Eastern part of South Africa to the East of the Drakensberg ranges. These parts are referred to as the velds. They include:
  • Transvaal

  • Image From EcoleBooks.comNatal and   provinces
  • Orange Free State




Temperate climatic region has warm – wet summers and cool dry winters.

This climatic region receives moderate rainfall. The temperatures decrease with altitude.

Economic activities carried out in temperate zone

  • Farming (crop farming and animal rearing)
  • Mining
  • Tourism
  • Lumbering




  • This climatic zone is experienced in high altitude areas. The temperature here reduces with altitudinal increase making the higher slopes experience cool temperature throughout the year.


Factors affecting African climate

  • Altitude
  • latitude
  • drainage (Distance from water bodies)
  • Ocean currents
  • Human activities
  • relief
  • prevailing winds
  • vegetation


Influence of climate on Human activities

  • In areas with plenty of rainfall, crops are grown and in those with little rainfall, pastoralism is practiced.
  • Different crops do well in different climatic zones.
  • Climate determines the way of dressing of people.
  • Climate determines the types of houses built in different areas. – It also determines the settlement patterns in different areas.


Influence of Human Activities on Climate

  • Deforestation:  It leads to drought
  • Afforestation: Leads to increased rainfall received
  • Industrialization:  This leads to the destruction of the ozone layer hence global warming.
  • Swamp drainage:  It leads to scarcity of rainfall (drought)


Topical questions

  1. How does climate influence people’s ways of dressing?
  2. How does altitude influence climate?




  1. Mention any two activities carried out in the temperate climate.
  2. Why are desert areas hot during day and very cold during night?
  3. When does the sun overhead the tropic of Capricorn?








  • Vegetation is the plant cover of an area.
  • There are mainly two types of vegetation namely;
    • Natural and
    • Planted vegetation


Differences between Natural and Planted vegetation.

Natural vegetation

  • Trees have hard wood
  • They have broad leaves and mixed up.
  • They take long to (trees) mature
  • The forests are thick
  • They grow tall with large trunks of trees.

Planted vegetation

  • The trees have soft wood
  • They are planted in rows
  • They have one tree specie
  • They take relatively short time to mature


Examples of tree species

  • Eucalyptus, pine /cypress
  • Cedar – conifers
  • Fir
  • Musizi


  • Natural vegetation is the plant cover of an area that grows on its own – Planted vegetation is the plant cover of an area planted by man.




  • Equatorial / Tropical rain forests vegetation
  • Savanna vegetation
  • Mediterranean vegetation
  • Semi desert vegetation
  • Montane vegetation
  • Desert vegetation
  • Mangrove vegetation
  • Temperate vegetation


A map showing the vegetation zones of Africa.





  • This type of vegetation grows in areas that experience high rainfall through out the year.
  • Equatorial rainforests are found along the coast of West Africa in Nigeria, Gabon, Ghana, Democratic Republic of Congo and around the shores of L. Victoria in Uganda.


Examples of trees in Equatorial rain forests

  • Mahogany
  • Ebony
  • Mvule
  • Green Heart
  • Rose wood
  • Sepele


Characteristics of Equatorial rain forests

  • The trees have hard wood
  • The trees have broad leaves
  • The trees have buttress roots, standing above the ground. –  The trees are very tall –  The forests form a canopy.






  • Savanna covers the largest part of Africa
  • There are two types of savanna namely; o Savanna grassland and o  Savanna woodland
  • Savanna grasslands are located in tropical regions.
  • The savanna grasslands have plenty of grass. This explains why most game parks are located there.
  • The savanna woodlands are the Miombo woodlands in Tanzania.
  • The Miombo woods are sparsely populated due to the presence of tsetse flies.
  • Most trees in the savanna grasslands are deciduous i.e. they shed off their leaves during dry season to reduce the rate of transpiration.
  • Savanna woodlands are also found in Angola, Malawi and Zambia.



Characteristics of savanna vegetation –  It has tall grass and scattered trees.

  • The grass is short in areas that receive little rainfall and tall grass in areas that receive a lot of rainfall.
  • The trees shed off their leaves during dry season.
  • The trees have long roots which they use to tap under ground water.


Trees found in savanna vegetation:-

  • Acacia o


  • Euphobia




  • The Mediterranean vegetation is found in North West and South West of Africa.
  • It consists of woodland and scrub
  • Forests in woodland provide soft wood
  • Examples of trees found in the Mediterranean vegetation.
    • conifers – rose wood/ cedar o pine – cypress
  • The trees also develop thick bark and long roots to protect them from heat and transpiration. – The leaves are wax covered to reduce the loss of water.


Characteristics of Mediterranean vegetation

  • The roots are widely spread
  • The stems are thick to store water
  • Leaves are covered by wax and hairy





  • Semi desert vegetation consists of scrub, thorny trees, bushes and rough scattered grass. –  This vegetation has few trees because of little rainfall received – Tress are especially found along the rivers.
  • They are found close the deserts (Sahara in the North and Kalahari and Namibian deserts in Southern Africa.)




  • The ground has bare rock and sand heaps (sand dunes)
  • water is found in the Oases
  • Few trees grow close the Oases
  • Trees which grow in desert regions have thick bark and thin leaves to help them reduce loss of water through transpiration

Examples of trees in desert regions

  • Cacti
  • Thorny bushes o  Baobab
  • Poppies




  • Mountain vegetation is also called Montane vegetation
  • It changes with the difference in altitude
  • At the foot of the mountain, there is tropical grassland.
  • A cross section of montane vegetation on page 30 MK Old Edition –  From 1500 m to about 3000 m there are forests.
  • Above 3000 – 3500m there are the Bamboo forests.
  • From 3500 – 4000m there is heath and moorland.
  • From 4000 – 4500m there are bare rocks.
  • Above 4500m there is a snow line.




  • The temperate grasslands are found in the temperate regions.
  • They are located in Southern Africa.
  • The temperate grasslands of South Africa are called the velds.


They are called the High veld because they are found in high plateau.


Characteristics of temperate grasslands

  • The grass has short roots
  • They have long and narrow leaves
  • The leaves have hairy coverage
  • These conditions help them to survive in the dry seasons (reduce the rate of transpiration)



  • Mangrove forests grow in coastal salty waters.
  • They are found along the East coast of Africa, the western part of Madagascar and western Coast of Africa.
  • The forests have hard wood that is water proof.
  • This wood is used in boat building


Factors that influence vegetation distribution o There are a number of factors namely:

  • Climate (rainfall and temperature) o  land drainage o  soils o  Altitude
  • Human activities / people
  • Relief o  Government policies o  Latitude


Importance of vegetation to people and animals

It helps in the formation of rainfall.

  • It is a habitat for wild animals.
  • It is a source of pasture for animals. It is a source of building materials
  • It is a source of wood fuel
  • It is a source of herbal medicine.
  • It acts as a wind break
  • Vegetation controls soil erosion
  • It provides raw materials for pulp and paper industries. – It is a source of food / fruits for people. –  Vegetation helps in soil conservation


Effect of human activities on vegetation

  • Deforestation
  • Swamp drainage
  • Soil Erosion
  • Extinction of plant species

NB: Some human activities affect vegetation positively while others negatively


Influence of vegetation on Man

  • In areas with forests, people carryout lumbering.
  • Areas with grasslands support cattle rearing.
  • Thick forests discourage human settlement due to vectors, animals and government policy. –  Thick forests make road construction difficult.


Man’s activities that destroy vegetation

  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • crop farming
  • recreation
  • lumbering
  • settlement
  • road construction
  • charcoal burning
  • mining
  • grazing
  • bush burning


Dangers of large scale use of vegetation to environment

  • Reduction in rainfall / drought
  • soil exhaustion
  • global warming



  • destruction of water catchment areas
  • destruction of animal habitant





  • Tourism is a business of providing services like accommodation, transport, entertainment to people who visit the places of interest, pleasure and study purposes.


Tourist:  He/She is a person who visits a place of interest for pleasure and study purposes


N.B: There are two types of tourism: These are Domestic and International Tourism.


Tourism as an industry

  • Tourism is regarded as an industry because it earns income to the government
  • It is also regarded as an invisible trade because it does not involve physical exchange of goods but income is earned.

Why is tourism called an invisible exports Tourism is a source of foreign exchange.

Examples of invisible exports

  • Hydro Electricity
  • Tourism
  • skilled labour


Factors which promote Tourism in Africa

  • Political stability
  • Good Transport
  • Good accommodation facilities
  • Availability of Tourist attraction
  • Good publicity
  • Good government policies on Tourism.


Factors that hinder the development of tourism industry in Africa

  • Political instability
  • Lack of publicity
  • Poor Transport
  • Poor government policies on tourism e.g degazzeting of Game Reserves
  • Lack of Tourist attractions
  • Shortage of funds
  • Poor management of tourism sites
  • Poaching
  • Encroachment of game parks


Game parks and reserves in Africa

  • Game Park: It is a large area of land gazzeted by government to preserve wildlife for public and future generations to see and admire.


  • Game Reserves are areas of land gazzeted by government or put aside by government for future development e.g. Expansion of a National Park or a human settlement scheme.


Importance of Game Parks in Africa

  • They preserve wild life for future generation.
  • They attract tourists who pay foreign exchange to the country. – They are sources of Educational information. (Study purposes) – They provide employment to people. – It facilities the development of transport system. e.g. Air Transport.


Problems facing Game Parks in Africa

  • poaching
  • encroachment
  • insecurity
  • Wild bush fires
  • Animal diseases vectors / diseases
  • poor government policies
  • drought
  • deforestation – (land encroachment)
  • Poor management

Solutions to the above problems

  • Enforce laws against poaching
  • Ensuring total security in the African countries
  • There should be fire fighting equipments – Employing more veterinary personnel Ensuring good government policies
  • Discourage deforestation and encourage Afforestation
  • Resettling people far away from game parks to avoid encroachment
  • Improving on management of tourism sites




Problems faced by people who live near Game Parks

  • Destruction of peoples crop by animals from Game Parks –  Loss of people’s lives – They may be killed by wild animals.
  • Easy spread of animals diseases.
  • Animals make a lot of noise for people


Importance of Tourism

  • It earns foreign exchange
  • It conserves wild life
  • It provided employment to the people.
  • It leads to development of transport systems, hotels, health services, recreational grounds.
  • It leads to preservation of culture e.g. various historical objects, e.g. viewed in museums – It leads to development of local industries (craft industry) – It creates Natural beauty – It is used to diversity the economy.
  • It promotes international friendship.




Problems created by tourist industry

  • Easy spread of diseases
  • Tourism promotes immorality
  • Some tourists come as spies


Topical questions

  1. How is rural electrification important in environmental conservation?
  2. How are planted forests different from Natural forests 3. Why does vegetation of Africa vary from one area to another?
  3. How does vegetation affect human settlement?
  4. Why is poaching discouraged in game parks?






  • The people Africa are grouped under ethnic groups. These include the following o Bantu o  Semites (Arabs)
    • Berbers
    • Nilotes e.g River –Lake Nilotes, Highland

      Nilotes and Plain Nilotes

    • Hamites / Cushites


Original inhabitants of

  • North Africa –  Berbers
  • Central Africa –  pygmies
  • East Africa  –  Bushman
  • South Africa –  Khoisans

A map of Africa showing ethnic settlement


The Bantu

Bantu is the largest ethnic group in Africa.

The Bantu are believed to have migrated from the Cameroon Highlands or beyond Niger – Benue areas

  • Examples of Bantu people in Africa area the Baganda, Kikuyu, Nyamwezi, Chagga and Ngoni of East Africa the Ndebele, Luba, Congo Bemba and Shona of Central Africa and the Zulu, Tswana, Herero, Xhosa, Sotho and Venda of Southern Africa.
  • The main occupation of the Bantu is crop growing (Cultivation)


Reasons for Bantu migration

  • Population increase in Cameroon highlands
  • Internal and external conflicts. (wars)
  • To look for fertile farm land
  • They were looking for areas with reliable rainfall – Out break of diseases in Cameroon highlands.
  • Desire for adventure.


Effects of Bantu migration

  • Population increase in areas of settlement. –  Introduction of new cultures –  Introduction of new crops.
  • Introduction of new skills
  • Intermarriages leading to new cultures.



  • The Nilotics are believed to have migrated from Bahrl-el-Ghazel in Southern Sudan.
  • The Nilotics are sub divided into three groups namely:
    • River – lake Nilotics
    • Plain Nilotics o Highland Nilotics
  • The main occupation of the Nilotics was pastoralism (cattle keeping) –  The Nilotics first settled at Pubungu when they came to Uganda.



Examples of Nilotes


River – Lake Nilotes

Plain Nilotes

High land Nilotes

  • Acholi of Uganda
  • Alur of Uganda
  • Langi of Uganda
  • Jop Adhola of Uganda
  • Jaluo of Kenya

Karimojong of Uganda

Iteso of Uganda

Kumam of Uganda

Turkana of Kenya

Masai of Kenya and





Sabiny of Uganda

Kalengini groups of

Kenya e.g KipsigS,




Causes of Migration of the Nilotes

  • Out break of diseases
  • Prolonged drought in Bahr – el – Ghazel
  • Internal conflicts
  • Floods
  • Over population in their cradle land
  • Love for adventure



The Cushitic language groups are believed to have moved into Eastern Africa from Arabia and settled in the Horn of Africa is Ethiopia Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti. –  The Cushites moved Southwards into East Africa –  Their main occupation is pastoralism.



Examples of Cushitic groups

  • The Oromo, Ogaden and the Afar from Ethiopia.
  • The Somali, Danakil, Orgaden and Hawiyah of Somalia
  • The Dahalo, Somali, Boran, Oromo, Orma and Rendille of Kenya.
  • The Iraqw, Sandawe and Bunguni of Tanzania
  • The Bahima of Uganda and
  • Tutsi of Rwanda



  • The Semitic language speakers have a mixture of Africa, Arabic and Jewish blood
  • It is believed that that as the Arabs moved into North Africa from Arabia and the Jews moved from the Middle East to the Horn of Africa, these communities intermarried with Africa communities to form new language groups.


The Semites include

  • The Amhara, Bagara and Tigreans of Ethiopia.
  • The Eritrea of Eritrea
  • The Nubians of Sudan, Uganda and Kenya
  • The Arabs of Sudan
  • The Semites were basically pastoralists



  • The Khoikoi and the san were the earliest inhabitants of Southern Africa.
  • They comprise of the Khoi Khoi, were called the Hottentots by the European settlers and the san who were formerly called the Bushmen.
  • The Khoisan speak a language with click sound.
  • The Khoisan were basically pastoralists and hunters.
  • The Bantu and Europeans drove them away from the fertile areas which they occupied to Kalahari desert where they live today and also Namibia and Botswana.

Problems faced by early migrants

  • Shortage of food and water
  • Attacks from wild animals
  • Attacks from hostile tribes
  • Out break of epidemics
  • Moving long distances

Note: Put notes about the cereal Trek after results of the Trans Saharan Traders



  • These included Indians, Malaysians and Chinese.
  • They were normally Europeans’ workers or traders.
  • By 19th Century many of these Asians got intermarried with Africans leading to a group of people called the coloureds.


Arabs: (The people of North Africa)

  • Most of the people in North Africa are Arabs. They came from Saudi Arabia after the spread of Islam.
  • They invaded the Maghred and defeated the Berbers.
  • The first group of people to live in North Africa was the Berbers.
  • They mainly practiced hunting, nomadic pastoralism and cultivation.

Due to intermarriages between the Berbers and Arabs, most of the Berbers become Muslims. Most of the Northern African people have Semitic characteristics and speak one of the many Arabic languages.

Reasons for the migration of Arabs

  • They were trying to spread Islam in new lands.
  • Due to some domestic conflicts, they were looking for land to settle.
  • They wanted to trade.
  • Islamic wars (religious conflicts) in Saudi Arabia.

Social organization

  • Kingdoms have special burial places for kings and other members in the royal family
  • Kingdoms have classes among their people i.e. royal and commoners
  • Kingdoms have social activities that bring people together i.e. Twin initiation, circumcision, introduction, economic etc.




Political organizations:

Africans were organized under (a) kingdoms

  1. chiefdoms
  2. clan systems
  3. empires


Kingdoms in Africa






  1. Buganda
  2. Bunyoro
  3. Toro
  4. Ankole
  5. Wanga
  6. Karagwe
  1. Ghana
  2. Songhai
  3. Benin
  4. Kanem Bonu
  5. Mali
  6. Asante

1. Zulu kon

  1. Great Zimbabwe
  2. Luba- Lunda
  3. Rwanda
  4. Urundi


N.B Teacher should write short notes about West African Kingdoms. A map of Africa showing the kingdoms.


Economic Organization

  • Africans were engaged in many traditional activities such as trade, hunting, farming, gathering, animal keeping, iron working and painting.
  • Trading activities helped them to improve on their well being.
  • They traded with their neighbours or sometimes with people from distant places.


  • Kingdoms have special burial places for kings and other members in the royal family
  • Kingdoms have classes among their people i.e. royal and commoners
  • Kingdoms have social activities that bring people together i.e. twin initiations, circumcision, introduction ceremonies etc.




This was the trade which was carried out between West Africa and North Africa across the Sahara desert.


Trade routes: – The trade routes ran across the Sahara desert to areas of West Africa and Central Sudan.

The traders built camps or rested at Oases in order to get water in order to get water


Reason why traders moved in caravans or convoys:

  • To avoid being attacked by the bandits or hostile people (for safety)


The Arabs bought the following goods

(i)  salt      (ii)

gold    (iii)  ivory


(iv)  slaves    (v)

skins    (iv)  hides

In return the Arabs brought


(i)  weapons    (ii)

copper ware  (iii)  beads

(v)  cloth    (vi)

swords    (vii)  glasses

(viii)  camels    

(xi)  other house hold items



Conditions that make the camel able to resist desert conditions.

  • It has hard eyelids which protect its eyes from sand
  • It has huge hump which stores water
  • It has large flat padded hooves that protect the camel from sinking in the desert sand.


A map of Africa showing trade routes.


Results of the Trans-Saharan trade

  • This trade brought North and West Africa together.
  • It improved people’s wealth.
  • Kings and Chiefs became richer and very powerful.
  • Ancient kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, Songhai and Kanen- Bornu grew. –  This trade led to development of towns and cities. e.g Timbukutu – Many people were attracted to towns.
  • Many people in North and West Africa became Moslems. –  New items of trade were introduced.





  • The great trek was a massive movement made by Boers from Cape colony to North Eastern part of South Africa.


Reasons for Great Trek (causes of the Great Trek)

  • The British forced the Boers to stop mistreating Africans as slaves.
  • The Dutch did not want to be ruled by the British.
  • Introduction of English as the official language.
  • High taxation by the British over the Boers.


Results of the great trek


  • New states were formed in South Africa i.e. Orange Free State and Transraal.
  • It led to unexpected discovery of Gold and diamond.
  • Many Africans lost their lives in battles and those who survived were enslaved.
  • There were intermarriages between Africans and the Dutch.
  • Much land belonging to Africans was taken by the Boers. –  It led to many wars between Africans and Boers.


Problems faced by the trekkers during the journey

  • They suffered from fatigue since they moved long distances.

    Many died on the way others lost their property.

They were attacked by many diseases. (out break of diseases) – Attacked by some wild animals.

  • Attacks from the native tribes where they passed. They were also resisted. –  Poor transport (road net work) and communication.


There were a number of foreigners who came to Africa.

  • Foreign influence: refers to changes that were brought to Africa by its visitors / people from beyond.
  • For many years, Africa was referred to as a dark continent by Europeans because they did not have information about its interior.


Reasons why Africa took long to be known to the outside world (i) Africa had hot deserts.

  1. Africa had thick impenetrable forests.
  2. Africa had hostile tribes
  3. Africa had huge mountains
  4. Africa harboured dangerous wild animals.


Groups of foreigners who came to Africa

They were grouped as Arabs and Europeans

The following were some of the foreigners under Europeans

  1. Explorers
  2. Missionaries
  3. Traders
  4. Colonialists / Administrators
  5. Settlers


N.B: The Arab traders were the first foreigners to come to Africa


Reasons why foreigners came to Africa

  1. They came to trade
  2. They came to spread religion
  3. They came to get raw materials for their industries.
  4. They wanted to get market for their finished goods.
  5. They wanted to invest their surplus capital.
  6. They wanted to find new lands for new economic activities.
  7. They wanted to stop slave trade.
  8. Too settle excess population


The coming of the Arabs: (to the African continent)


  • Arabs came from Saudi Arabia and some from Persia.
  • They came by means of special boats called dhows which were blown by the monsoon
  • They came mainly to trade.
  • They also wanted to spread Islam.
  • They were running away from religious conflicts.


Effects of the coming of the Arabs 1.

They introduced the Islamic faith.

  1. They promoted trade
  2. They introduced the new idea of architecture. (New styles of building houses) 4. They introduced some crops e.g. cloves, rice, dates
  3. They introduced Zebu cows.
  4. They introduced new styles of dressing.
  5. Their coming led to growth and development of coastal towns of Africa.
  6. Many people were converted to Islam
  7. There was an increase of population
  1. Slave trade was introduced in Africa.



What was slave trade?

The buying and selling of human beings.


What was slavery?

This was the possession of a person by another person illegally.


How were slaves obtained?

  1. Through raids / by raiding villages
  2. Through barter trade
  3. Fueling wars between chiefdoms and kingdoms / by supporting inter-tribal wars


Why were slaves needed?

  1. The Arabs wanted slaves as domestic workers.
  2. The French wanted slaves to work in their sugar cane plantations in the Indian Ocean.
  3. The other Europeans wanted slaves to work for them in mines and sugar cane plantations in America. (iv)  The African leaders needed them for battering


People who took part (participated) in slave trade

  1. The Arab traders
  2. The African chiefs and kings.
  3. The Khartoumers.
  4. The Europeans (the Dutch, the French, the British, Spaniards, Portuguese)


Slave trade markets in East Africa

  • Zanzibar was the largest slave trade market in the world.
  • Tabora (Kaze) was the largest slave trade market in the Interior.






Positive effects

  • Kings and chiefs gained a lot of wealth.
  • It led to the growth of some kingdoms and societies. –  It led to the growth of towns
  • Africa’s interior was known to the outside world.


Negative effects

  • Loss of lives
  • Human suffering
  • loss of culture
  • Famine
  • Depopulation
  • Tribal conflicts emerged


Reasons why slave trade was difficult to stop

  • It was profitable to the traders and to the African chiefs
  • Britain thought stopping slave trade would weaken their naval power.
  • Many Europeans wanted to continue so that they could get cheap labour.




People who participated in the abolition of slave trade

  • William Wilberforce
  • Granville Sharp
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Adam Smiths
  • Clarkson Thomas
  • Henry Thornton
  • Sir Samuel Baker


Abolition of slave trade

  • Signing treaties
  • Putting British navy in the Indian ocean
  • Constructing roads and railway lines


Examples of treaties signed to stop slave trade

i) Moresby treaty ii) Frère treaty  iii)  Hammerton





  • Explorers
  • Missionaries
  • Traders
  • Colonialists (Administrators)
  • Settlers



  • Dr David L:ivingstone  –  Central Africa
  • Mungo Park    –  West Africa
  • Landers / John / Richard  –  west Africa – Mary Hanrieta
  • Dunham; Clapeton  –  L. Chad – North Africa
  • James Bruce    –  Horn of Africa


N.B: State the contributions of each


Problems experienced by explorers

  • Poor transport facilities
  • Attacks from dangerous animals
  • Tropical diseases – e.g. malaria
  • Language barrier
  • Hostile tribes
  • Tribal wars
  • Shortage of supplies (medical/ food)


Missionaries –  A person who leaves his home land for another to spread the word of God



Reasons for the coming of missionaries – To stop slave trade

  • To spread God’s word (Christianity)
  • To civilize Africans
  • To suppress Islam
  • To fight diseases
  • To promote formal education / to teach people how to read and write.

Examples of missionaries (Groups)

  1. CMS –  Church Missionary Society
  2. London  –  Missionary Society (London Missionary Society)
  3. White fathers
  4. Holy Ghost fathers
  5. Mill Hill fathers
  6. German Lutheran Missionary Society
  7. Universities mission of Central Africa – UMCAT
  8. Jesuits Missionaries
  9. Church of Scotland Mission
  10. Verona Fathers etc


Some missionaries who came to Africa

  • Dr David Livingstone
  • Ludwig Krapf
  • Johann Rebman
  • Jacob Erhardt
  • Alexander Mackay
  • Brother Ammans Delmas
  • Father Simon Lourdel
  • Kenneth Borup


Problems missionaries faced

  • Shortage of food and medical supplies
  • Hostile tribes
  • Language barrier
  • Hostile/harsh climate
  • Poor transport and communication


Effect of missionary work

  • They spread Christianity
  • They introduced formal education (Reading and writing in schools)
  • They built hospitals
  • They helped to stop slave trade.
  • They introduced new crops e.g. cotton by Kenneth Borup


The Negative effects of missionary work

  • It led to divisions among people through religion.
  • It led to religious conflicts
  • They disregard the African culture. (regarded it as evil)
  • Missionaries paved away for colonialism





The reasons why traders came to Africa – They wanted market for their goods.

  • They wanted raw materials for their home industries
  • They wanted to get new areas for investment
  • They wanted to invest their surplus capital


Trade companies


  • It was formed to carryout trade
  • It was formed to Administer E. Africa on behalf of the British.

 (Uganda, Kenya)

  • formed by Sir William Mackinnon

–  GEACo

–  It was formed to carryout trade

  • It was formed to administer Tanganyika on behalf of Germany Formed by carl Peters


  • United African Company renamed National African Company, renamed later Royal Niger Company. (It was a British Company)
  • Its leader was Sir George Goldie Tubman


The Trans Atlantic Trade (Triangular trade)

  • This was the trade between Europe, Africa, South and North America across Atlantic Ocean.
  • It was called Triangular because, the trade routes formed a triangular shape when joined. N.B Teacher to draw the diagram showing triangular trade routes

How it was operated

  • Items from Africa – slaves, ivory, bee wax, timber, kola nuts
  • Items from America to Europe: sugar cane, tobacco, tea, cotton, coffee, silver
  • From Europe to Africa: manufactured products, guns, clothes, liquor, clothes, sugar


Effects of Trans-Atlantic Trade

  • Human suffering for the slaves.
  • Depopulation in some parts of Africa.
  • New diseases like measles and small pox were spread by Europeans slave traders
  • It led to the spread of African people to other lands outside Africa e.g. in North and South America.
  • It led to the decline of Africa industries and craftsman ship.
  • It promoted trade in Africa – especially West Africa.
  • It led to introduction of new crops e.g. cocoa


The decline of Trans-Atlantic trade

  • When slave trade was abolished, this trade also declined. However Trade using this route continued, using other items from West Africa like cocoa and oil palm


Reasons why it was necessary to stop slave trade

  • To reduce human suffering
  • It was against Christian teaching
  • Coming of the Industrial revolution
  • The declaration of the independence of America.






This was the process by which Europeans took over the African continent.

Colonization is a system where a country is politically controlled by a more powerful country

A colony is an inferior country which is controlled by a superior country that has an aim of settling them permanently.

A protectorate is an inferior country ruled by a superior country which protects its interests in that country but has no aim of settling there permanently.


Methods which were used to acquire (establish) territories in Africa.

  1. Signing treaties
  2. Military means (force)
  3. Collaborators
  4. Missionary work
  5. Trading companies
  6. Fueling existing misunderstandings (divide and rule)


Systems of administration include: (systems of colonial administration) (a)  Direct rule

  1. Indirect rule
  2. Assimilation


Direct rule was the system of administration where by the colonial masters ruled the country themselves e.g. Tanganyika in E. Africa was ruled by the Germans.


Indirect rule was the system of administration where the colonial masters used African chiefs to rule on their behalf.


Advantages of Indirect rule

  1. It was cheap to carry out
  2. It solved the problem of language barrier.
  3. It reduced African resistance to colonial rule. / It reduced rebellions
  4. It solved a problem of labour shortage


Assimilation: This was the total transformation of Africans by culture and religion – into the European way of life.

It was mainly used by the French in West Africa.

–  Definition of scramble and partition of Africa


Why Europeans were interested in colonizing Africa 1.  They wanted raw materials for their name industries 2. They wanted market for their finished goods 3.  They wanted prestige in Europe.

  1. There was need to stop slave trade.
  2. There was need to settle their surplus population.
  3. Presence of cheap labour in Africa.
  4. They wanted to protect the missionaries
  5. Spread Christianity


What were the effects of colonial rule in Africa?

Positive effects

  1. It led to the promotion of formal education.
  2. There was introduction of new crops
  3. Modern transport and communication means were introduced, (iv)  It led to the improvement of medical services.
  4. It opened Africa to the rest of the world.
  5. It led to the development of processing industries.


Negative effects

  1. Many people died where it was resisted.
  2. It widened the gates of hatred and war among (rivaling) African states.(Increased Tribal wars)
  3. Separation of families when the boundaries were fixed.
  4. African cultures were undermined.
  5. It led to the over exploitation of African resources
  6. There was forced labour and low pay.





How did Africans react to colonial rule

Africans reacted to colonial rule in two ways i.e.

  1. Some collaborated (collaboration
  2. Some resisted (Resistance)


Examples of people who collaborated with the colonialists

  1. Muteesa I
  2. Semei Kakungulu
  3. Image From EcoleBooks.comNuwa Mbaguta    Uganda
  4. Laibon Lenana of Masai
  5. The Fante in Ghana
  6. Nabongo Mumia of Wanga
  7. Omukama Kasagama of Toro Uganda
  8. Apollo Kaggwa



Examples of people who resisted colonial rule

  1. Omukama Kabalega of Bunyoro
  2. Chief Awich of Acholi
  3. Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda
  4. Chief Mkwawa of the Hehe Tanganyika
  5. Image From EcoleBooks.comKinyekitile Ngwale – leader of Maji-Maji rebellion  
  6. Abushiri bin Salim  


Reasons why some African states collaborated

  1. They wanted protection
  2. Some societies were too weak to resist due to wars they had earlier. (iii) Some societies collaborated because their enemies had resisted.


Reasons why some Africans societies resisted

  1. They wanted to protect or preserve their independence.
  2. The enemies of some societies had collaborated with the colonialists 3. Some kings did not want to loose their kingships.







Apartheid refers to the segregation of people according their race, tribe, or colour. It was a policy of separate development which was introduced by the Dutch professors led by Dr. D. F Mallan and Dr. Hendrik Verwoerd in 1948.


How apartheid was practiced in South Africa.

  • Blocks were put in separate homelands called Bantustans.
  • There were separate schools for blacks and whites. –  Blacks were not supposed to use roads for whites.
  • Blacks were not allowed to move out of their homelands without pass ID’s –  Intermarriage between blacks and whites was illegal and immoral.
  • Blacks were not allowed to participate in politics.
  • Sporting clubs catered for only one race not both.




Why were blacks in South Africa schools taught in by Afrikaans?


Homelands for blacks (Bantustans)

  • Kwazulu    –  Sharpaville  –  Lebowa
  • Venda    –  Lebowa    –  quakwa
  • Ciskei    –  Swazi    –  Transkei etc


N.B: Soweto was a township which accommodated educated blacks who were working in large cities e.g. Johannesburg


Conditions in Bantustans

  • Poor housing    –  poor schools and hospitals
  • Poor sanitation    –  Over crowding
  • Unemployment    –  Shortage of food





African reaction towards Apartheid

In South Africa

  • Political parties were formed to oppose apartheid
  • Nelson Mandela and others formed Umukhonto Wesizwe to fight apartheid.
  • Blacks formed strikes, boycotts.
  • They wrote articles in newspapers to condemn apartheid. –  Songs were composed against apartheid.
  • Church leaders preached against apartheid
  • Children walked out of school because they were taught in Afrikaans instead of English.


Outside South Africa

  • South Africa was suspended from common wealth and OAU –  They were trading sanctions put on

    South Africa.

  • They forced front line states to counteract apartheid.


Personalities who fought apartheid in South Africa

  1. Nelson Mandela
  2. Robert Sobukwe
  3. Oliver Tambo
  4. Chief Albert Luthuri
  5. Chris Han
  6. Steve Biko
  7. Bishop Desmond Tutu


The end of apartheid in South Africa

Many political parties in South Africa were formed to oppose apartheid. Some of the political parties were: ANC, IFP, PAC

(African National Congress, Inkatha Freedom Party, Pan African Congress)

After talks between Blacks and Whites, Nelson Mandela and his party were set free in 1990.

In 1994 the first multi-racial elections were organized in South Africa by F. N. De’klerk.

Parties like A.N.C, IFP participated, National Party (NP)

  • The elections were won by Nelson Mandela and he became the first Black president of South


  • Mandela appointed Dr. F. N De’Klerk as his vice president.
  • To avoid revenge from Blacks, Mandela set up the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) which was chaired by Bishop Desmond Tutu.
  • Today, South Africa is a member of AU, UNO, and Commonwealth Organization.




  • Nationalism is one’s love for his country.
  • It can also be defined as ones desire to develop his/her country to develop socially, politically and economically.
  • A nationalist is a person who has strong love towards his or her country.
  • Pan Africanism was a movement which was started by blacks in the Diaspora to liberate blacks world wide from bondage.
  • Independence means political freedom from external influence
  • It is also defined as human liberation from poverty, disease, illiteracy and ignorance.


How did Africans demand for their independence?

  • By forming political parties
  • Forming rebellions and strikes
  • Seeking support from world Organizations e.g. UNO
  • Forming boycotts
  • Fronting demonstrations

Why did Africans demand for their independence?

  • To regain their land
  • To regain their political power – To stop mistreatment and segregation – Influence of World War II and UNO.


Problems faced by Africans during their struggle for Independence
–  Imprisonment without trial. – Loss of life and property – Africans were sent in exile.

  • Political parties were banned.
  • Denied their rights
  • Torture and harassment


Why Africans were defeated in their struggle for independence

  • Africans had inferior weapons
  • Africans were disunited
  • Some Africans betrayed fellow Africans by collaborating with Europeans
  • Africans had weak army


Prominent Pan Africanists:

N.B  Notes on

  1. Marcus Garvey
  2. Sylvester Williams
  3. D.W.E Dubois
  4. Booker. T. Washington
  5. J.E.K Aggrey


Prominent Africans in the struggle for Africans independence



Year of Independence

  1. Kwame Nkrumah
  2. King Hassan II
  3. Abdel Nasser
  4. Kenneth Kauda
  5. Patrice Lumumba
  6. Habib Bourguiba
  7. Leopaold Sedar Sengor
  8. Muhammed Idris
  9. Namdi Azikiwe/ Abu baker Tafana Balewa
  10. Milton Mengai
  11. Sekou Toure
  12. Emperor Haile Sellasel
  13. William Tolbert











Sierra Leone
















Not colonized

Not colonized

  1. Dr. Apollo M. Obote
  2. Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere

Uganda Tanzania




Case Study

Kwane Nkrumah – Ghana

  • Ghana was formerly called Gold Coast. This was because it had many Gold deposits.
  • It was colonized by Britain therefore a member of the Commonwealth organization.
  • Kwame Nkrumah a Ghanaian was the one who led Ghana to independence.
  • He acquired his early education from Ghana and later graduated at Achimota University.
  • He went abroad for further studies where he came in touch with Pan Africanists.
  • He attended the 5th Pan Africans Congress in 1945 in Manchester – England
  • After the conference, he returned to Ghana and joined the UGCC where he worked as its secretary General (UGCC had been formed by Dr J.B Danguar) –  In 1949, he formed his own party CPP (Convention People’s Party)
  • He united the Ghanaians under CPP. During the elections of 1956, CPP won the elections.
  • Ghana was granted independence on 6th March 1957.
  • It became the first country in Black Africa to attain independence.
  • In 1958, he hosted the first Pan African Congress in Accra.
  • This conference discussed ways of helping other African states to gain independence.



Personalities who attended the Accra Conference in Ghana in 1958


 Name      Country      Year of Independence

  1. Kwame Nkrumah    Ghana      1957
  2. Emperor Haile Selassie  Ethiopia      Not colonized but liberated in 1941
  3. William Tolbert    Liberia      Not colonized
  4. Abdel Nasser    Egypt      1922
  5. King Hassan II    Morocco      1956
  6. Mohammed Idris    Libya    1951
  7. Sekou Toure    Guinea      1958


Contributions of Kwame Nkrumah

  • He formed CPP which led Ghana to independence.
  • He chaired the Accra conference of 1958.
  • He was a founder member of OAU now AU.
  • He supported nationalistic struggles in Ethiopia and Kenya.
  • He helped in the construction of Akosombo dam.
  • Image From EcoleBooks.comHe encouraged cocoa growing in Ghana. economic


N.B: After independence, Gold Coast was renamed Ghana in remembrance o the ancient kingdom of old Ghana.


Julius K. Nyerere – (Tanzania)

  • He was born in Butiama in Tanzania.
  • He got his early education from Tanzania and later joined Makerere University. He trained as a teacher thus acquiring the title of Mwalimu.
  • He later went back and taught in secondary schools in Tanzania.
  • He later joined politics to struggle for Tanzania’s freedom.
  • He transformed T.A.A into TANU which pressed for independence.
  • He even went to America and appealed to UNO to grant Tanganyika independence.
  • After the 1960 elections, Nyerere under TANU won.
  • On 9th December 1961, Tanganyika was given her independence.
  • In 1964, the political union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar gave Tanganyika a new name Tanzania.


Contributions of Julius Nyerere

  • He led Tanganyika to independence.
  • He introduced African socialism (Ujaama Policy) – He was a founder member of OAU now AU.
  • He was the brain behind the formation of East African Community in 1967.
  • He transformed TAA into TANU and later changed it to Chama Chamapinduzi (CCM) meaning revolutionary party)
  • He united Tanganyika and Zanzibar to form Tanzania.
  • He constructed Hale Dam and Nyumba ya Mungu dam (economic)


Emperor Haile Selassie

  • He was the emperor of Ethiopia. He succeeded Emperor Menelik II.
  • He resisted Italy from colonizing Ethiopia.
  • Italy invaded Ethiopia again in 1935 during the reign of Selassie.
  • Many African countries and European sympathizers supported Ethiopia.
  • Haile Selassie fled the country and went to Europe.
  • IN 1941, with the support of African forces and Europeans, Italy was defeated and pushed out of Ethiopia.
  • Selassie later chaired a meeting in Addis –Ababa
  • The meeting led to the formation of O.A.U on 23rd June 1963.
  • He was however overthrown (1974) by the army and in 1975 he was starved to death.


  • He resisted Italy from colonizing Ethiopia.
  • He chaired the first O.A.U meeting in Addi-Ababa.
  • He supported independence struggles in countries like South Africa, Algeria, Kenya, Angola etc –  He improved social services in Ethiopia.


Why was Ethiopia not colonized?

  • It had powerful leaders e.g. Emperor Menelik, Haile Selassie.
  • It was mountains
  • It had a strong army.
  • It was considered to be economically poor.


Abdel Gamal Nasser – (Egypt)

  • Egypt was colonized by Britain. It is important to note however that France at one time had interest in Egypt and mainly desire to control the Suez Canal.
  • Egypt is aid to have got independence in 1922 as a monarchy under King Farouk.
  • Image From EcoleBooks.comIn 1952, the army led by Colonel Abdel Gamal Nasser of the free officers over threw Farouk in a bloodless coup.
  • It was believed that Farouk was a puppet only fulfilling the interests of the British. – The over throw of Farouk led to the foreign domination in Egypt.



  • Nasser modernized the army and social services in Egypt. –  He Nationalised the Suez canal –  He carried out land reforms in Egypt.
  • He was a founder member of OAU now A.U
    • Patrice Lumumba (Congo)
    • Samona Machel (Mozambique)
    • Kamuzu Banda (Malawi)
    • Robert Mugabe (Zimbamwe )
    • Nelson Mandela (South Africa)








  • The first Europeans to come to Africa were the Portuguese.
  • They found a resting base along the coast of South Africa.
  • This place was called Cape of Good Hope.
  • The soils were fertile and climate was similar to that in Europe.
  • These conditions attracted other European sailors to use this base as a base for refreshment on their way to India.
  • Around 1647, a Dutch ship called Haarlem hit a rock and Sank in the ocean.
  • Fortunately most sailors survived and swam towards the shores.
  • Among the survivors was John Van Riebeck.
  • He encouraged his fellow Dutchmen to build temporary houses and cultivate land at the Cape of Good Hope.
  • A company called Dutch East India Company appointed John Van Riebeck to be in charge of the settlers at the Cape of Good Hope.
  • It later became to be known as Cape Colony which was the first colony to be founded in Africa.
  • Most of the Dutch were farmers (Boers) which means farmers.
  • The Dutch had to fight the Khoisan in order to take their land.
  • The Khoisan were defeated by the Dutch.
  • The Boers were joined by the French in the Cape Colony and the French introduced grape growing for making wine.
  • The British took over the cape colony.


The settlers

Settlers were mainly found in the following countries

  • Kenya, Zibabwe, Namibia, south Africa and Angola

Portuguese settlers – Algeria, French – Namibia, Germans – Mozambique

  • The settlers in Kenya were mainly British who settled in Kenya Highlands and the leader was Lord Delmare ii) The settlers in Zimbabwe were led by

Cecil Rhodes iii) The settlers in South Africa were led by Jan
Van Riebeck


Effects of the settlers on the African land

  • Africans lost their land to the white settlers
  • Africans were forced to work on plantations of whites –  Africans were discriminated and mistreated by white settlers –  The white settlers brought diseases like small pox.


Africa’s challenges

Africa faces many challenges in the category of social, political and economic


a) Economic challenges

  • Corruption
    ii) Unemployment

iii) Low level of technology
iv) Brain Drain
v) Inflation
vi) Production of similar goods
vii) Poverty
viii) Debt burden

Political problems

i) Civil wars ii) Neo colonialism  iii)

Dictatorship iv)  Over dependence on foreign aid

Social challenges

i) Famine ii) Diseases

iii)  Illiteracy iv)  Early marriages (high Birth rates) v) High infant mortality rate vi) Disunity vii)  Rapid population growth


Solutions to challenges facing people in Africa

Economic challenges and solutions

  • Promoting technical education
  • Settling up small scale industries
  • Encouraging foreign investors

Debt burden

  • Encourage industrialisation – Get grants instead of loans
  • Fight embezzlement and corruption


Brain drain

  • Improve wages for the workers
  • Improve working conditions of the workers


Production of similar goods

  • Diversify the economy


Civil wars

  • Hold peace talks
  • Hold regular elections
  • Promote democratic rule
  • Promote good governance


Neo colonialism

Develop self sustaining economies



  • Adopt modern methods
  • Promote food security
  • Row variety of food crops


  • Promote personal hygiene and sanitation
  • Sensitise people about disease control
  • Train more medical personnel
  • Equip medical facilities



  • Make education universal
  • Encourage girl child education
  • Build and equip schools


High infant mortality rate

  • Encourage immunization programs
  • Discourage early marriages
  • Improve nutrition of babies


Rapid population growth

  • Encourage family planning
  • Legislation about number of children per couple
  • Give benefits to small families
  • Discourage polygamy and early marriages


Disunity among the people

  • Teach patriotism
  • Get a national language in each country








Formation of OAU

  • It was formed on 25/5/ 1963, during the first meeting
  • The meeting took place in Addis Ababa in Ethiopia
  • The first chairman was Emperor Haile Selassie


Why OAU was formed

  • To fight for the independence of some African States –  To defend the sovereignty of independence of


  • To prevent any possible re-colonization of African Countries.
  • To promote friendship between Africa and other countries.
  • To unite all African states under one big family


Founder members of OAU


–  Ghana

– Kwame Nkrumah

–  Ethiopia

– Haile Selassie

–  Uganda

– Dr. Obote

–  Tanzania

– Nyerere

–  Egypt

– Abdel Nasser

–  Senegal

– Leopold Sekou

–  Zambia

– Kenneth Kaunda


The organs of OAU

  • The Assembly of the heads of state (state the duties for each)
  • Council of Ministers
  • Secretariat

 Secretary General  Country

  1. Diallo Telli    –  Guinea
  2. Nzo Ekangaki  –  Cameroon
  3. Eteki Mboumoua  –  Cameroon
  4. Edem Kodjo –  Cameroon
  5. Ide Oumoron  –  Niger
  6. Salim Ahmed Salim –  Tanzania
  7. Amara Essy –  Cote D’avore


N.B  Write any two agencies of OAU

 PANAs Pan African Postal Union


Achievements of OAU

  1. it made all African countries independent.
  2. It managed to settle some border disputes among African states e.g Libya and Chad
  3. It managed to set up the African Development Bank.
  4. Member states of OAU, condemned Apartheid and put it to an end.


Problems that faced OAU

  1. It lacked a standby army
  2. It lacked enough funds
  3. Members states had different political idea.
  4. Interference from developed countries


Failures of OAU

  • It failed to stop civil wars in Africa e.g.
    • Genocide in Rwanda
    • Civil wars in Somalia
  • It failed to solve the Debt burden issue.
  • It never had a permanent stand by army
  • It failed to stop coup Detas


How OAU prevented Apartheid in South Africa.

  • South Africa was stopped from attending OAU meeting – OAU put trade sanctions to Africa.
  • OAU was suspended from all Africa games
  • OAU gave financial and diplomatic support to opponents of Apartheid





  • It replaced the organization of African Unity
  • The idea to replace it was brought by Colonel Gaddafi in 2001.
  • The meeting that set in Durban in South Africa gave birth to African Union on 9th July 2002. – Its first chairman was Thambo Mbeki of South Africa.


AU Organs

  • PAP (Pan African Parliament)
  • African Union commission
  • Assembly of the Union
  • Council of Ministers


The objectives of African Union.

  • To promote democracy and good governance
  • To promote and protect Basic human rights
  • To promote peace and security
  • To enable regional bodies to work better to foster economic growth.
  • To respect member countries, independence N.B:  The Headquarters of AU are still in Ethiopia.


The challenges of AU

  • Lack of standby army –  Shortage of funds – Debt burdens :
  • Civil wars e.g Somalia  


Regional bodies of Africa

  • Common markets – These countries that unite to carry out trade The regional bodies are:







NB: Teacher to teach each common market in detail


Why were regional bodies formed?


  • To widen the market for the produced goods –  To promote unity among member states – To share some social services.


Problems facing regional bodies
– Lack of enough funds.

  • Producing similar goods – Misunderstanding among leaders – Poor transport among countries.


Solutions to the above problems

  • Establishing a common currency
  • Improving transport and communication
  • Proper accountability of funds
  • They should work together to promote interdependence






–  Economy refers to the relationship between production, trade and supply of money in an area. – Development refers to the gradual change from a poor state to a better state.


Economic activities

Activities done so as to enable one earn a living.


A resource is a feature of the environment used to meet human needs


Africa’s resources are grouped into” (a) Renewable resources (b) Non – renewable resources.


Renewable resources replace themselves after sometime


Non-renewable resources are those which when exhausted cannot replace themselves e.g minerals


Examples of Africa’s resources

  1. land
  2. minerals
  3. water bodies
  4. climate
  5. human labour
  6. wild life (flora and fauna)


1.  Importance of land

  1. It is where agriculture is carried out
  2. It is a source of minerals
  3. It is where people build houses.
  4. It is where water bodies and vegetation is found
  5. Industries are built on land


2.  Importance of minerals

  1. They are raw material in industries
  2. They are sold for income
  3. Mining is a source of jobs


3.  Importance of water bodies

  1. Lakes / rivers are fishing grounds
  2. Rivers help to generate HEP (c)  They provide water for irrigation (d)  They aid water transport.

(e)  They help in rain formation


4.  Importance of climate

  1. Animals, plants and man largely depend on climate
  2. Rainfall helps crops to grow and sunshine dries man’s seeds.
  3. Rainfall makes it possible for forests to grow and in turn man cuts down trees for timber.



  • Human labour

    Human labour is divided into:

 Skilled labour

 Semi skilled labour and unskilled labour

 Labour is needed in all areas of production to organize all other factors of production.


  • Labour is for example needed to:
    • Operate machines
    • Manage the funds
    • Train new workers


  • Wildlife (Flora and Fauna)

 Wild life refers to the aggregate of animals, plants, insects in their natural habitats.



Importance of wild life

  • Animals are a source of food.
  • Wild life attracts tourists –  Forests help in rain formation –  Forests are a source of timber.


Factors responsible for distribution of Africa’s resources

1.  Forests (Vegetation)

 Vegetation grown largely depends on climate and soil


2.  Minerals

  • Some minerals are found where volcanicity has ever occurred
  • Some minerals also exist in specific rocks. So if a country lacks such rocks it won’t have them.


Problems faced in utilization of resources

  • Poor technology
  • Unfavourable government policies
  • Civil wars
  • Shortage of capital to exploitation


How to care for resources

  • Conserve wet lands and forests
  • Avoid dumping wastes in water bodies
  • Treat wastes before they are disposed
  • Use better farming methods







Industrialization is the continued establishment of industries is an area


Case study

  1. Nigeria
  2. Libya
  3. South Africa
  4. Sudan (Nile valley)
  5. Ghana
  6. DRC
  7. Zambia


Factors favouring industrial growth

  • Availability of capital
  • Presence of cheap hydro electric power
  • presence of raw materials
  • presence of cheap labour force
  • Availability of a large market base
  • presence of good transport and communication
  • political stability
  • Presence of enough land for expansion


Importance of industrial growth

  • Creates employment for people
  • Widens market for raw materials
  • Development of infrastructure
  • leads to urbanization
  • Increases quality (add value) and quantity of goods produced.
  • Source of government revenue from taxes
  • Helps to diversify the economy


Dangers of industrial growth

  • Leads to environmental pollution
  • Leads to destruction of vegetation
  • Attracts foreigners who repatriate profits
  • Leads to urban growth and its disadvantages



Reasons for the slow industrial growth in Africa

  • Shortage of capital for investment
  • Competition from other developed countries
  • Shortage of skilled labour
  • Most people are poor so the market is limited
  • Political instability
  • Some government policies do not favour foreign investors







  • South Africa is found in the Southern hemisphere.
  • It has two enclaves i.e. Lesotho and Swaziland.
  • It has a coastline with the Indian Ocean with many ports like Elizabeth, Durban, Cape Town, East Africa.
  • It has two capital cities i.e. Pretoria and Cape Town. Cape Town is commercial while Pretoria is administrative seat.


Map of South Africa and its neighbours


Industrialization in South Africa

  • The leading industrial centres of South Africa include

(Johannesburg, Rand, Port Elizabeth, Durban, Germiston, Bloemfontein, (map of South Africa)


Main economic activities

  • Industrialization
  • mining
  • agriculture
  • Tourism
  • Fishing


Reasons for South Africa’s Industrial growth,

1.   It has a variety of raw materials,

  • South Africa has many minerals e.g. Gold, cola, copper, iron ore. These are used in manufacturing industries.
  • It also has agricultural raw materials e.g. wheat, meat, maize, wool, skills and fish.


2.  Availability of large markets

  • South Africa has a large population which provides ready domestic market.
  • South Africa also exports most of her goods to developed and developing states since they are of high quality.


3.  Availability of Capital

 South Africa has many foreign investors who set up large scale industries.


4.  Availability of power

 South Africa has a lot of coal in addition to HEP, this power is enough to run the industry.

 It also has nuclear energy to provide power in industries The presence of coal made it easy for mining to develop


5.  Cheap labour force

 It is provided by black South Africans and other migrant

 Labourers from Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibia, Botswana etc


6.  Good transport and communication net work.

 South Africa has the best road, railway and air transport in Africa.

 Its water transport on both Indian and Atlantic Ocean is also good.

This makes it easy to transport raw materials to industries and finished goods to markets




  • South Africa has very many minerals.
  • It is the leading producer of Gold in the world.
  • Gold is the most valuable mineral worldwide
  • other minerals include: diamond, copper, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, uranium, tin, silver, platinum, salt, manganese


N.B  Teacher to discuss advantages, disadvantages of mining



It is mainly mined at Wit waters rand – also known as Rand near Johannesburg Gold is also mined at Golden Arch.

  • Gold is extracted from reefs in very hard rocks.
  • Panning is another method used to mine gold if it is in a river.


Uses of Gold

  • Used to make jewelry
  • It is used for making coins
  • It is kept in Gold reserves as a store for wealth
  • It is used in dentistry to make teeth



  • It is the second most important mineral mined in South Africa after Gold.
  • Diamond is mined at Kimberly
  • Diamond is the hardest mineral of all minerals mined
  • They are usually found in igneous rocks
  • Gem diamonds mined in South Africa are bigger than industrial diamonds.


Uses of diamond

  • Used to polish other metals
  • Used as jewelry
  • Used to cut other metals.






Ghana is found in West Africa.

It has a coastline

The following countries neighbour Ghana

 East :  Togo

 South :  Atlantic ocean

 West :  Cote D’avore

 North :  Bourkina Faso



The physical features of Ghana

 East :

Akwapim ranges

 West :

West Plateau

 North :

North and Northwest Platue

 South :




There is coastal plain

R. Ankoba  

R. Oti

R. Tano  

R. Daka

R. Pra  

R. Black volta


White volta



L. Volta man made lake (largest man made lake in Africa)

L. Keta lagoon lake (Biggest Lagoon Lake)


L. Volta was formed a result of construction of Akasombo dam


Lagoon – is a mass of water separated from the main water body by either sand or mud


Historical background of Ghana

–  Ghana was a formed British colony.

  • The British colonial masters called it Gold Coast. (It had a lot of Gold) – When gained independence in 1957, it changed the name to Ghana.
  • Ghana was one of the Empires of Black people in West Africa.
  • This Empire was formed by black people called Sarkoke
  • (Ghana was named 20 to remember the old empire of Black people in West Africa)
  • Ghana has so many Ethnic groups
  • The Ethnic groups lived as independent communities.
  • The ethnic groups of Ghana are fante, Azante, Ga etc
  • The largest ethnic groups of Ghana is the Asante with their traditional leader called Azantehene.
  • On the independence in 1957 Gold Coast was remained Ghana.
  • The first president of Ghana was Mr. Kwame Nkrumah.
  • Most Ghanaians live in rural areas.
  • Most of them are farmers.
  • Others work in small scale industries.


Economic Activities

Cocoa growing

  • It is one of the leading producers of cocoa in the world.
  • Cocoa was introduced to Ghana from Sao Tome islands
  • Soa Tome islands are found in Gulf of Guinea
  • Farmers were encouraged to grow cocoa by the British colonial government.
  • The British needed cocoa to make chocolate. –  Most of cocoa is grown at Kumasi
  • it takes 5 to 7 years for cocoa to mature
  • Cocoa seeds are planted in nursery bed.
  • The nursery seeds are transferred to farms, where they grow in full size.
  • Cocoa trees are pruned, so that large cocoa grows.
  • A full grown cocoa tree may have 40 pods
  • A sharp knife is used to cut off pods during harvesting.
  • The cutting of pods is carried to cutting centres.
  • The cocoa beans are scooped out during the cutting.
  • Cocoa pods are heaped together and covered to allow them ferment.
  • Fermentation is done to allow cocoa have good flavour
  • When cocoa has dried up it is taken to the buying centre for sale.


Requirements for cocoa growth

  • High temperature
  • Heavy rainfall
  • shelter from strong winds


Countries which grow cocoa in Africa

  • Ivory coast (Cote D’voire)
  • Ghana
  • Cameroon
  • Nigeria


N.B: (Teacher to write the advantages of cocoa growing)


Countries which buy cocoa

  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Germany


Products of cocoa

  • chocolate
  • sweets
  • body lotions etc (cocoa butter)
  • beverage (drinks)


Diseases that attack cocoa

  • swollen shoot
  • black pod


Problems faced by cocoa farmers

  • price changes
  • weather changes
  • fire out breaks
  • transport facilities still poor in rural areas


N.B: Ghana cocoa is mostly grown at Kumasi while in Uganda it is grown in Mukono and Bunidbugyo




The Volta river project

  • Kwame Nkrumah constructed the Akasombo Dam
  • This was in 1963 and completed in 1963 and completed in 1966 –  It is  135 metres deep 670 metres wide
  • Behind this dam a man made lake was formed called L. Volta.
  • This dam is used to produce hydro electric power


Uses of L. Volta to Ghanaians

  • The lake is used for fishing – It used for water transport.
  • Ghana earns a lot of foreign exchange through its exports of electricity to Togo and Benin.
  • The lake attracts tourism who pay foreign exchange
  • It has facilitated the set up of many industries and urban centres for employment. –  Water from the lake is used for irrigation.
  • it controls floods.
  • Teacher to draw the map of Ghana showing Akasombo dam and Lake Volta.


The other economic activities in Ghana

Industrial centres

Accra, Tema, Takoradi and Tamale

Smelting of bauita at Tema



Atlantic Ocean, L. Volta, Black Volta, White Volta, and Red Volta.



Carried out in the Southern part of Ghana


minerals:  Gold, Bauxite, diamond, tin, salt, aluminum etc.







  • Libya is a desert country found in the north of Africa. Capital city is Tripoli
  • Its neighbours are Egypt in the East, Sudan in the South East, Chad in the South, Niger in the South West, Tunisia in the North West and the Mediterranean sea washes its coast in the North

     Libya was colonized by Italy and it got its independence in 1957 under king Mohammed Idris –  In 1969, King Idris was overthrown by army officers led by Colonel Muammah Gadaffi.


Map showing position of Libya.


Climate of Libya

  • The northern part has Mediterranean climate with dry hot summers and cool wet winters.
  • The rest of Libya has desert climate that is described as hot and dry throughout the year.
  • Mediterranean areas favour the growth of citrus fruits.
  • In the desert areas, the keeping of sheep, goats and camels is done.  Oases are areas where water is mostly got.


Factors that make the camel suited to the desert areas.

  1. It has long eye lashes
  2. It has flat hooves
  3. It has a fatty body


Reasons why the north has a higher population

  • It has better climate
  • It has more job opportunities (most industrialization)
  • Better social services
  • Better soils







Differences between Libya and Uganda



  1. Tropical climate
  2. colonized by Britain
  3. Economy mostly depends on agriculture
  4. Located in E. Africa
  5. Got independence in 1962
  6. Series of political instability
  7. Life expectancy of about 45 years
  8. Predominantly Christian
  9. Smaller than Libya
  10. Mostly prepares a deficit budget
  11. Higher population than Libya
  • Desert climate
  • Colonised by Italy
  • Economy mostly depends on oil mining
  • Located in North Africa
  • Got independence in 1957
  • Has been politically stable for a long time
  • Life expectancy of about 60 years due to good standards of living.
  • Mostly population in made up of Moslems.
  • In much bigger than Uganda.
  • Mostly prepares a surplus budget
  • Low population


Oil drilling in Libya

  • Much of Libya is desert land with poor soils and unreliable rainfall.
  • 1% of Libya’s total land can be used for settled agriculture. Libya does not have many natural resources and no rivers flow through it. Its economy is completely dependent on oil.
  • When oil was discovered in 1959, it brought great wealth to this once poor country. Today, Libya is one of Africa’s richest countries.


How oil is formed

  • Oil is got from layers of rocks beneath the surface of land and sea.
  • It was formed millions of years from the remains of dead animals and plants. The fatty parts over millions of years form oil after rotting. Natural gas is also found. –  The oil collects in hard rocks.
  • Geologists’ study and survey rocks to determine where oil is found.
  • When oil is discovered, equipment in used to drill oil to the surface. Drilling is the process by which holes are dug into the ground to areas where oil is. Oil is pumped from underground through pipes.
  • Some areas have many oil wells called oil fields.
  • Impure oil from underground is called crude oil. Crude oil must be processed (refined) before it is of great use to man.


  • Map showing oil mining areas in Libya.


An oil refinery, crude oil is processed into different products.


  • Diagram of a fractionating column.





Oil in Libya is mostly transported through pipelines.


  • Libya’s oil is on great demand worldwide because,


  1. Libya’s strategic location i.e. short distance to Europe.

 Cheaper to transport to European consuming countries.

  1. Libya’s oil has a low sulphur content hence less dangerous to the environment.


– Libya’s major trading partners are Italy, France, UK and USA. Libya suffered economic setback when the UN put a trade embargo (sanctions) on Libya in the 1990s.





Benefits of oil mining to Libya

  1. Earned foreign exchange
  2. Infrastructure has been improved upon
  3. Created employment.
  4. Libya easily gets different oil products.
  5. Revenue has been used to improve man’s standards of living i.e. farming, education, medical care.


N.B: Libya constructed the great man river project to provide water for farming (irrigation) and domestic use)


Problems caused by the oil industry

  1. Libya imports workers and their earnings aren’t invested in Libya.
  2. Unstable oil prices.
  3. Neglect of other sectors in Libya.
  4. Pollution of the environment.


Challenges to Africa’s development

A challenge is an obstacle that hinders progress and retards development


Social challenges

  • Illiteracy
  • Diseases
  • Ignorance
  • Gamine
  • High infant mortality and maternal rate
  • Poverty
  • Rapid population growth

NB: Teacher to state the effects and solutions



Economic challenges

  • Unemployment
  • Poor transport and communication
  • Corruption
  • Over depending on foreign aid
  • Brain drain
  • Low level of technology
  • Low skilled labour force
  • Economic collapse


Political challenges

  • Civil wars and conflicts
  • Refugee problems
  • Foreign domination
  • Poor governance











1.  Location and size

  • Sudan is one of the Nile Valley countries i.e The Nile River passes through it as well.
  • It is the largest country in Africa followed by Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C) –  Its capital city is Khartoum.
  • The president of Sudan is H.E Omar El Bashir –  It was colonized by the British like Uganda.


    Neighbours of Sudan

    Sudan has several neighbours in different direction as shown below.



Capital city

i.  Egypt



ii. iii.  Eritrea

  1. Ethiopia
  2. South Sudan
  3. Central African Republic
  4. Chad Libya




South West




Addis Ababa








(i)  Draw a map to show the neighbours of Sudan (ii) It got independence in 1956.


Economic Activities

  • Agriculture (irrigation farming)
  • Trade
  • Mining
  • Tourism




  • This scheme is found between the White Nile and Blue Nile.
  • It was built by the British colonial government in 1925 but later handed over to Sudan government.
  • The Gezira is the world’s largest irrigation scheme.
  • Irrigation goes on all year round hence a perennial irrigation scheme. – Cotton is the main cash crop grown.


Other crops include:

  • sorghum
  • beans (lubia)
  • wheat
  • groundnuts
  • vegetables
  • sugarcane at Kenana


N.B  The soil in the region is mainly clay, so they have to ass fertilizers to improve on its fertility.


Draw a map to show the location of Gezira, Managil Extension and Kenana.




Factors That Favoured the Establishment of the Gezira Irrigation Scheme.
i. The presence of Blue and White Nile rivers. ii.  The gently sloping nature of land. iii.

Presence of fertile soils.

iv.  Availability of enough money (capital from the government) v. Presence of enough labour force.


Organization of the Gezira Scheme

  • The scheme is mainly managed by the Sudan Gezira Board.
  • All farmers are tenants to the Board which rents land they cultivate to them.


Roles of the Board

i. To control distribution of tenancy ii. To control the flow of irrigation water. iii. To distribute inputs to farmers e.g. seeds, fertilizers iv. To collect cotton to stores and ginneries. v. To provide transport and storage.


Roles of the government

(a)  To provide water (control water supply) (b) To maintain facilities.


The tenants:

  • Sow, weed, thin and pick cotton
  • They clear channels for irrigation
  • They remove residue plants and burn it to destroy pests


The local councils (LCs) provide usual local administration services. How income is shared.



Gezira Board

Village councils









  • The income depends on funds earned from the cotton after deducting expenses. – The Gezira tenants are the most privileged.


Benefits of the Gezira Scheme

  • The government gets revenue from the scheme.
  • The people’s standards of living have improved.
  • Security for the people is ensured in the scheme.
  • Farmers are trained in farm skills at demonstration farms.
  • There are many sporting and leisure facilities.
  • Dairy farming has been introduced.
  • Many eucalyptus trees have been planted to provide wood for fuel and building.
  • The scheme is a major source of jobs (employment) to most of the people. (People have got jobs at the scheme)
  • Some tenants have been encouraged to start private gardens.


Problems faced by the scheme

  1. Crop diseases e.g. black arm, leaf curl affect cotton.
  2. Silting of canals leads to regular emptying
  3. Price changes
  4. Shortage of labour during cotton picking (harvesting) (v) Competition (stiff) from other cotton producing countries.

(iv)  People suffer from water borne diseases e.g Bilharzia


Solutions to some of the problems.

– spraying of crops

  • Dredging / emptying the canals
  • Fixing of minimum cotton prices –  Ensuring good quality cotton.


Sample questions

  1. How is cotton growing in Uganda different from that in Sudan?
  2. Why is the Gezira Scheme described as a perennial scheme?
  3. (a)  Name the main cash crop grown on the Gezira scheme.

 (b)  List down two other crops that are grown on the above scheme.

  1. Identify any four factors that favoured the establishment of the Gezira Irrigation Scheme.
  2. Outline any four benefits of Gezira Scheme to people and government of Sudan.







WORLD WAR I – 1914-1918

A world war is one which involves almost all countries of the world fighting.

The First World War was sparked off when Gavril principi (Serbain student) shot and killed the Archduke of Austria

(Franz Ferdinard)


This was closely related to colonialism since Austria was the master of Serbia


Causes of World War I

  • The assassination of ArchDuke of Austria
  • The rise of nationalism
  • The alliance system
  • Arms race
  • Germany wished to control all colonies
  • Difference in domestic policies



  • Many people lost their lives
  • Property was destroyed
  • It led to formation of L.O.N
  • The defeat of Germany made it lose all her colonies as a form of punishment by the league of National all her colonies were given to other counties as mandatory territories e.g. TZ , Rwanda etc


Why did Tanganyika differ most in East African during World War I?




Formation of the League of Nations

  • By 1918, Germany had been weakened. It was later forced to surrender. All her colonies were removed from it.
  • In 1920 January. The meeting that sat in Versailles led to the formation of the League of Nations.

The League was made up of countries like Britain, France, Italy and later Germany was invited. – The league took over Germany colonies as Mandate territories.


Why the League of Nations was formed
– To promote respect for human rights.

  • To promote peace and security world wide.
  • To find peaceful means of solving political problems


N.B: The out break of World War II was a clear indicator that the LON had failed in its aims.


Why the LON failed

  1. It never had its own army
  2. Member states were interested in their domestic affairs.

Some powerful countries like USA refund to become members e.g. Britain, France, Italy etc Failed to control production of dangerous weapons



WORLD WAR II 1939-1945

Adolf Hitler was leader of Germany in 1933. His supporter were called Nazis


Causes of 2nd World War II

  1. Germany attacked Poland
  2. Need to get independence
  3. Alliance system – Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hilter
  4. Weakness of League of Nations
  5. Arms race
  6. Britain and France declared was on Germany


Countries that participated in 2nd World War II

  1. Germany
  2. Italy
  3. Britain
  4. France
  5. Their allies


Effects of 2nd World War II

  1. Loss of lives and property
  2. Displacement of people
  3. Speeding up of independence struggles in Africa.
  4. Formation of U.N.O
  5. Rise of USA and USSR as powerful Nations

    Japans, two towns of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed with atomic bombers

  6. Germany was divided into East and West Germany








  • UNO was formed in 1945, after the end of 2nd World War II


Why was UNO was formed

  • It was formed to keep World peace and security – It was formed to improve welfare of man.
  • Was formed to promote respect for human rights World wide.
  • Settle internal disputes by internal law
  • Encourage good governance among member countries


The organs of UNO

  • Security council
  • Social and economical council
  • General assembly
  • Secretariat
  • Trusteeship council
  • I.C.J


The duties of each

  • Security Council: – It receives applications of countries that want join U.N
  • It serves as peace organ of U.N
  • it has five permanent members: USA, Russian, France, China Britain and 10 non permanent members
  • It may send peace keeping force to countries affected by wars.

General Assembly

  • It composed of representatives of member countries.
  • Each member country is entitled to one vote.
  • The assembly meets annually to discuss important issues and resolves them. E.g. world peace
  • Six languages are used in UN General Assembly – English, Arabic, Spanish, Russian, French and Chinese. They approve UNO budget annual


Responsible for the day to day general activities if the organization elected by the assembly Secretariat

  • It’s headed by secretary general.
  • It ha headquarters in New York (USA)
  • It administers the UN
  • It makes a budget for UN
  • It makes the Agenda for Un general assembly


N.B: The current secretary General of UN is Mr. Ban Ki-moon from South Korea. (Teacher to draw the table of the secretary generals)



Economic and Social Council

  • It works through specialized agencies of UN to make life better for all people in the world.

It does the following

  • Increase food production (FAO)
  • fight against diseases (WHO)
  • provide better education facilities (UNESCO)
  • takes care of refugees (UNHCR)

Teacher to teach each of the agencies of UN and the function of each) references

  • The school curriculum, MK Book – Old Edition
  • sharing our world
  • social studies Macmillan Book 7 – pg 92

Table of UN agencies with their duties



The achievements of UN

  • It has maintained world peace since its formation –  it has tried to settle border disputes.
  • it has promoted respect for human rights

e.g. Formation of ICC


Challenges of UN

  • it has failed to maintain peace in some parts of the world.
  • it has failed to eradicate poverty in some parts of the world – Third World countries –  it has no standby army





  • It is the organization that unites colonies, dominion and protectorates of Great Britain.
  • It is headed by the Queen of England
  • It was formed in 1931
  • It has headquarters in London
  • The current secretary general of common wealth is Sharma Karmalesh from India.


Dominions: They regard the Queen as their head.

They use laws made by British Parliament for example Canada, Australia, and New Zealand


Colony:  They were formerly controlled by the Britain, with the aim of making settlements   exploitation and investments e.g. Kenya, Zimbabwe


Protectorate: Refer to a weak country controlled by a powerful country for economic exploitation (interests)


The aims of the common wealth

  • It was formed to assist former Britain colonies, in matters of education, health and agriculture.
  • To unite member states into one big family.
  • To provide market (trade) for goods for member state


Benefits of Common Wealth to member states

  • They get common fund to improve Agriculture and Industrialization – They get scholarships.
  • Sharing of Expertise e.g. Doctors
  • Participating in common wealth games


The things that Common Wealth Countries share

They use English as their official language – They regard the Queen of England as their head.

  • They use similar education system.


The activities of common wealth

  • The common wealth heads of government meeting (CHOGM) –  The common wealth games –  Organizes trade fairs.


The challenges of common wealth

  • Constant civil wars e.g. Sierra Leone
  • Failure to remove Dictators from power
  • Poverty among some member countries
  • failure to ——-





Multi-party governance

It’s a government formed after many political parties have solicited for state power through elections.


Advantages of multi-party democracy

  • there is room to choose better leaders
  • it promotes respect for human rights
  • it helps to control dictatorship
  • government organs are positively developed
  • there is delegation of power
  • it promotes respect for hierarchy




  • it promotes corruption
  • it encourages favouritism
  • it promotes quarrels and conflicts
  • political parties divide people
  • more election petitions are raised


It’s a government whose political leaders are only from one political party



  • it reduces conflicts and power struggles
  • there is less rigging and few petitions
  • decision making is easy
  • its cheaper to conduct elections



  • it promotes dictatorship
  • decisions take long to be implemented
  • there is limited accountability
  • new ideas are always unacceptable

















Wall maps of

  1. Africa
  2. The world
  • Primary school social studies Atlas. –  Map cut outs of Africa. –  Drawn charts of Africa –  Ground map of Africa.
  • Pictures of terraced farmland on mountain slopes.
  • Picture of herdsmen in grassland areas.
  • Pictures of fishing activities in the rift valley.


Natural vegetation of Africa

  • Pictures and photographs of equatorial, forests, savanna grassland and scrub land.
  • Wall map of Africa’s vegetation.
  • Social studies atlas for Uganda.
  • Pictures and photographs showing different types of natural vegetation in Africa.
  • Pictures and photographs of forests, bush land with animals and birds. – Posters of NEMA –  Cross section of mountain vegetation.
  • Charts made by the teacher.
  • Magazines
  • Resource persons i.e from NEMA or KCCA –  Newspaper cuttings.


Climate of Africa

  • Wall map of Africa
  • Uganda Social studies Atlas –  Map of Africa showing climate regions.
  • Cut out map of Africa.
  • Pictures and photographs of lumbering activities in the rainforests.
  • Map of Uganda / E. Africa showing the forested areas.
  • Pictures/ photographs of grazing activities in the tropical areas.
  • Pictures / photographs of activities in the desert/ semi desert areas of Africa.






















The people of Africa

  1. Wall map of Africa – (population)
  2. Social studies Atlas for Uganda. 3. Wall map of Africa (political)

4.  Wall map of E. Africa.


Foreign influence on the African continent 1.

Wall map of Africa physical.

  1. Social studies Atlas for Uganda.
  2. Primary social studies Book 5.
  3. Wall map of Africa – Political




Post Independence Africa – Wall map of Africa (political) – Social studies Atlas for Uganda.

–  Social studies text book. (NCDC)




Africa’s economy

  • Maps and pictures of farm land in Africa.
  • National census report (2002) –  Resource persons –  Pictures and Photographs of farm machinery and equipment.
  • Pictures and photographs of industrial areas.
  • Industrial products in canned fruits, packed juice.
  • Map of Africa (Natural resources – mineral) –  Social studies Atlas for Uganda.
  • Different oil products (samples)
  • Examples of fax messages received by us i.e. teachers, parents, schools etc


Africa’s challenges

  • Map of Africa – Agriculture.
    • Mineral resources
    • Natural resources – Social studies Atlas for Uganda.
  • Uganda secondary school Atlas (pg 69 Maamdlan) –  Population maps of Africa.
  • UNAIDS data on HIV/AIDS
  • Resource persons from TASO


































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