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THE PEOPLE OF AFRICA

VOCABULARY

 Ethnic group: This is a group of people who share the same origin and speak related languages.

 Tribe: This is a group of people who speak the same language and have the same customs.

Clans: This is a group of people who share the same totem.

Migration: This is the movement of people from one place to another for settlement.

Culture: The accepted way of behavior in society.

Customs: The accepted practices of society.

Totem: The object that is respected as symbol in a clan.

Race: Group of people with similar colour , shape of the head, nose and eyes.

Ancestor: Person who lived long ago in the family.

Origin: Place where people started living.

Settlement: Place where people have come to live and make their homes.

Lineage: A Small group of people within a clan or it’s a series of families under one ancestor.

Races in Africa:

ecolebooks.com

Negroes.

Caucasians.

Origin of ethnic groups in Africa: 

 

Ethnic Groups in East Africa

Ethnic group Origin Tribes  Region 
BantuCameroon

Highlands

Uganda: Baganda, Bagisu, Basoga, Banyankore, Bakiga

Kenya:Kikuyu,Akamba, Embu, Meru, Abaluhya

Tanzania: Haya, Hehe, Ha, Ngoni,

Sukuma, Nyamwezi , Chagga , Pare

Rwanda: Hutu

Burundi: Hutu  

East

Africa

Ethnic group Origin Tribes  Region 
Plain

Nilotes

Ethiopian

Highlands

Uganda: Iteso, Karimajongs, Kumam, Langi, Kakwa

Kenya: Masai, Turkana, Samburu,

Iteso

Tanzania: Masai,

East

Africa

Highland

Nilotes

Ethiopian

Highlands

Uganda: Sabiny

Kenya:Marakwet,Pokot,

Nandi,Tugen,Kipsigis,

Tanzania:Dadong

East

Africa

River Lake

Nilotes/

Nilotics

Bahr el GhazelUganda: Alur, Acholi, Jopadhola,

Kenya: Jaluo

South Sudan: Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk

East

Africa

Sudanic

People

South SudanUganda: Madi, LugbaraEast

Africa

Cushites

/Hamites

Saudi ArabiaUganda: Bahima

Kenya: Somali, Galla, Rendille, Boran, Dahalo, Orma, Konso, Oromo

Tanzania: Iraqw,Mbugu, Hamwa,

Sandawe

Rwanda and Burundi: Tutsi

East

Africa

SemitesSouth East

Asia

Uganda, Kenya: NubiansEast

Africa

Ethnic Groups in Central Africa
BantuCameroon

Highlands

DRC: Baluba, Balunda, Bakongo, Lumba,

Central African Republic: Sara

 Central

Africa

PygmiesDRC, Gabon, Congo: PygmiesCentral

Africa

Ethnic Groups in Southern Africa
Bantu 

South Africa: Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele,

Venda

Lesotho: Sotho

Swaziland: Swazi

Botswana: Tswana

Namibia: Ovambo, Herero

Southern

Africa

Ethnic group Origin Tribes  Region 
KhoisanCentral AfricaSouth Africa: 

Khoikhoi(Hottentots), San(Bushmen)

Southern

Africa

Afrikaners

(Boers)

Netherlands

(Holland)

• AfrikanerSouthern

Africa

ColouredsIntermarriages in South AfricaRepublic of South Africa: ColouredsSouthern

Africa

Ethnic Groups in the Horn of Africa
Cushites

/Hamites

Saudi ArabiaEthiopia: Oromo, Ogaden, Afar, Somali, Beja, Agew

Somalia:   Danakil, Ogaden,

Hawiyah,Somali

Eritrea: Danakil, Eritrea

Horn   of

Africa

SemitesSouth East

Asia

Ethiopia: Amhara, Bagara, Tigreans,  

Eritrea: Eritreans

Horn   of

Africa

SemitesSouth East

Asia

Sudan, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Western Sahara, Tunisia: Arabs

Algeria, Mali: Tuaregs

Algeria,Morocco:Berbers

 

Northern

Africa

Ethnic Groups in West Africa
The Mande

(Mandinka)

North AfricaGhana, Senegal, Mali, Guinea:

Soninke, Suru, Malinke, Bambara

West

Africa

The KwaChad regionGhana: Ashanti, Nzima, Wassa, Akwapim, Ga

Nigeria: Igbo, Yoruba, Edo, Nupe,

Igala

 

West

Africa

Afro AsiaticSouth East

Asia

Nigeria, Mali, Chad, Mauritania:

Hausa, Tuaregs

West

Africa

The Nilo

Saharan

Sahara desertNigeria, Cameroon: Kanuri, Zarma,

Songhai

West

Africa

Voltaic

Group

L.Chad regionGhana,   Burkina Faso:   Mossi,

Dagomba,  Bergu, Ewe

West

Africa

 

 The map showing major ethnic groups in Africa.

 

The movement and settlement of ethnic groups in Africa:

 The Bantu:

  • They are called Bantu because they speak related languages with the suffix when
  • meaning or something
  • They moved from Cameroon highlands
  • They settled in East, Central and Southern Africa
  • In South Africa they displaced the Khoisans and settled in their fertile soil.

 

The Bantu are in four groups namely;

• Eastern Bantu

• Central Bantu

Examples of Western Bantu:

• Western Bantu

• Southern Bant

• Banyoro

• Banyankole

• Bagisu, etc.

• Baganda

• Basoga

Examples of Eastern Bantu:

• Batooro

• Bagwere

• Bakiga

• Basamia   

  Akamba

Nyamwezi

• Kikuyu

• Taita

Examples of Southern Bantu:

  • Herero, Ovambo and Griqura in Namibia.
  • Tswana in Botswana.
  • The Shona in Zimbabwe
  • The Sotho: These settled in S.Africa along R.Vaal and Orange.
  • The Ngoni: They split and formed tribes like Zulu, xhosa, Ndebele,Venda and swazi who are in South Africa
  • The Southern Bantu have click sounds in their language which they borrowed from the Khoisan.

Central Bantu:

  • They are settled in Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo.

Examples of Central Bantu:

  • Bemba, Lozi of Zambia.
  • Bakongo, Balunda and Baluba of Congo.
  • Yao, Makwa of Mozambique.
  • Nyanja, Chewa of Malawi.
  • Mbundu, Ovimbundu of Angola.

.

Reasons for Bantu’s migration:

  • Love for adventure.
  • Due to outbreak of diseases in Cameroon highlands.
  • They were looking for areas with fertile soils for farming.
  • They wanted areas with reliable rainfall.

Due to internal and external conflicts in their homeland. • Due to population increase in Cameroon highlands  Historical factors that influenced the Bantu’s migration

  • Outbreak of diseases.
  • Internal and external conflicts.
  • Drought in their cradle land.

Problems faced by the Bantu during their migration:

  • Attacks from dangerous wild animals.

Attacks from hostile tribes.

Harsh weather conditions.

Shortage of food.

Poor transport

  • Rough terrain
  • Loss of lives and property
  1. Effects of Bantu’s migration:
  • They introduced new culture.
  • New crops were introduced.
  • Population increase in areas of settlement.
  • New skills were introduced.
  • They caused wars in areas where they settled
  • Some Bantu formed kingdoms Interlacustine region:
  • The area between the great lakes of East Africa.

Interlacustine kingdoms

•   Buganda kingdom

•   Wanga kingdom

•   Ankole kingdom Great lakes of East Africa:

•   Toro kingdom

•   Karagwe kingdom

•   Bunyoro kingdom

• L. Victoria

• L.Kyoga

• L. Tanganyika

• L. Albert

• L.George

• L. Malawi

  • Edward

Reasons why Bantu settled where they are living today

  • Presence of fertile soils for farming.
  • Presence of good climate.
  • Areas were free from epidemic diseases.

Problems were faced by Bantu during their settlement.

  • They faced a problem of hostile tribes.

Harsh weather.

Diseases.

  • Attacks from wild animals

People who formed Wanga kingdom

  • Baluhya

Causes of migration today:

  • To look for better jobs.
  • To Look for better social services.
  • To look for fertile areas for farming.
  • To look for areas with good climate.
  • To look for better security The Nilotes:

The Nilotes are divided into three groups namely;

  • River- Lake Nilotes: believed to have migrated from Bahr el Ghazel in Sudan.
  • Plain Nilotes:believed to have migrated from Ethiopian highlands.
  • Highland Nilotes:believed to have migrated from Ethiopian highlands.
  • The main occupation of the Nilotes was pastoralism.

The River-Lake Nilotes (Nilotics):

  • They migrated from Bahr el Ghazel in South Sudan.
  • They are called River-Lake Nilotes because they settled near lakes and rivers.
  • They settled first settled at Pubungu when they entered Uganda(East Africa).

Reasons for the migration River Lake Nilotes:

  • Due to the outbreak of diseases.
  • Due to prolonged drought in Bahr-el-Ghazal.
  • Due to internal conflicts.
  • Overpopulation in their cradle land.
  • Drought and famine.

 The Plain Nilotes:

  • They came from Ethiopian highlands
  • They entered East Africa through Kenya
  • They settled on plains of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania Highland Nilotes:
  • They migrated from Ethiopian highlands

They entered East Africa through Kenya.

They settled on the highlands of Kenya and Uganda Cushites:

  • They migrated from Saudi Arabia and first settled in the Horn of Africa
  • It was the first ethnic group to migrate into East Africa
  • They settled in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania

 

 

Pygmies (Bambuti):

  • They are the earliest people to live in Africa
  • They settled in Ituri forests of DRC, Congo and Gabon.
  • Their occupation is hunting.
  • They are short and dark skinned with broad nose.
  • They are about 137cm tall.
  • They are fruit gatherers.

Semites:

  • They migrated from South East Asia:
  • They settled in North Africa and the Horn of Africa:

 

 

Coloureds

  • They live in South Africa
  • They are as a result of intermarriage between Whites, Asians and Blacks.

Afrikaners:

  • They live in South Africa.
  • They are descendants of the Boers
  • Their language is called Afrikaan
  • They are descendants of the the Dutch settlers
  • They existed through intermarriage between the Dutch and the Blacks in South Africa.
  • The Dutch migrated from Netherland(Holland) and settled in the republic of South Africa.
  • The Dutch who were brought to carryout farming in South were called the Boers.
  • The Dutch formed the first colony in Africa called Cape Colony

The Khoisan

  • Originated from the Central African forests
  • The Khoisans are the earliest inhabitants of Southern Africa.
  • They comprise of the Khoi Khoi and the San.
  • The San are also called the Bushmen.
  • Khokhoi were called Hottentots by Europeans.
  • The Khoisan speak a language with click sound.
  • Khoikhoi are pastoralists while the San are hunters/fruit gatherers.
  • They were displaced by Bantu and Europeans from their homelands.
  • Today they live in Kalahari and Namib deserts.
  • Khoisan have reduced in number because they have been absorbed by the Bantu.

The Negroes

  • They are the skinned people of Africa living South of the Sahara.
  • The Negroes are considered to be Bantu.

Their origin is from the forests of West Africa.

They are mainly crop farmers.

Groups of Negroes:

  • Pure Negroes e.g Wolof, Serer,Tokolor.
  • Mixed Negroes e.g Songhai,Hausa,Kanuri, Fulani.

\Other examples of the Negroes in Africa are;

  • Mandika (Mande) of Mali
  • The Asante of Ghana
  • The Yoruba and Igbo of Nigeria

NB

Most Negroes were taken as slaves to America

Reasons for migration of ethnic groups in Africa:

  • Internal conflicts.
  • Wars
  • Population increase
  • Lack of enough land and water
  • Harsh climate
  • Diseases
  • Loss of soil fertility

Problems met by ethnic groups during their migration.

  • Resistance from local people
  • Difficult in movement
  • Wild animals
  • Diseases
  • Difficult terrain(landscape)
  • Shortage of food and water Effects of ethnic migrations
  • Population increased
  • New culture
  • Displacement of original settlers.

Wars

Introduction of new economic activities.

Rural urban migration

  • Movement of people from villages to towns for settlement.

Causes of rural urban migration.

  • To get employment in towns
  • To get better education in towns
  • To get better medical services in towns
  • To get piped water and electricity in towns

 

Effects of rural urban migration in villages

  • Shortage of labour
  • Lack of market
  • Low development
  • Low tax collection

Effects of rural urban migration in towns

  • Lead to unemployment
  • Leads to high crime rate
  • Leads to creation of slums
  • Shortage of social services

Ways of controlling rural urban migration

  • Building better schools in villages
  • Creating jobs in villages
  • Building better hospitals in villages
  • Extending electricity to rural areas
  • Building better roads in rural areas

Rural rural migration

  • Movement of people from one village to another for settlement.

Causes of rural rural migration

  • To get fertile land for farming
  • To get areas with electricity

To get areas with better education services

To get areas with reliable rainfall Effects of rural migration

  • Shortage of land in new areas of settlement
  • Population increase in new areas
  • Land conflicts in new areas

Urban rural migration

  • Movement of people from towns to villages for settlement

 

 

Causes of urban rural migration

  • Loss of jobs
  • Old age
  • Diseases
  • To get enough land

Why government encourages urban rural migration

  • To increase food production
  • To reduce unemployment in towns
  • To reduce high crime rate in towns
  • To overcrowding in towns

Differences between current migrations and ethnic migrations

  • Today people migrate to look for better jobs unlike ethnic migrations
  • Today people migrate to look for better education unlike ethnic migrations
  • Today people migrate to look for better medical services unlike ethnic migrations
  • Today people migrate to look for areas with better transport unlike ethnic migrations

How relief influenced settlement patterns

  • The Bantu settled on highlands with fertile soils and reliable rainfall
  • The Plain Nilotes and Cushites settled on plains with pasture.

 

Factors that influenced settlement of ethnic groups

  • Soil fertility
  • Climate

Occupation

Relief

Kingdoms of Africa

Eastern Western Southern Central
Buganda kingdomGhana kingdomZuluGreat Zimbabwe
Toro kingdomSonghaiLuba – Lunda
Bunyoro kingdomBeninMwenomutapa
Ankole kingdomKanem Bonu
Wanga kingdomMali
Karagwe kingdomAsante
Rwanda Kingdom
Urundi kingdom

 A map showing kingdoms of Africa

Activity 1

How were the people of Africa politically organized during the pre-colonial time?

  • Africans were organized under kingdoms.

Under clan systems.

Under chiefdoms

  • Under empires

 

How were Africans economically organized in pre-colonial time?

Africans were engaged in many traditional activities such as:

  • Trade   Iron working
  • Keeping animals hunting
  • Farming

What is a kingdom?

  • A state ruled by a king.

W hy were kingdoms restored in Uganda?

  • To promote and preserve culture among the people of Uganda.
  • To promote peace and unity in Uganda.
  • To unite people for national development.

Which constitution abolished kingdoms in Uganda?

  • The 1967 constitution.

Which kingdoms were restored in Uganda by the 1995 constitution?

  • Buganda Kingdom.
  • Toro kingdom
  • Bunyoro Kingdom
  • Busoga kingdom

Give the importance of kingdoms

  • They promote culture.
  • They promote unity.
  • promote morals.
  • They promote peace.
  • They unite people for national development.

Write down two characteristics of a kingdom

  • They have royal regalia.

They have hereditary leadership.

Their kings are the fountain of honor.

 Mention the factors that led to the expansion of Buganda kingdom.

  • Buganda had a strong leadership.
  • Buganda had enough food.
  • Buganda had a good location of being near L. Victoria.
  • Buganda had acquired guns during the long distance trade.
  • Buganda had good climate.

What caused the decline of Bunyoro-Kitara empire

  • The large size of the empire which was hard to manage.
  • The out break of epidemic diseases which led to the death of their beloved cow Bihogo.
  • The coming of the Luo-Babito.
  • Internal conflicts from the Princes which resulted into the creation of Tooro and Bunyoro kingdoms.

What were the contributions of Bunyoro-Kitara empire to modern economy?

  • They introduced coffee cultivation.
  • They introduced iron smelting.
  • They introduced long horned cattle.

Social contributions of the Bachwezi • They introduced bark cloth making.

  • They introduced local chess.
  • They introduced wooden sandals.
  • They introduced centralized system of government.
  • They introduced Pet names.

Who were the founders of Bunyoro-Kitara empire?

  • Abatembuzi

Who was the first and last ruler of the Chwezi?

  • The first was Ndahura.
  • The last was Wamala.

Write down three tribes in Uganda under the Sudanic group of people.

  • Lugbara Kakwa
  • Madi

What caused the rise of Ghana kingdom?

Ghana had a lot of gold.

Ghana had a lot of food.

  • Ghana had strong weapons made of iron.

 

 

What caused the fall of Ghana kingdom?

  • Due to external attacks.
  • The loss of gold.

Activity 2:

  • Give two reasons why most Nilotes have changed from pastorolism (cattle keeping) to crop farming?
  • Write four pastoral tribes in East Africa.
  • Write the pastoral tribes in Africa outside East Africa.
  • Mention the problems faced by pastoral tribes.
  • Write two disadvantages of nomadic pastoralism.
  • Suggest ways in which nomadic pastoralists can be helped to live a better life.
  • Match the following ethnic groups in list A with their tribes in list B.

 

 

List A List B

  • River Lake Nilotes Kakwa
  • Plain Nilotes Nandi
  • Highland Nilotes Galla
  • Cushites San
  • Semites Jopadhola
  • Khoisan Tuaregs

 

FOREIGN INFLUENCE ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT

There were the changes that were brought to Africa by foreigners from Europe and Asia.

Reasons why Africa took long to be known to the outside world -Africa had thick had thick impenetrate forests that made transport difficult.

-It was due to hostile tribes.

-Africa had hot deserts.

-Africa has dangerous wild animals.

NB:

The above problems were feared by the foreigners.

Foreign groups / groups of foreigners that came to Africa

-They were grouped as Arabs and Europeans

-The following were some of the foreigners under European;

i)Explorers ii)Missionaries iii)Traders

iv)Colonialists / Administrators

V)Settlers

 

NB:The Arab traders were the first foreigners to come to Africa.

Reasons why foreigners came to Africa

1.They came to spread religions.

2.They came to get materials for their industries.

3.They wanted to get market for their finished goods.

4.They wanted to invest their surplus capital.

5.They wanted to find new lands for settlement.

6.They wanted to stop slave trade.

 

The Asians in Africa

-The Asians include the Indians, Malaysians, Arabs and Chinese.

-The Asians came to Africa as  traders and settlers.

-Other groups of Asians came as workers on the railway line.

The coming of the Arabs (to the African continent) -Arabs came from Saudi Arabia and some from Persia.

-They came by means of special boats called dhows which were powered by the monsoon winds.s

Reasons for the coming of Arabs to Africa:

-They came mainly to trade.

-They also wanted to spread Islam.

-They were running away from religious conflict.

Arab traders in North Africa:

-From Arabia they settled in the Nile delta

-They displaced the Berbers who were original inhabitants of North Africa.

-They wanted to control Trans-Saharan trade.

1.a)What was Trans-Saharan trade?

This was the trade between the Berbers and the people of West Africa across Sahara desert.

b)Name the goods that the Berbers brought to West Africa.

i)salt iv)glasses ii)silk v)camels

iii)Cotton clothes vi)perfumes

c)Name the items of trade which the Berbers got from West Africa during the Trans-

Saharan trade

i)Ivory ii)Gold iii)Skins and hides iv)Ostrich feathers

2.Why did the traders move in Caravans during the Trans-Saharan trade? For protection

3.What makes a camel an ideal means of transport in the desert?

-It has strong lids to protect the eyes from sand dust.

-It has a fatty hump that gives energy.

It has flat homes that cannot sink in sand.

Effects of the coming of the Arabs

1.They introduced the Islamic faith.

2.They promoted trade.

3.They introduced the new ideas of architecture.

4.They introduced some crops e.g cloves, rice, sisal.

5.They introduced Zebu cows.

6.They introduced new styles of dressing.

7.Their coming led to the growth and development of coastal towns of East Africa.

8.Slave trade was introduced in Africa.

9.They introduced many items like guns, beads.

SLAVE TRADE

What is Slave Trade?

The buying and selling of human beings.

What is was slavery?

This was the possession of a person by another people illegally.

How were slaves obtained?

i).Through raids.

ii).Through barter trade. iii).Fuelling was between chiefdoms and kingdoms or getting war captives.

Why were slaves needed?

i).The Arabs wanted slaves as domestic workers.

ii).The French wanted slaves to work in their sugarcane plantations in the Indian ocean.

iii).The other Europeans wanted slaves to work for them in their mines and sugarcane plantaions

in  America.

iv).The African leaders needed them for bartering. People who took part (participated) in slave trade

a)The Arab traders.

b)The African chiefs and kings

c)The Khartoumers.

d)The Europeans (the Dutch, the French, Spaniard, Portuguese)

Slave trade markets in East Africa

-Zanzibar was the largest slave trade market in the world.

-Tabora (Kaze) was the largest slave trade market in the interior.

 

EFFECTS OF SLAVE TRADE

-Kings and chiefs gained a lot of wealth.

-It led to the growth of some kingdoms and societies.

-It led to the growth of towns e.g Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Sofala, etc.

-Africas interior was known to the outside world.

-It led to the introduction of new items of trade e.g guns, beads, plates, cups, etc.

 

Negative effects

-Loss of lives

-Human suffering

-Loss of culture

-Famine

-Depopulation

-Tribal conflicts emerged

-Destruction of property  

Reasons why slave trade was difficult to stop

-It was profitable to the traders and to the African chiefs.

-Many Europeans wanted it to continue so that they could get cheap labour.

 

People who participated in abolition of slave trade

-Sir Samuel Baker

-Dr. David Livingstone

-Abraham Lincoln

-Willian Wilberforce

Adam Smith

 

 

 

Questions

1.a)Mention the treaties that were signed to stop slave trade in East Africa

-Moresby treaty – 1871

-Harmattan treaty – 1876

-Frere treaty – 1878

b)Who signed each treaty above?

-Capt Moresby and Sultan of Zanzibar signed the Moresby treaty.

-Harmattan and the Sultan of Zanzibar signed the Harmattan treaty.

-Frere treaty was signed by Sultan of Zanzibar and Frere.

2.How did the following help to end slave trade?

a)Dr. David Livingstone

He invited trading companies to carryout legitimate trade.

b)The railway line

It was used to transport goods instead of using slaves.

c)William Wilberforce

He decampaigned  slave trade in the British parliament.

d)The missionaries

They preached against slave trade.

Indian traders in East Africa:

-First Indians settled in  Zanzibar

-They were encouraged by Sultan Seyyid Said

-The second group of Indians were Indian coolies.

-After the completion of the Uganda railway, some went back others remained to trade.

 

How did the Indians contributed to the development of East Africa?

i).They constructed Kenya-Uganda railway.

ii).They built shops. iii).They built industries. iv).They introduced new crops.

v).They introduced new forms of money e.g the Indian rupees.

vi).They started plantation farming.

2.Give three reasons for building the Kenya- Uganda railway

i).To transport goods from Uganda  to the coast.

ii).To transport British administrators from the coast to the interior. ii)i.To stop slave trade.

iv).To promote Legitimate trade.

3.What problems were faced by the builders of Kenya-Uganda railway? i).Attacks from hostile tribes.

ii).Attacks from dangerous wild animals.

iii).Epidemic diseases. iv).Crossing the rift valley was difficult.

4.Why were Indian coolies invited to construct the Kenya-Uganda railway? i The Africans never wanted to leave their families. ii The Indian coolies were more experienced in the railway construction than the Africans.

5.What were the results of constructing Kenya-Uganda railway?

i).Slave trade was stopped. ii).Transport was made easy. iii).It led to the development of towns. iv).Trade was promoted.

6.How did the following affect the construction of Kenya-Uganda railway? a)Rift valley

-It was difficult and expensive to construct the railway across rift valleys.

b)The Nandi people

They never wanted the railway to go through their land.

-They killed some builders of the railway line.

c)Lions of Tsavo

They killed the builders of the railway line.

7.What role was played by each of the following people during the construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway.

i).Engineer George White House

He was the chief engineer during the construction of the railway. ii).Major MacDonald

He was the chief surveyor during the construction of the railway.

iii).Colonel Patterson

He killed the man eaters of Tsavo.

iv).Sir William Mackinnon

He brought the ideas of the construction of the Uganda  railway.

v).Sir Guild Ford

He was the last engineer to inspect the Uganda  railway.

 

The Persian traders in East Africa:

-They came from Persian Gulf present day Iraq

 

Effects of the Persian traders:

They introduced new trade items like daggers,guns,bowls,iron pots and pans

-They introduced new architecture -They promoted coastal trade.

 

EXPLORERS IN AFRICA

1.Who is an explorer?

A person who leaves his country to another country or continent to search for information.

2.Why did the explorers come to Africa?

-To find the sources of R. Nile.

-To find areas of trade.

-To find geographical information about Africa.

 

 

 

 

 

Problems that were faced by explorers in Africa

-Attacks from wild animals

-Poor transport

-Harsh climate -Tropical diseases.

-Shortage of supplies.

-Language barriers.

  1. What were the effects of the European explorers (results) -Physical features were renamed.

-Africa was opened to the rest of the world.

-Friendship and links between Africa and Europe started.

-They discovered areas of trade.

-Explorers gave information to traders and missionaries.

 

The Portuguese explorers:

They came from Portugal

-They were the first explorers to come to Africa

 

Reason for the coming of Portuguese explorers:

To find sea route to India

 

Prince Henry the navigator:

He was the son to king Emmanuel of Portugal.

-He was called the navigator because he built school of navigation at Port Sagres in Portugal

 

The role of Prince Henry the navigator in the exploration of Africa:

He built school where sailors were trained

-He built strong ships

-He discovered the use of a compass in finding direction.

5.Name the first explorer to come to Africa.

Bartholomew Diaz

Bartholomew Diaz

-He was a Portuguese.

He wanted to find a sea route to India.

He was the first explorer to sail around Cape Town.

6.Why did Bartholomew Diaz call Cape Town the Cape of Good Hope?

7.What made Bartholomew Diaz not to complete his journey to India?

-He was affected by storms.

-He lacked supplies.

Vasco Da Gama

-He was a Portuguese explorer who discovered the sea route to India.

-He started his journey from Lisbon, Portugal.

1.What problems were faced by Vasco Da Gama during his journey to India?

  • Lack of supplies.
  • Storms
  • Diseases like scurvy

2.Why was it necessary for Vasco Da Gama to find the sea route to India?

-To avoid the high taxation from the Ottoman empire.

-He wanted to ease trade between India and Portugal.

3.Name the items of trade the Portuguese wanted from India

  • Spices
  • Silk
  • Gold

EXPLORERS TO WEST AFRICA

Mongo Park

-He tried to find the source of R. Niger-He died at Bussa Falls.

Other explorers

Richard Lander, John Lander, Gordon Laing and Hugh Clapperton also tried to find the source of

R.NIGER

Questions

  1. Why was West Africa called the White man’s grave?

Many white men died from there.

  1. How did Mungo Park meet his death?

He drowned at Bussa Falls.

  1. Mention three problems that were faced by Explorers in West Africa. i) Hostile tribes.
  2. Tropical diseases.
  • Attacks from wild animals

EXPLORERS IN CENTRAL AFRICA

Dr. David Livingstone  -He was from Scotland.

-He crossed Africa from Indian Ocean to Atlantic Ocean.

-He discovered Victoria falls on R. Zambezi in Zambia.    

-He treated people suffering from sleeping sickness.

-He discovered Lake Tanganyika.

-He spread Christianity.

-He stopped slave trade in East and Central Africa.

-He invited trade companies to promote legitimate trade.

 

Qn1.Who were the servants of David Livingstone?

  • Chuma
  • Susi

EXPLORERS IN EAST AFRICA

Sir Samuel Baker

-He followed R.Nile from its mouth.

-He discovered L. Albert and Murchion falls.

-He was the first governor of Equatorial province.

-He stopped slave trade in Acholi land.

-He tried to colonise Uganda for Egypt.

-He built A Fort at Patiko.

 

Qn 1.Why did Sir Samuel Baker not welcomed in Bunyoro Kitara Kindgom?

Qn 2.Why did Omukama Kabalega resist Sir Samuel Baker?

Qn 3.Why did Kasagama of Toror welcome Sir Samuel Baker and Lugard?

JOHN SPEKE

-He discovered the source of R.Nile.

-He was the first European to see L. Victoria.

-He renamed Kiira falls as Rippon falls.

Questions

  1. Why is it wrong to say that Speke discovered the source of R. Nile? 2. Why were the Europeans interested in finding the source of R.Nile?
  2. In which way was R.Nile responsible for the coming of the first Europeans to Africa.

HENRY MORTON STANLEY

-He discovered Mt. Rwenzori and named it mountains of the moon.

-He moved around L. Victoria to prove Speke’s discovery about the source of R.Nile.

-He wrote a letter inviting missionaries to Uganda.

-He came to East Africa three times.

  1. 1871 -He came to look for Dr. David Livingstone.
  2. 1873 /4-To prove Speke’s discovery about the source of R.Nile.
  3. 1879 -To rescue Emin Pasha

– He discovered L. Edward and L. George.

Questions

  1. Why did Stanley call Mt. Rwenzori mountains of the moon?
  2. Who requested Stanley to write a letter inviting missionaries?
  3. Who took the letter which Stanley wrote?
  4. Why did Muteesa I invite christen missionaries to his kingdom?

 

 

 

 

Other explorers and their contributions

Explorer contributions
Joseph ThompsonHe discovered Mt. Elgon and L. Balingo
Count TelekiHe discovered L. Turkana
James BruceHe discovered L. Tana and Blue Nile
Dr. FisherHe discovered L. Naivasha
Johann RebmannHe discovered Mt. Kilimanjaro
Jacob ErhardtHe attempted to draw the map of East

Africa.

Dr. SteerHe built a mission centre at Zanzibar.
Johann Ludwig KrapfHe discovered Mt. Kenya

Questions

  1. Apart from Dr. David Livingstone, write other explorers that moved to central Africa.

2.a) Write down two organizations that sponsored the above Explorers.

  1. b) In which ways were the above organizations important to explorers.
  2. How did the explorers lead to the exploitation of Africa’s resources?
  3. Mention two positive effects of explorers to Africa.
  4. How did the coming of explorers affect Africa negatively?

MISSIONARIES IN AFRICA

1.Who is a missionary?

A person who leaves his country to another country to spread the word of God.

2.Give reasons why missionaries came to  Africa.

-They came to spread Christianity.

-They came to stop slave trade.

-They introduced formal education.

MISSIONARIES WHO CAME TO AFRICA

1.John Ludwig Krapf

-He was sent to Africa by the church missionaries society.

-He spread Christianity in Ethiopia and Kenya.

-He built a mission station at Rabai Mpya in Kenya.

-He translated the English Bible into Kiswahili.

-He was an explorer as well as a missionary.

 

Qn1 .How did the mission station at Rabai Mpya contribute to the spread of Christianity?

It helped people to learn how to read religious books.

Qn2 .How dis Ludwig Krapf contribute to the spread of Christianity in East Africa?

-He build a mission station at Rabai Mpya.

-He translated the English bible into Kiswahili.

2.Johann Rebmann

-He was a missionary who helped Krapf to start a mission station.

-He discovered Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Qn1.Name the first missionaries to come to East Africa.

-Johann Ludwig Krapf

-Johann Rebmann

  1. David Livingstone

-He preached Christianity in Central, Southern and South Western part of Africa.

-He helped to start a University mission station in Central Africa.

Qn 1.Mention the missionaries that came to Uganda in 1877?

Qn 2.Mention the missionaries that came to Uganda in 1879?

  1. Alexander Mackay:-He was a practical missionary who trained people economic skills such carpentry, trailing and brick laying.

-He introduced a printing press in Uganda in 1878.

-He built a carpentry workshop at Natete.

-He built a mission station at Mpwampwa in Tanzania.

1.How did Alexander Mackay contribute to the economic development in Uganda?

2.How did the introduction of the printing press by Alexander Mackay promote the spread of Christianity?

5.Dr. Albert cook:-He build Mengo Hospital.

-He treated people suffering from sleeping sickness.

Qn.1.How did Dr. Albert Cook help to control the spread of sleeping sickness around L.Victoria?

6.Bishop Hannington:-He was the first Anglican Bishop to be murdered in Uganda.

-He was murdered in Busoga by Chief Luba on orders of Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda Kingdom.

Qn.1a) Who ordered for the killing of Bishop Hannington?

  1. b) Why was Bishop Hannington murdered?

7.Apollo Kivebulaya-He spread Christianity in Western Uganda and some parts of DRC.

8.Phillip Mitchell:-He turned or changed Makerere College into a University.

9.Bishop turker:-He requested for funds from Church Missionary Society to support IBEACo.

 

 

 

 

 

Problems which were faced by missionaries in Africa -Attacks from hostile tribes.

-Tropical diseases.

-Language barriers

-Harsh climate

-Poor transport

-Attacks from wild animals

Questions

1.How did the missionaries contribute to the development of Africa?

  1. State the negative effects of missionaries to Africa.
  2. Write down the economic contributions of missionaries to Africa.
  3. Give the social contributions of missionaries to Africa.
  4. Mention the political effects of missionaries to Africa.
  5. What were the achievement of missionaries in Africa?
  6. State the missionary groups in Africa.
  7. a) Mention the missionary that promoted health services in Uganda.
  8. b) How did the above missionary promote health service in Uganda?
  9. a) Which missionaries contributed to the economic development of Uganda?
  10. b) How did the above missionaries contribute to the development in Uganda?

 

EUROPEAN TRADERS IN AFRICA

First European trders in Africa  were Portuguese in W.Africa.

-They were attracted to W.Africa by gold at the gold coast.

-They built Fort Elmina,Azim,Sharma,and Accra.

Reasons why traders came to Africa

-They wanted raw materials for their home industries.

-They wanted to invest their surplus capital.

-They wanted market for their finished goods.

 

 

 

Positive Effects of European traders in Africa:

They created market for African goods.

-They led to the growth of urban centres in Africa. -They led to the development of transport infrastructure -They introduced new goods.

-They established legitimate trade

-They introduced new crops

Negative effects of European traders in Africa:

-Increased the demand for slaves which led to depopulation of Africa

-They led to the collapse of traditional industries in Africa

-They led to the spread of diseases like small pox and measles

-They established colonial rule through their trading companies

 

 

The Triangular/Trans-Atlantic trade:

This was the trade that involved the people of West Africa, America and Europe across Atlantic ocean.

  1. b) Mention the items of trade that were got from Europe to Africa
  • clothes
  • guns
  • cups and plates
  1. c) From Africa to America
  • Slaves
  • Ivory
  • Gold
  1. d) From America to Europe
  • Sugar – gold
  • silver – cotton
  • Tobacco – Tea
  • Copper

Europe

Tea

Copper

America     slaves       Africa

Ivory

Gold

 

 

 

Trading companies that came to Africa

  1. i) Imperial British East Africa Company. ii) The Germany East African Company. iii) The Dutch East Indian Company. iv) International African Association.
  2. British South African Company.
  3. Livingstone Central African Company. vii) British Indian Steam Navigation Company.

IMPERIAL BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY

-It was formed by Sir William Mackinnon in 1888.

-Capt. Fredrick Lugard became its representative in East Africa.

Why was IBEACo formed?

-To carryout trade in East Africa.

-To establish British rule in East Africa.

-To protect missionaries.

Qn: What was the role of Fredrick Lugard in the IBEACo?

He signed the agreements in Buganda and Ankole on behalf of the British government.

Capt. Fredrick Lugard

-He was the representative of IBEACo in East Africa.

-He signed treaties to establish British rule in Uganda.

-He restored Omukama Kasagama of Toro.

-He supported the prostestants against the Catholics.

Questions

1.What were the results of the Agreement that was signed between Mwanga and Lugard?

-Lugard was to protect Mwanga.

-Lugard was to trade in Buganda.

-Mwanga was not to conduct trade without the concent of Lugard.

  1. Why did Lugard support the protestants during the conflict?
  2. Apart from Uganda and Kenya , write other two countries in Africa where IBEACo went.
  3. Why did IBEACo withdraw from East Africa?
  4. What factors made IBEACo to run bankrupt?
  5. Which organization provided IBEACo with more funds?
  6. Why did the above organization provide funds to IBEACo?
  7. Which Bishop requested funds for IBEACo?
  8. Why did Capt Fredrick remain in Uganda after the collapse of his company?

THE GERMAN EAST AFRICA COMPANY

-It was founded by Carl Peters in 1888.

-It was formed to carry put trade in Tanganyika and to administer Tanganyika on behalf of the Germans.

-GEACo attempted to colonise Uganda for Germany.

-Carl Peters signed treaties with the local chiefs in Tanganyika.

Questions

  1. Why was the Heligoland treat signed?
  2. What were the contributions of GEACo to the people of Tanganyika?
  3. In which way was GEACo a disadvantage to the people of Tanganyika?
  4. Who spear headed the colonization of Tanganyika?
  5. Who were the Akidas and Jumbes in Tanganyika?

6.Mention the goods which the European traders got from Africa.

7.Mention the goods which the European traders brought to Africa?

8.How did the European traders contribute to the development of Africa?

COLONIAL RULE IN AFRICA

  1. Give the meaning of the following.
  2. Colonialists: These were people who came from Europe to rule Africa.
  3. A colony:Is a country ruled by another stronger country for her citizens to have a permanent
  4. A protectorate:It is a weaker country ruled by a stronger country for only economic exploitation.
  5. A mandate territory:These were former colonies of Germany that were ruled by Britain on behalf of League of Nations and UN.
  6. Scramble for Africa:This was the struggle among European countries to get colonies in

Africa.

PARTITION OF AFRICA

This was the peaceful division at African territories among European countries for colonization.

Reasons for scramble / partition of Africa.

a)Economic reasons

-The Europeans wanted raw materials for their industries.

-They wanted to invest their surplus capital.

-They wanted market for their finished goods. -They wanted to settle their unemployed population.

b)Social reasons

-They wanted to stop slave trade.

-They wanted to spread Christianity.

-They wanted to introduce formal education.

 

THE BERLIN CONFERENCE

It was the meeting held in Germany in 1884 / 5 to partition Africa.

Reasons why the Berlin conference was held.

-To agree on how European countries would partition Africa.

Terms of the Berlin conference:

-European countries were to get colonies from where their nationals were operating.

-Border conflicts among European countries were to be settled peacefully.

-Physical features would be used as boundaries.

Results of the Berlin conference?

-Africa was partitioned.

-Trading companies were started.

-European countries were to stop slave trade in their colonies.

-Solving international conflicts diplomatically started

Countries that participated in the Berlin conference.

  • Germany – France
  • Britain – Portugal
  • Italy   – Belgium
  • Spain

Who chaired the Berlin Conference?

-Otto Van Bismarck

European colonial agents in Africa:

These were Europeans who were sent by their countries to establish their rule.

Examples of European colonial agents:

Cecil Rhodes for Britain in Southern and Central Africa

-De Brazza for France in Congo Basin

-Sir George Goldie forBritain in W.africa

-Dr. Nachtigal for Germany in W.Africa (Cameroon and Togo) 

-Sir Harry Johnston for Britain in central Africa(Malawi) Methods used to establish colonial rule: 

Signing agreements

-Force

-Divide and rule

-Collaborators

-Trading companies

-Led to introduction of formal education

Methods used by the colonialists to administer colonial rule.

assimilation

-Direct rule

-Indirect rule

Ways Africans reacted towards colonial rule:

They resisted

-They collaborated

8.Name he countries in Africa that were colonized by the colonial masters above.

BritainFranceBelgiumGermanyPortugalSpainItaly
South AfricaMadagascarDemocratic

Republic of

Congo

NamibiaAngolaEquatorial

Guinea

Somalia
BotswanaChadCongo BrazavilleTanzaniaMozambiqueLibya
ZimbabweNigerRwanda
ZambiaBeninBurundi
MalawiBurkina FasoCameroon
UgandaIvory coastTogo
KenyaSierra Leone
SudanGuinea Bissau
EritreaGambia
EgyptMali
NigeriaMauritania
GhanaAlgeria
Morocco
Tunisia

 

 

Questions

  1. Name the countries in Africa that were not colonized.
  2. What name is given to the above countries?
  3. Give reasons why Ethiopia was not colonized.
  4. Why was Liberia not colonized?
  5. Mention the methods that were used by colonialists to establish their rule in Africa.
  6. Write down the methods of administration that were used by colonialists in Africa.
  7. What is indirect rule?
  8. What was direct rule.
  9. What was assimilation?
  10. Write the advantages of indirect rule.
  11. Why did the colonialists use the direct rule system of administration in their colonies?
  12. Mention one country in Africa where direct rule system of administration was used.
  13. How did the Africans react towards colonialism?
  14. Mention the Africans who resisted against colonial rule.
  15. Give some reasons why some Africans resisted against colonial rule.
  16. Why were African defeated as they resisted colonialists?
  17. Mention the Africans who collaborated with the colonialists.
  18. Give reasons why some African collaborated with colonialists.
  19. How did the Africans suffer during their resistance against colonialists>
  20. What were the characteristics of colonial rule in Africa?
  21. Why were Europeans interested in colonizing Africa?
  22. What were the positive effects of colonial rule in Africa?
  23. What were the negative effects of colonial rule on Africa?
  24. Mention the countries in Africa which are known as European colonies.
  25. Mention the countries that founded the federation of Central Africa.
  26. What were the disadvantages of direct rule where it was applied?
  27. Give the humanitarian reasons for the coming of foreigners to Africa.
  28. How did the industrial revolution in Europe contribute to the exploitation of Africa’s resources?
  29. How did the agricultural revolution contribute to the colonization of Africa?

30.a) Why do you think the colonialists never encouraged the building of heavy industries in Africa?

  1. How has this affected the economic development of Africa?
  2. Why is it important to process agricultural products before export?
  3. Why did the colonialists intend to keep low prices for the raw materials from Africa?
  4. How were foreign religions to Africa hindered unity among African?
  5. Give any three advantages of the introduction of Christianity and Islam in Africa.
  6. How were colonialists able to communicate to the Africans?
  7. Why did the colonialists refuse Africans to grow cash crops?
  8. In which way is traditional education different from formal education?
  9. Why did the colonialists introduce cash crop growing in Africa? Give three reasons

THE SETTLERS IN AFRICA

It was the last group of foreigners to come and settle in Africa.

The settlers include;

-Europeans

-Asians (Indians, Malay, Chinese)

-Arabs

 

Countries in Africa where the Europeans settled.

-Kenya -The Republic of South Africa

-Zimbabwe -Namibia -Angola

 

European settlers in South Africa:

The dutch was the first group of European settlers in S.Africa.

-The came from Netherlands(Holland)

1.Who were the first Europeans to come to the Coast of South Africa?

The Portuguese

2.Who named cape of storms the cape of Good hope?

King Emmanuel

3.Who was the leader of the Dutch settlers in Cape Province in South Africa? Sr. Jan Van Riebeck

4.Name the Dutch trading company .

-The Dutch East India Company

-led by Sir Jan Van Riebeck

5.Name the first area in Africa to be colonized 

Cape province in South Africa

6.Who were the Boers in South Africa?

These were the Dutch farmers.

7.Which Europeans displaced the Dutch from Cape colony?

The British

The Great Trek

This was the journey of the Boers from Cape Colony North-East wards across R.Vaal.

What caused the Great Trek?

i).The Dutch were stopped from carrying out slave trade. ii).The introduction of English as the official language. iii).The British imposed harsh rule to the Dutch.

What problems were faced by the Dutch (Boers) during the Great Trek? i).Shortage of food. ii).Poor transport. iii).Disease outbreak iv) Harsh climate.

v)They fought wars with the people they met around R.Vaal. (Shaka Zulu)

Results of Great Trek

  1. New states such as orange free state, Transvaal state and Natal province were formed.
  2. Gold was discovered. iii. There was loss of lives during the battles. iv. It led to the discovery of diamond and gold.
  3. New crops were introduced eg maize.
  4. Much land of Africans was taken by the Boers.

Reasons for the coming of settlers in Africa -They came to trade.

-They came to settle as refugees.

-They came to construct the Uganda – Kenya railway.

-They came because they were unemployed due to the industrial revolution in Europe.

How Africans benefited from the settlers  -Africans got industries.

-Africans learnt modern methods of farming.

-Africans got hospitals.

-They got schools.

-New roads were constructed in Africa. They brought diseases like small pox..

.

 

Effects of foreign ifluence.

a)Political

-Africans lost their independence -New laws were introduced.

-New states were created.

  1. Economic.

-New goods were introduced.

-Led to exploitation of raw materials -Led to the development of roads and railway lines -New crops were introduced.

  1. Social

Weakened African culture.

-Led to inter marriages

-Led to introduction of Christianity

-Foreign languages were introduced  NATIONALISM AND THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE Language competences:  

  1. Nationalism: -It is the love for one’s country.

-It is the way a person gets committed to work or fight for his country.

  1. A nationalist:-A person who gets committed to work or fight for his country.

-A person who has strong love for his / her country.

  1. Patriotism:-Love for one’s country and willingness to defend it.
  2. Pan-Africanism:It was a movement of people who believed in brotherhood and sisterhood of black people.

5.Detention:-The state of being kept in a place with out leaving as a punishment.

5.Feeling of nationalists:

-They work hard for economic development of their countries.

-They are proud of their countries.

-They want their countries to be free from bad rule.

 

People who practice the spirit of nationalism.

-The army during war time.

-Teachers in schools.

-Doctors and nurses in hospitals.

Pan Africanism:

It was an all African feeling of unity to promote their political, social and economic interests.

The work of Pan Africanists:

To promote cooperation among Africans

-To encourage Africans to form groups like political parties

-To encourage Africans to join missionary schools African countries that were not colonized:

-Ethiopia

-Liberia

Reasons for maintaining their independence Ethiopia:

It was mountainous

It had strong and well organized army.

It had strong leaders like emperor Haile Selassie who united people against colonial rule.

Liberia:

It was home for freed slaves.

Examples of Pan Africanists:

1.Marcus Garvey

-He was a black Jamaican.

Contributions of Marcus Garvey:

He founded Universal Negroe Improvement Assciation(U.N.I.A) -He founded a newspaper called the Negroe World.

-He  advised Africans to start businesses.

-He preached equality for races and cultural growth.

2.Sylvester Williams

-He was in West Indies where many blacks lived.

-He organized the first Pan-African conference in 1900.

-He paid for the Pan African conference in 1900.

3.Dr. William Du Bois:

-He organized the  Pan African conference in 1919

-He encouraged the blacks to unite

-He encouraged the blacks to work hand in hand with the whites.

-He encouraged the Negroes to struggle and win equality of rights

-Founder member of Negro Association for the Advancement of Coloured People(N.A.A.C.P)

 

4.Booker T. Washington

-He encouraged Africans to improve their welfare through education.

-He organized the  Pan African conference in 1945.

-He fought against racial segregation

-He encouraged patience and hard work among the Negroes.

Edward Wilmot Blyden:

He educated people in West Africa about Pan Africanism.

He encouraged African to love and preserve their culture.

He wrote books which taught Africans not to regard themselves as inferior.

He encouraged the study of African history and languages in schools. J.E.K Aggrey:

He encouraged Africans to value education.

-He encouraged Africans to cooperate with whites in order to progress.

5.Dr. Kwame Nkrumah

-He was a young Pan Africanist from Ghana

-He organized the first Pan African conference in African in 1958 in Ghana.

6 Leopold Senghor

He was from Senegal

-He founded the Negritude Intellectual Movement to promote African culture

-He founded the Black Students newspaper which wrote experiences of Africans in France.

Methods used by Pan Africanists in their struggle:

Meetings/conferences.

-Media.

Problems Pan Africanists faced:

Lack of unity.

-Lack of enough funds.

-Differences in political ideologies.

People who attended the Pan African conference in 1958 in Ghana

i)Kwame Nkrumah from Ghana. ii)Emperor Haile Sellassie fro Ethiopia. iii)Abdel Nasser from Egypt. iv)Muhammed Adris from Libya.

v)King Hassan II of Morocco. vi)William Tolbert from Liberia.

NB:The nationalists who attended the 1958 Pan African conference were from countries which were independent before .

  1. Name the people who attended the pan-African conference of 1945 in Manchester in England.
  • Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.

Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya

Kamuzu Banda of Malawi

Peter Abrahams of South Africa.

What were the recommendations of the 1945 Pan-African Conference in Manchester in England.

  • Africans were to start political parties.
  • They were to form trade unions.
  • To form cooperative societies

Questions:

1.How is nationalism practiced at home?

By caring and protesting family members.

2.How is nationalism practiced in schools?

By singing and respecting the national anthe  3.When do we celebrate Heroes Day in Uganda?

9th June every year.

4.Why do we celebrate Heroes Day in Uganda?

-To remember the people who died for their country or for Uganda.

-To recognize Ugandans who have contributed to its social, political and economic development

5.Write down any three heroes of Uganda.

-Kabaka Mwanga

-Omukama Kabalega

-Ignatius Kangave Musaazi

-Namaganda from Buddo Junior

– Dr. Mathew Lukwiya

8.What were the objectives of the pan-African movement (congress)

-To fight for the rights of black people.

-To unite the Africans as they fought for independence.

9.How is nationalism practices in Uganda?

-Participating in national elections.

-By working hard to bring economic development.

-By preserving and promoting culture.

-By signing the National Anthem.

10.What inspired people to develop nationalism.

-They wanted independence.

-They wanted to end discrimination.

-They wanted their land back like in Kenya.

-They wanted to end harsh laws.

 

INDEPENDENCE

1.What is independence/

When a country is free from colonial rule.

2.How did the Africans fight for independence?

-By forming political parties.

-By staging rebellions.

-Staging riots.

-Boycotting the European goods.

-Through demonstrations.

 

Nationalists who struggled for independence in Africa.

1.Kwame Nkrumah 

-He was a pan-Africanist.

-He formed the convention peoples part which led Ghana to independence in 1957.

-He was the first Prime Minister of Ghana.

-He was one of the founder members of OAU.

-He hosted the 1958 Pan-African Conference in Accra.

-He built Akasombo Dam.

2.Julius Nyerere

-He formed TANU which led Tanganyika to independence.

-He was the first Prime Minister of Tanganyika.

-He agreed with Abed Karume and united Zanzibar and Tanganyika to form Tanzania in 1964.

-He was one of the founders of OAU.

-He was one of the founders of the East African community in 1967.

Questions

1.How was Julius Nyerere important to the political development of Tanganyika?

He formed TANU that led Tanganyika to independence.

2.How did Julius Nyerere contribute to the economic development of Tanganyika?

i)He called the Chinise to build the Tazara railway.

ii)He built the Hale dam on River Pangani.

3.Why did the Tanganyika achieve independence before Uganda and Kenya?

-Tanganyika was a mandate territory.

-Governor Richard Turnbull demanded for the independence of Tanganyika.

-The people of Tanganyika demanded for independence before Kenya and Uganda.

4.Why was Ghana called Gold Coast?

Ghana had a lot of gold at the coast.

5.Why was Gold coast named Ghana after independence?

To remember the famous kingdom of West Africa called Ghana.

3.Jomo Kenyatta

-He led Kenya to independence.

-He was a leader of KANU.

-He was a political leader of MAU MAU rebellion.

-He was one of the founders of OAU.

-He was one of the founders of the East African community.

4.Dr. Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe of Nigeria -He led Nigeria to independence.

-He formed a political part called National Council of Nigerian Citizens.

-He formed a newspaper called The West African pilot.

5.Patrice Lumumba of DRC

-He was the first Prime Minister of DRC (Zaire) -He led Zaire to independence.

-He formed the Movement National Congolese.

6.Colonel Gamel Abdel Nasser

-He was the first president of Egypt.

-He attended the Pan-African conference in 1958 in Ghana.

-He helped to build Aswan High Dam.

-He put the Suez Canal under the control of Egyptian government.

-He overthrew King Farouk.

7.Tom Mboya

-He was the General Secretary of Kenya African National Union.

-He helped to form KANU.

-He represented Nairobi to the LEGCO.

-He fought for the release of political prisoners.

8.Emperor Haile Selassie

-He helped to fight the Italians who attempted to colonise Ethiopia.

-He was the first chairman of OAU in 1963.

-He formed a new constitution for Ethiopia.Churchill call Uganda the Pearl of

9.Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia

-He was the first president of Zambia.

-He formed Zambia African National Congress which later became The United Zambia Independence Party.

-He was one of the founders of OAU.

10.Dr Apollo Milton Obote

-He formed UPC which led Uganda to independence.

-He was the first executive prime minister of Uganda.

-He was one of the founders of OAU in 1963.

-He formed East African Community.

11.Nelson Mandela (South Africa)

-He opposed the apartheid policy in South Africa.

-He was the first black president of South Africa.

-He was imprisoned for 27 years.

-He won the first multi racial election in South Africa.

12.Benedicto Kiwanuka

-He was the first prime minister of Uganda.

-He was the first chief minister of Uganda.

-He was the first chief justice of Uganda.

-He was the leader of Democratic party. 

13.Samora Machel:

He led Mozambique to independence

-He promoted the building of health centres in Mozambique.

Questions

1.Who formed the Democratic Party?

2.Why did Kiwanuka go to the Lanchester House Conference in London?

3.Who was the first president of Uganda?

4.How did Muteesa II become the first president of Uganda?

5.How did KY help Obote to become the first executive prime minister of Uganda?

6.What title was given to the leader of government in 1962.

7.How many constitution has Uganda had?

13.Ignatius Kangave Musaazi

-He formed the first political party in Uganda (Uganda National Congress (UNC)

-He formed the Uganda Africa Farmers Union to fight for the rights of the Africa farmers.

Questions

1.What did Musaazi form UNC?

To fight for Uganda’s independence.

2.How did UNC fight for Uganda’s independence?  

-It United Ugandans to demand for independence.

-It demanded more seats for Africans in the Legislative council.

3.Why did Musaazi form the Uganda African farmers Union?

-To demand for high prices for cotton.

-He wanted Africans to process their cotton.

-He wanted farmers to have freedom of exporting their cotton.

Questions:

4.Which organization was formed by Kamya to demand the rights to farmers?

Uganda Farmers Union.

5.Why did Kamya form the Uganda Farmers Union in 1945.

-To demand for high prices for cotton.

-He wanted Africans to process their cotton.

-He wanted farmers to have freedom of exporting their cotton.

 

 

 

 

 

Write short notes about the following people:

Yusuf Lule

-He was once a president of Uganda.

-He was the first chairman of NRM.

George William Kakoma

He composed the Uganda National Anthem.

Lukongwa Binaisa

-He was once a president of Uganda.

-He wrote a constitution of Uganda in 1967.

Questions

1.Write the first line of the first stanza in the National anthem.

2.What do we learn from the first stanza of the National Anthem.

3.Write the first line of the second stanza.

4.What do we learn from the second stanza of the National anthem.

5.Write the first line of the third stanza of the National anthem.

6.What do we learn from the third stanza of the National Anthem?

7.Who named Uganda the Pearl of Africa?

8.Why did Winston name Uganda Pearl of Africa?

3.Mention the economic reasons why Africans wanted independence?

-Africans wanted their land back.

-To end unfair taxation.

-They wanted freedom of growing cash crops.

-Africans wanted higher salaries.

4.Political reasons why Africans fought for independence.

-Africans wanted to rule themselves.

-They wanted to b represented on LEGCO.

-Africans chiefs and kings had lost their authority.

-They wanted freedom of electing leaders.

5.Social reasons why Africans fought for independence.

-Africans wanted to practice their culture.

-They wanted better education.

-They wanted freedom of movement.

-They wanted racial discrimination to end Questions

1.In which way was education important during the struggle for independence in Africa.

-Education helped people to form political parties.

-Africans learnt English and French to ease communication.

  • Africans were able to write newspapers which mobilized people.
  • Africans gained confidence to discuss with colonialists.
  • They became responsible and respectable.
  1. How did the second World War help Africans to fight for independence.

– Africans acquired the skills of fighting.

.

6.Problems faced by Africans during their struggle for independence.

-Loss of lives. -Imprisonment.

-Destruction of property. -Torture.

-Intimidation -Harsh laws -Oppression -Segregation -Separation of families.

 

A Political party:

-It is a group of people who share the same ideas about how the country should be governed.

-It is a group of people aiming at taking over power and exercising it.

Roles of political parties:

  –To nominate candidates to represent their belief.

-To conduct political campaigns.

-To monitor the work of the elected officials.

-To direct resources towards a common goal.

 

 

 

Political parties in Uganda:

Political party Leader
Conservative partyKen Lukyamuzi
Democratic PartyNorbert Mao
Forum for Democratic ChangeMugisha Muntu
Justice Forum
National Democrats ForumKaruhanga Chapaa
National Resistance MovementYoweri Kaguta Museveni
Uganda People’s CongressOlara Otunnu
People’s Progressive PartyJaberi Bidandi Ssali
Uganda Federal AllianceBetty Olive Kamya

 

Multiparty system:

This is where there are more than one political party in a country competing for power.

Advantages of  multiparty system:

-There is room to choose better leaders.

-It provides peaceful means of changing the government.

-It promotes respect for human rights.

-The ruling party tries to develop the country in fear of losing the elections.

-It develops government organs.

Disadvantages of multiparty system.

-It causes confusion, quarrels and conflicts.

-It leads to high chances of rigging elections.

-It leads to the killing, torture,and imprisonment of members of opposition.

-It leads to division among people.

-It increases favouritism and corruption.

-Decisions and programmes take long to be worked on.

-It increases injustice

-It leads to more election petitions.

Single party system:

It is a system where only one political party controls the government.

 

Advantages of single party system:

-The leadership is respected.

-There are less conflicts.

-It is easy to take decisions.

-There is less rigging of elections.

-There are few election petitions.

-It is easy to conduct elections.

Disadvantages of single party system:

It encourages dictatorship.

-New ideas are not accepted.

-There is less accountability.

-Human rights abuse is common.

– Africans came to know that whites can be defeated.

Political parties which led some African countries to independence

Political Party Country Nationalist Year

Independence

of
Convention peoples party (CCP)GhanaKwame Nkrumah1957
TANU (Tanganyika

African National

Union)

TanganyikaJulius Kambarage

Nyerere

1961
KANU (Kenya African

National Union)

KenyaJomo Kenyatta1963
UPC (Uganda People’s

Congress)

UgandaDr. Apollo Milton

Obote

1962
NCNC (National

Council of Nigerian

Citizen)

NigeriaNnamdi Azikiwe1960
Movement of National

Congolese (MNC)

DRCPatrice Lumumba1960
United National

Independence Party

(UNIP)

ZambiaKenneth Kaunda1964
African National

Congress (ANC)

South AfricaNelson MandelaEnded apartheid in

1994

 

 

 

 

 

 

POST INDEPENDENCE IN AFRICA

-This is the period when African countries were free from colonial rule.

-The Pan – Africa movement was the fore runner of OAU.

THE FORMATION OF OAU

OAU was formed by leaders of independent African countries on5th May, 1963.

The leaders who formed OAU include

  • -Milton Obote – Uganda
  • -Kenneth Kaunda – Zambia
  • -Kamuzu Banda – Malawi
  • -Jomo Kenyatta – Kenya
  • Julius Nyerere – Tanzania
  • Haile Selassie – Ethiopia
  • Kwame Nkrumah – Ghana
  • -Leopold Senghor – Senegal
  • -Leopold Senghor – Senegal
  • -Abdel Nasser – Egypt

 

 

Reasons for forming OAU

-To defend the independence of African countries.

-To remove all kinds of colonialism in Africa.

-To promote unity among African states.

-To improve the standard of living of Africans.

-To promote international co-operation.

Achievements of OAU / successes of OAU.

-OAU helped South Africa to end the apartheid.

-It encouraged the formation of regional bodies.

-It started the African development bank. (Head quarters in Abidjan – Ivory Coast) -It helped some African countries to get independence

e.g : Angola, Namibia, Guinea Bissau

-It promoted International cooperation with united nations.

-It led to the formation of AU.

– It helped to solve border conflicts between some member states e.g

i)Between Kenya and Somalia ii)Between Chad and Libya iii)Between Morocco and Algeria

 

FAILURES OF OAU.

-Failed to have a military force.

-Failed to prevent coups in some African countries.

-Failed to end civil wars in some African countries.

-Failed to promote co-operation between some African countries.

 

Problems faced by OAU

-Lacked funds to run its activities.

-Civil wars.

-Influence of colonial powers (Neo-colonialism) -Interference from other international bodies.

-Greed for power by African leaders.

-Different ideologies among African leaders.

Principles of the OAU.

-All member countries were independent and equal.

-Peaceful settlement of disputes.

-Respect for one another.

-No interference in another state’s internal affairs.

Organs of OAU.

-The Assembly of  Heads of State.

-The council of ministers.

-The secretariat.

– Specialized commissions and committees.

THE AFRICAN UNION

-It was formed in 2002 after dissolving OAU.

-Its formation was proposed by Gadafi – the former president of Libya.

-It was formed by leaders from 53 African countries.

The objectives of African union.

-To promote democracy and good governance.

-To promote regional bodies.

-To Aid development.

-To support and defend African interests.

-To improve the standards of living in Africa.

-To promote and protect human rights.

-To promote trade.

-To promote co-operation

The current chairman of AU is Idris Deby President of Chad.

Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma is the chairperson of AU Commission

 

ORGANS OF AFRICAN UNION

The Peace and security council

-It promotes peace in areas with conflicts

The Assembly of the Union

It is made up of Heads of state of AU member countries -It is headed by the chairman who is elected every year.

– It discusses and passes resolutions on issues affecting African countries

The executive council of the union

-Makes decisions on policies of common interest The Pan African Parliament.

It is made up of four members from each national parliament -It advises other organs of AU.

The African Union commission

It runs the day today activities of AU -It makes a budget for AU.

-It is headed by the president

-The first president was Amara Essy.

The Court of Justice of the Union

-It mediates in judicial matters affecting African countries.

 

Problems/challenges facing African Union.  

-Limited funds.

-Different political ideologies.

-Dependence on foreign countries.

-Civil wars e.g Somalia

-Military coups

Solutions to problems/challenges facing AU.

Member states should be encouraged to pay their contributions in time

-African leaders should agree on common political ideas

-Promoting industrialization

-Strengthening regional economic groupings

-Promoting democracy

-Creating standing army

REGIONAL ECONOMIC GROUPINGS / COMMON MARKETS / REGIONAL BODIES

These are organizations formed by countries to promote common interests like trade..

Name the largest economic grouping in Africa.

COMESA

EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY (E.A.C)

1.- It was formed in 1967 by the president of East Africa by then.

 They were

-Obote from Uganda.

-Nyerere from Tanzania

-Jomo Kenyatta from Kenya.

  1. The headquarters are at Arusha in Tanzania.
  2. Services provided by former E.A.C
  3. i) East African airways (Headquarters) at Nairobi. ii) East African post and Telecommunications. iii) East African development bank – iv) The East African examination council.
  4. v) East African virus research.
  5. Services provided by E.A.C today.
  6. Communication by the East African post and telecommunication.
  7. Education by the East African examinations council.
  • Banking by the African Development bank. iv) Transport by the East African airways and the East African Harbours.
  1. v) Health by the East African virus research at Entebbe.
  2. The collapse of East African community.

It collapsed in 1977.

  1. Reasons for its collapse.
  2. Disagreements between Uganda and Tanzania.
  3. Kenya was benefiting more than Uganda and Tanzania.
  4. Each country wanted to develop on its own.
  5. Interference from foreign countries.

e)Lack of funds

  1. The revival of the East African Community

It was revived by the presidents of East Africa on 7th July,2000.

-Yoweri KagutaMuseveni of Uganda.

– Benjamin Mkapa of Tanzania.

-Daniel Arap Moi of Kenya.

9. Reasons for reviving the E.A.C

  • To promote regional trade.
  • To promote peace and security in the region.
  • To promote transport and communication in the region.
  • To develop industries in E.Africa.
  • To provide market.
  • To promote cooperation.
  • To reduce taxes on goods.

Questions

  1. What is a common market?
  2. How do member countries benefit from the common markets?
  3. How do common markets promote trade in the region?
  4. Which common service remained operating after the collapse of the East Africa?
  5. What were the functions of the East African post and telecommunication?
  6. Name the recent countries to join EAC.
  7. State the problems or challenges facing EAC.

 

ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS)

  1. It was formed by the Western African countries in 1975 in Lagos.

2. Members of ECOWAS are;

-Ghana      – Benin  -Niger

-Nigeria  -Burkina Faso -Liberia

-Togo     –   Ivory Coast  -Sierra Leone

-Senegal   – Mauritania

  1. Reasons/objectives for forming ECOWAS.

-To promote free movement of people and service.

-To promote economic co-operation.

-To improve the standard of living among member states.

-Headquarters are in Lagos – Nigeria.

Economic Community Monitoring Group (ECOMOG)

It is the peace keeping force of ECOWAS.

-Its work is to ensure peace.

  1. 1. COMMON MARKET FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA (COMESA)

-COMESA replaced Preferential Trade Area (PTA)

2. Member countries of COMESA include;

UgandaEthiopiaLesotho
BurundiSudanComoros
DRCZambiaMozambique
KenyaMadagascar

3. Reasons for forming COMESA

-To improve on transport and communication.

-To raise the standard of living.

-To create a common trade market.

-To promote economic cooperation.

4.Questions

  1. Which country has the COMESA headquarter?

-Zambia at Lusaka.

  1. Which country has the COMESA bank?

-Burundi

  1. Who is the Chairman and general secretary of COMESA?

-Chairman – Joseph Kabila.

-General secretary – Sindiso Ngwenya – Senegal.

5.Problems facing COMESA

-Political instability.

-Shortage of funds.

-Similar goods.

-Poor road network.

1.SOUTHERN AFRICA DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY (SADC)

It was formed in 1979.

-Member countries are;

i)South Africa ii)Namibia iii)Botswana iv)Zimbabwe

v)Angola   vi)Malawi   vii)Zambia   viii)Mozambique

2.Reasons for forming SADC

-To improve on the regional transport.

-To help landlocked countries access the seaport.

-Regional co-operation.

Inter- Government Authority and Development(IGAD):

It was formed in 1996 to replace Inter-Government Authority on Drought and

Development(IGADD)

Members of IGAD:

Djibouti

-Ethiopia

-Kenya

-Somalia

-Sudan

-Uganda

-Eritrea

-South Sudan

Objectives of IGAD:

To promote peace and security

-To develop infrastructure

-To promote trade

Advantages of economic cooperation:

-It creates a large market for the goods. -It promotes  political co-operation.

-It promotes exchange of technical skills

-Creates employment

Reduces border taxes.

-It boosts agriculture.

-It promotes unity.

Disadvantages of economic cooperation:

Unwanted immigrants through free movement across borders.

-Brain drain through free movement of labour.

-Collapse of some industries due to competition

-Member countries don’t come up with individual policies.

4. Problems facing regional co-operation

-Economic differences. They are not on the same level of development.

-Different political ideologies.

-Political instability (civil wars in some countries)

-Limited funds

-Production of similar goods

-Lack of common language

-Lack of common currency

Ways of solving problems faced by economic groupings:

Creating common currency

-Promoting political unity

-Member countries should pay their contributions in time

-Promoting the same economic ideology

-Balancing development to prevent people from migrating

 

Questions

  1. What are the functions of the East African Development Bank?
  2. i) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  1. What were the functions of the East African Examination Council?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Why do you think it was necessary to revive the East African Community?

………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Which economic grouping unites countries in the regions below?
    1. East Africa………………………………………………………
    2. Central Africa………………………………………………………
    3. Southern Africa……………………………………………………….
    4. West Africa……………………………………………………………

Oil exporting countries…………………………………………………..

  1. Mention the organ of African Union responsible for the day to day affairs of the organization.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Which organ of African Union is responsible for economic development in Africa?

…………………………………………………………..

  1. State the names of the first four people to represent Uganda in the pan African Parliament.
    1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………
    2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

….

  1. iv) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………..

  1. Give three reasons why most African countries continue to depend on foreign countries.
    1. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…….

  1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9.a) Write in full NEPAD.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. b) State the aim of NEPAD.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Why is Tanzania not a member of COMESA?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………

11.Give the functions of UNEB. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Give three reasons why most countries in Africa are not developed yet they have common markets.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Mention two economic achievements of AU.
  2. i) …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

14.Why do you think it was necessary for AU to replace OAU?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

15.Write OAU in full.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

16.Which body has been formed to replace the OAU?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Which countries qualify to be members of the OAU?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Who suggested the name OAU for the African body?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Why is Morocco not a member of the African Union?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Where were the headquarters of the OAU?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give four reasons why the OAU was formed.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Mention any four organs that were part of the former OAU.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  3. State three duties of the Assembly of Heads of state.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  4. Mention the two years when the OAU summit meetings were held in Uganda.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  5. Mention the two Presidents of Uganda who have ever chaired the OAU.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  6. In which year was the OAU formed?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Why is Kenya not a founder member of the OAU?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Mention any four founder countries of the OAU.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Mention any four founder presidents of the OAU.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  3. Which was the last country to join OAU in 1994?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Which was the last country to get independence in Africa?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Which organ of the OAU was headed by a Secretary-General?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State three duties that were carried out by the Secretary-General of the OAU.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Who was the first secretary general of the OAU?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Who is the current chairperson of the AU?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State four achievements of the OAU.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Identify one aim of the OAU that was achieved.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

38.In which country is the African Development Bank located?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Explain four ways in which the OAU was successful.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Suggest four reasons why you think the OAU failed in some of its duties.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  3. Outline four problems facing the AU.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  4. Suggest four reasons why regional economic groupings were formed.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  5. Mention four problems that were faced by the OAU.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  6. Give two reasons why ECOWAS formed.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  7. In which city is the headquarters of the ECOWAS?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. In which city is the headquarters of the revived East African Community located?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give two reasons for the collapse of the East African Community in 1977.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Write OPEC in full.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give two reasons why OPEC was formed.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Outline four challenges facing regional bodies.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  3. Suggest four solutions to the problems faced by the regional bodies.
  4. i) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……… ii) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……… iii) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………

  1. iv) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………….

  1. Name the organisation that unites all former colonies of Britain.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. What are dominion states?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give three reasons why it was necessary for African countries to unite after independence.
    1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. Name the largest economic grouping in Africa.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. In which town is the COMESA Bank located?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Explain how COMESA is important to member states.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Mention four countries that are member of COMESA.

i.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv.……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Name the country in North Africa that is a member of the COMESA.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. What is ECOWAS in full?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………….

61.Mention three examples of dominion states.

  1. i) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…… ii) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…… iii) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……

62.List any threes African members of OPEC.

  1. i) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……… ii) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……… iii) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………

  1. State any three disadvantages of economic cooperation
  2. i) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……… ii) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……… iii) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………

  1. Write down any three advantages of economic cooperation to countries.
  2. i) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……… ii) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……… iii) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………

MAJOR WORLD ORGANISATIONS

 

THE FIRST WORLD WAR

-This was the war that involved almost all the countries in the worl -It took place from 1914- 1918.

– The first World War was caused due to:

i.The assassination of Arch Duke of Australia.

ii.The rise of nationalism.

Effects of the first  world war.

-Loss of lives.

-Destruction of property.

-High number of refugees / displacement of people.

-It led to the formation of League of Nations.

-Tanganyika suffered most in World War I because it was a colony of Germany which started the first

World War.

Questions

  1. How was Germany punished for starting the first world war?

-Germany lost all her colonies

  1. Mention any three countries that were colonized by Germany.

-Tanganyika   -Rwanda

-Burundi   -Cameroon

-Namibia

 

The League of Nations

-League of Nations was formed in 1920 after the First World War Countries that formed the League of Nations:

-Britain – France-    

-Italy   – Germany (Joined later)

Why the League of Nations was formed.

-To promote peace and security world wide.

-To promote respect for human rights.

Reasons why the League of Nations failed or collapsed.

It lacked a military force.

It lacked funds.

-It had few member countries.

-Members countries were interested in their domestic affairs.

Questions

  1. What was the Heligoland treaty?

– It was a treaty signed by Britain and Germany for Germany to take the Heligo Islands and

Britain to take Uganda in return.

14.Which European country ruled Tanganyika to the time of her independence?

-Britain

15.Why was Tanganyika called a mandate territory?

-It was a former colony of Germany.

  1. How did Tanganyika being a mandate territory contribute to her achievement of independence?

-Tanganyika had become expensive for Britain to develop.

  1. What name was given to Kenya and Uganda during colonial time?

-British spheres of influence.

THE SECOND WORLD WAR

1.The second World War took place from 1939 – 1945.

-Germany attacked Poland.

2.What caused the second World War?

-There was need for independence.

-The weakness of the League of Nations.

3.What were the effects of the second World War?

-Loss of lives.

-Destruction of property.

-The formation of United Nations.

4.Name the countries that participated in the second World War?

-Germany, Britain, Italy, France and their allies.

THE FORMATION OF UNO (UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION)

  1. United Nations Organization was formed in1945

2.It replaced the League of Nations.

3.Reasons why UNO was formed.

-To keep peace and security world wide.

-To promote co-operation among member countries.

-To promote respect for human rights.

4.The organs of UN.

-The security council.

-The secretariat.

-Economic and social council.

-International court of justice.

-General assembly.

-Trusteeship council.

5.Role played by each of the organs of UN.

a)Security council

-It comprises of 15 members of which 5 are permanent members. –The permanent members are;

a)United Kingdom

b)United states of America.

c)France

d)Russia

e)China

-It sends peace keepers to countries with political instability.

-It encourages peace talks.

b)The secretariat

-It is headed by the General secretary.

-It runs the day to day affairs of United Nations.

-It makes the budget for UN.

-It makes the agenda for the UN General assembly.

c)Economic and social council

It works through UN agencies to make life better for people.

d)General Assembly

It is composed of representatives of all the member nations.

It admits new members.

e)International Court of Justice

It settles disputes among member countries. Achievements of United Nations Organization -It has maintained world peace since its formation.

-It has promoted respect for human rights through.

-It has settled border conflicts.

-It has lived up to today trying to improve the welfare of people.

Challenges of United Nations Organization

-It has failed to maintain peace in some parts of the world.

-It has failed to eradicate poverty in some parts of the world.

-It has failed to control AIDS.

The United Nations Agencies

-These are specialized organization under United Nations.

-The UN agencies work hard to improve the social and economic welfare of people.

Examples of UN agencies

-IMF – International Monetary Fund.

-UNICEF – United Nations Children’s Fund.

-FAO – Food and Agriculture Organisation.

-IBRD -International Bank for Reconstruction ad Develop.

-ILO – International Labour Organization.

-WHO – World Health Organization.

N.B

The UN agencies get funds from United Nations Organisation.

Questions

1.In which way has UNICEF tries to improve welfare of people in Uganda?

-It has provided drugs for immunization.

-It has funded schools / provided books to schools.

-It has constructed health centres.

-It has provided safe water to schools.

-It has constructed latrines in schools.

2.In which way is FAO important to African countries?

-It helps in providing quality seeds to farmers.

-It provided food to countries affected by famine.

-It helps to teach farmers better methods of farming.

IMF- It lends money to poor nations to pay their debts.

-Advises poor nations on how to run their economy.

ILO-It creates a good working relationship between employers and employees.

-Labour day is celebrated on 1st May every year.

3.How is Red Cross similar to UNHCR?

4.How is Red cross different from UNHCR?

5.Give one function of UNESCO.

6.Mention any three UN agencies operating in Uganda.

THE COMMON WEALTH ORGANISATION

-It is the organization that unites colonies, dominion and protectorate of Great Britain.

-It is headed by the Queen of England.

-It was formed in 1931.

-It has its headquarter in London.

-The current secretary general of common wealth is Sharma Karmalesh from India.

Dominions:    They regard the queen as their head.

They use laws made by British Parliament. For example Canada, Australia, New Zealand.

Colony: They were formerly controlled by Britain with the aim of making settlements e.g Kenya, Zimbabwe.

Protectorate: Countries controlled by a stronger country for only economic exploitation.

The aims of the common wealth

-It was formed to assist former British colonies, in matters of education, health and agriculture.

-To unite member states into one big family.

-To promote trade among member state.

Benefits of common wealth to member states

They get common fund to improve agriculture and industrialization.

They get scholarship.

-Sharing of expertise e.g Doctors.

-Participating in common wealth games.

-Grants and donations.

The things that Common Wealth countries share

-They use English as their official language.

-They regard the Queen of England as their head.

-They are similar education system.

The activities of common wealth

-The common wealth heads of government meeting.

-The common wealth games.

-Organises trade fair.

-Monitoring elections.

The challenges of common wealth -Constant civil wars in some member countries.

-Failure to remove dictatorship from power.

-Poverty among some member countries.

-Failure to promote democracy.

Questions

  1. What are common wealth countries?
  2. In which way does Uganda benefit from being a member of Common Wealth.
  3. How does common wealth promote democracy among member countries.
  4. When did Uganda host CHOGM?
  5. How did Uganda benefit from hosting CHOGM?
  6. State the activities organized by the Common Wealth? 7. Give three reasons why Common Wealth was formed?
  7. How is Common Wealth different from United Nations?
  8. What do Common Wealth countries share?

 

 

 

 

 

 

P.7 THIRD TERM LESSON NOTES FOR SOCIAL STUDIES

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA.

  1. Give the meaning of the following
  2. Economy: It is the way goods and services of a country are produced, distributed and consumed.
  3. Economic activities

The work which people do to earn income.

Questions

  1. Give examples of goods.
  • Minerals g gold, diamond, cobalt

Crops e.g coffe, cotton, tea

Fish e.g tilapia, nile perch

  • Animal productsg milk, butter, e.t.c
  • Timber

2 Examples of service

  • Health services – Transport services
  • Security services – Banking services
  • Insurance services – Education services
  • Tourism services
  1. Examples of economic activities
  • Fishing – Farming / crop farming
  • Tourism – Mining
  • Lumbering – Latex tapping
  • Animal rearing
  1. What is a resource?

Anything that people use to satisfy their needs.

  1. Economic resource of Africa
– Land-Vegetation
– Human labour-Water
– Minerals-Climate
– Energy resources-Wildlife
  1. Give the importance of land as an economic resource – Land is used for crop growing.
  • We build industries on land.
  • We build houses, school, hospitals, e.t.c on land.
  • We get minerals from land.
  • We construct roads on land.
  • We use land for brick making.
  • We get stones for building from land.
  1. Give the importance of farming – Source of food.
  • Employs people.
  • Sources of raw materials for agro-based industries.
  • Sources of income from cash crops.

Human labour as a resource There are three types of labour.

-Skilled labour.

-Semi-skilled labour.

Unskilled labour.

Give the importance of human labour

-To do work.   -To operate machinery.

-To carryout farmin -To manage a factory.

-To train new workers.   -To carryout mining.

-Providing services like education, medical, transport.

How can we improve labour in Africa?

-By training  workers.

-Constructing vocational institutions.

In which way has the unskilled labour affected Africa’s  economic development?

-It has created unemployment.

-Africa has failed to exploit the economic resources.

-It has promoted a dependence on developed countries.

-It has caused low industrial development.

-It has led to importation of skilled labour which is expensive.

 

Give the importance of vegetation as an economic resource

-It is a source of timber.

-It is a source of wood fuel.

-It is a source of herbs.

-They attract tourists for income.

-It is a source of rubber.

-We use vegetation to grace animals.

Give the importance of wildlife as an economic resource -They attract tourists for income.

-Create employment.

-They provide hides and skins.

-They provide ivory (tusks).

-Sources of wild meat.

Mention the items from skins and hides

-Belts  –   crafts

-Shoes –   Drums

-Bags    – Cultural wear

Give the importance of water bodies as economic resources of Africa -They provide fish to people.

-They provide water for irrigation.

-They are used for water transport.

-They attract tourists for income.

-They generate hydro electricity.

-They provide water for domestic and industrial use.

-They provide sand.

-They provide salt.

Importance of climate as an economic resource.

-Climate supports farming.

-Climate attract tourists for income.

-We get solar energy from the sun.

MUNERALS AS A NATURAL RESOURCE

MINING

This is the extraction of minerals from the ground.

What are minerals>?

Minerals are substances that are found in rocks of the earth.

Give examples of minerals.

Petroleum-Gold
Zinc-Silver
Copper   -Tin
Diamond-Cobalt
Phosphates-Uranium
Bauxite-Ion
Salt-Limestone
Coal-Asbestos

Importance of minerals

-They earn foreign income to the country.

-They are used as a raw materials in industries.

-They create employment for people.

-They help to improve social services in a country.

 

Why are most countries in Africa not able to exploit the mineral wealth?

-Due to low level of science and technology.

-Lack of machinery.

-Lack of capital.

-Poor transport network.

-Political instability.

 

Give the  solutions to the above problems -Training people skills.

-Importing machinery e.g tractors, excavators

-By getting loans from rich countries and international organizations.

-By constructing better road networks.

-By promoting / encouraging peace talks.

Write down the problems faced by the mining industry in Africa -The mining centres collapse and kill the miners.

-Price fluctuations of minerals in the world market.

-Poor transport.

-Lack of machinery.

-Political instability.

-Lack of capital.

Identify the methods used to mine the minerals

  1. Open cast method.
  2. Drift method / shaft method iii) Alluvial mining.
  3. Underground mining
  4. Submarine mining
  5. Drilling

Questions

  1. Mention the types of mining used when the minerals are in horizontal rocks.
  2. What method of mining is used to get minerals found near the surface of the earth?
  3. Write down two minerals mined by alluvial method.
  4. Which method of mining is used to extract crude oil from the ground?
  5. How is underground mining different from submarine method?

MINERALS AND THEIR USES

Petroleum

-It is a source of income.

-It creates employment.

-It is used to make the following;

  • Petrol -Diesel
  • Kerosene / paraffin -Jet fuel
  • Jelly, e.t.c

Gold

-It is a source of income.

-It creates employment.

-It is used to make the following;

  • Rings -Necklaces
  • Earrings -Watches -It is used as a medium of exchange.

-It is used to make golden teeth.

-It is used to make expensive medals. Trophies and plates.

Copper

-It is a source of income.

-It creates employment.

-It is used to make the following;

  • Bullets -Electric wires
  • Coins -Refrigerators

Diamond

-It is a source of income.

-It creates employment.

-It is used to make the following;

  • Jewels

-It is used to make other strong metals e.g padlocks.

Uranium

-It is used in making atomic bombs.

-It is a source of income.

-It creates employment.

Coal

-It is used to make thermal electricity.

Asbestos

-It is used to make roofing sheets and water pipes.

CountryAreaMinerals
UgandaHima / TororoLimestone
Democratic Republic of

Congo

KatangaDiamond
South AfricaKimberlyDiamond
Wit waters randGold and Uranium
TanzaniaMwadui near ShinyangaDiamond
NigeriaNiger deltaPetroleum oil
ZambiaZambia copper beltCopper
NigeriaNorth of NigeriaZinc

 

Questions

1.Mention the factors that influences the distribution of resources in Africa -Vegetation influence good climate.

-Climate influence vegetation.

-Vegetation influence wildlife.

-Areas where vulcanicity took place there are many minerals.

-Some countries have rocks with minerals.

2.What is energy resource?

Anything that makes work possible.

OR

Something that makes work possible.

3.Give examples of energy resources.

-Coal  -Sun

-Waterfalls -Hot springs

-Wind  -Uranium

-Oil   -Wood fuel

INDUSTRIALISATION

What is industrialization?

This is the development of industries in an area.

Mention the advantages of industrialization in  country.

-Creates employment.

-People get market for their goods.

-The government earns revenue in form of taxes (excise tax) -Leads to the development of social services.

-People get finished goods.

 

 

Disadvantages of industrialization to a country -Industries pollute the environment.

-Industries displace people during expansion.

-They lead to development of slums.

-They cause environmental destruction e.g deforestation and swamp drainage.

Factors influencing industrial development -Availability of raw materials.

-Raw materials are processed into finished goods.

Examples of raw materials

-Cotton -Crude oil

-Coal    -Iron ore, e.t.c

Availability of labour 

These include;

-Skilled labour

-Semi-skilled labour

-Unskilled labour

– Labour is used to operate machines, to manage industries.

-To work ad porters. iii) Availability of market.

These are the buyers of industrial products. iv) Availability of transport.

-It is used to transport industrial products on the market.

-It is used to transport workers to and from the industry.

-It is used to transport raw materials to the industry.

  1. v) Availability of land

-It is where an industry is built / established. vi)Government policies

-They encourage or discourage industrial development.

-They give tax holiday to new industries.

-They protect workers from mistreatment by industrial owners.

Questions

1.Give four reasons why Kampala has become the industrial centre of Uganda.

2.Give the difference between a factory and an industry.

3.List down the types of industries.

4.Give the effects of industrial development to the following;

a)Environment

b)People

5.Why are most industries / factories found in towns?

6.In which way does rural electrification contribute to the development of rural areas?

7.In which way does industrial development lead to high population density in an area.

8.Which industries / factorise can be opened up in the following areas?

  1. a) Kalangala b) Mbarara c)Mukono

d)Tororo   e) Jinja

9.Give two reasons why most African countries export unprocessed goods (raw materials).

10.State the disadvantages of exporting processed goods.

11.Give the advantages of exporting processed good (finished goods).

12.What steps has the Uganda government put in a place to promote industrial?

13.Mention four factors that hinder industrial development in Africa.

14.Mention the most industrialized countries of Africa.

15.Mention the factors that have promoted Egypt’s industrial growth.

16.Which factors have influenced Nigeria’s industrial growth?

THE LOCATION OF LIBYA

i)Libya is located in North Africa.

  1. ii) Libya has a coastline.
  2. ii) Libya has the neighbours below
  3. In the south -Niger -Chad
  4. In the South EastSudan
  5. In the East -Egypt
  6. In the West -Algeria
  7. In the North West -Tunisia iii) The capital city of Libya is

Questions

1.Write down any three sea ports of Libya

i)Tripoli ii)Tobruk iii)Benghazi

  1. Name the waterbody in the North of Libya?

-Mediterranean sea

THE CLIMATE OF LIBYA

-99% of Libya is a desert (hot and dry).

-The coast of Libya has Mediterranean climate (hot dry summers and warm west winters) -In the desert, goats and camel are common.

-Oil mining is the major economic activity in the desert.

 

What factors make camels suitable for desert condition?

-They have strong eye lids which can protect the eyes from sand  dust.

-They have flat hooves that can move well on sand.

-They have a fatty hump for energy.

 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF LIBYA

-Libya was colonized by Italy.

-Libya got independence in 1951 by the help of King Muhammed Iddris.

-King Muhammed Iddris was overthrown by colonel Gadaffi in 1959.

THE POPULATION OF LIBYA

-Libya has a very small population.

-Most people in Libya live in the North. This i9s because of the reasons below;

i)Presence of employment opportunities in the North.

ii)The good climate at the coast. iii)Presence better social services in the North. iv)Presence of the capital city in the North.

v)Presence of the coastline in the North.

Question

1 Name the tourist attractions found in Libya?

  1. i) Sand dunes ii) Oases iii) Desert climate iv) Coastal beaches
  2. v) Oil fields

Differences between Uganda and Libya

i)Uganda was colonized by Britain while Libya was colonized by Italy.

ii)Uganda is landlocked while Libya has a seaport. iii)Uganda has tropical climate while Libya has desert climate. iv)Uganda is a member of EAC and COMESA while Libya is a member of OPEC.

v)Uganda is located in East Africa while Libya is located in North Africa.

vi)Uganda had a bigger population than Libya.

vii)The economy of Uganda depends on agriculture while the economy of Libya depends on oil mining.

viii)Uganda is a member of common wealth organization unlike Libya.

ix)Uganda’s official language is English while Libya’s official language is Arabic.

MAP SHOWING OIL WELLS IN LIBYA

 

 

Questions

  1. How was crude oil formed?
  2. Name the rocks where crude oil is found.
  3. Which other natural resource is found with crude oil?
  4. Mention the method of mining used in getting out crude oil.
  5. Describe the location of oil fields in Libya.
  6. What machine is used to drill crude oil?
  7. How is crude oil transported to the refinery in Libya?
  8. Give three advantages of transporting crude oil used pipelines.
  9. What is a refinery?
  10. Mention the tank where crude oil is put and heated at the refinery.
  11. Mention the products from crude oil.
  12. State the by products of crude oil.
  13. How does Libya benefit from oil exploitation?

PROBLEMS FACED BY THE OIL MINING INDUSTRY IN LIBYA

  • Pollution
  • Shortage of labour in other economic sectors.
  • Price fluctuation of oil.

Questions

  1. How has the oil mining industry affected other economic sectors in Libya?
  2. How does climate affect the economic development of Libya?
  3. Suggest two advantages of Libya has of her population.
  4. Suggest the difference in terms of oil benefit in Nigeria and Libya.
  5. Give two reasons why Libya’s oil is on great demand compared to other countries.
  6. Give one reason why Uganda does not import oil.
  7. Give one advantage of importing crude oil.
  8. Give four reasons why Libya is more developed in the North than in the South.
  9. Give two reasons why Southern Libya is not developed.
  10. Give two reasons why OPEC was formed.

THE LOCATION OF NIGERIA

Nigeria is located in West Africa. It has a coastline. The parts of Nigeria are; por Harcout, post Warri, Port Lagos.

 

 

NEIGBOURS OF NIGERIA

North  South

-Niger  -Atlantic Ocean

-East      -Northeast

-Cameroon -Chad

-West   – Benin

NIGERIA’S LOCATION

.

HOW HAS NIGERIA BENEFITED FROM PETROLEUM

  • It earns Nigeria foreign exchange.
  • It has created employment to people.
  • It has led to improvement of infrastructure.
  • Nigeria gets fuel for home use.
  • Nigeria gets taxes from oil companies.

DISADVANTAGES OF PETROLEUM TO NIGERIA

  • Leads to air pollution.
  • Leads to environmental destruction during drilling.
  • It has led to low production in other sectors.

Questions

  1. Write down member countries of OPEC in Africa.
  2. Name food crops grown in Nigeria. 3. Name cash crops grown in Nigeria.

4a) How has Nigeria benefited from her large population?

  1. b) In which way is the population of Nigeria a disadvantage? 5. Compare Uganda and Nigeria in terms of;
  2. Population
  3. Development
  4. Location
  5. Economy
  6. Historical background
  7. Climate

THE LOCATION OF SOUTH AFRICA

1.Describe the location of South Africa.

  • It is located in South Africa.
  • It has a coastline with Atlantic ocean and Indian Ocean.
  • It has the following sea ports
  • Port Durban
  • Port Cape town
  • Port Elizabeth
  • Port East London
  • Port Richard’s Bay

2.Name the neighbouring countries of South Africa to the North – Botswana

  • Namibia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Mozambique
  • Swaziland

3.Name the enclave country of South Africa.

  • Lesotho

4.Describe the climate of South Africa – South Africa has the types of climate below;

  1. i) Mediterranean climate ii) Temperate climate iii) Montane climate iv) Tropical climate
  2. v) Semi-desert climate vi) Desert climate

5.Mention the factors that yhave contribute to the agricultural development of South

Africa

  • favorable climate
  • Fertile soils
  • Developed science and technology
  • Availability of capital
  • Availability of market

6.Give examples of citrus fruits grown in South Africa

  • Lemons
  • Oranges
  • Vines
  • Grapes

7.Mention the crops grown at Natal province

  • Maize
  • Sugarcane
  • Barley

8.Which economic activity takes place to Temperate grasslands (velds)

Sheep rearing for wool / goat rearing

  1. Describe the relief of South Africa

South Africa has Cape Rangers (by folding), Drakensburg mountains (By Vulcanicity, great Karoos ( by vulcanicity).

10.Mention the factors that have contributed to the industrial development of South Africa.

  • Availability of raw materials. – Labour (skilled and unskilled) – Availability of markets.
  • Availability of capital.
  • Good transport.
  • Availability of power

11.Factors that have contributed to the development of the mining sector to South

Africa

  • Availability of minerals – Availability of market.
  • Availability of skilled and unskilled labour.
  • Availability of capital.
  • Availability of machinery.
  • Good transport network.

12.Apart from South Africa, stat any other two countries in Africa which have developed industry.

  • Egypt
  • Nigeria

13.Mention the economic advantages South Africa has over Uganda – South Africa has a coastline while Uganda is landlocked.

  • South Africa has more industries than Uganda.
  • South Africa had better transport network than Uganda.
  • South Africa has more foreign investors than Uganda.
  • South Africa has more skilled labour than
  • South Africa has more mineral resources than Uganda.
  • South Africa has more developed tourism industry than Uganda.

14.How has industrial development of South Africa affected other economic sectors?

  • It has caused lack of labour in other economic sectors.
  • It has led to low production in other economic sectors.

15.How has the mining industry of South Africa supported the development of a country?

  • It has provided raw materials to industries.
  • It has created employment.
  • It is a source of revenue to the country.
  • South Africa has improved the infrastructure.

16.What caused the apartheid policy?

  • The whites never wanted to share economic resources with blacks.
  • The whites never wanted to share with blacks the politics of the country.

17.Who started the apartheid policy?

  • Henrik Verwoed
  • D. F. Mallon

18.How was the policy of apartheid practices in South Africa?

  • Whites and blacks never shared hospitals.
  • Whites and blacks never shared schools.
  • Whites and blacks never shared roads.

19.How did OAU help South Africa to end the policy of apartheid?

  • OAU eliminated South Africa from all African games.
  • Put trade sanctions against South Africa.
  • Put transport sunctions against South Africa.

20.What were the conditions in Botswana?

  • Poor roads.
  • Poor health services.
  • High spread of diseases.
  • Poor schools.

PLANTATION FARMING

This is the growing of one perennial crop on a large scale for sale. State the factors that influence the location of a plantation farm

  1. i) A large piece of land ii) Capital

iii)Labou   iv) Market

  1. v) Machinery vi) Transport

 

Advantages of plantation farming

  1. i) Plantation farms provide employment to people. ii) They provide raw materials to industries.
  • They earn foreign income by exporting the produce.
  1. They provide market to out growers.
  2. They give high yields since scientific methods are used. Problems faced by plantation agriculture
  3. Pests and diseases.
  4. Poor transport (poor roads) iii) Climatic changes. iv) Low prices of the procedure on the world market. Disadvantages of population agriculture
  5. i) It requires a lot of capital. ii) it requires a lot of land. iii) It promotes monoculture that leads to soil exhaustion. iv) Over production leads to price fluctuation. Characteristics of plantation farming
  6. One perennial crop in grown.
  7. Crops are grown on a large scale.
  • Requires machinery iv) It requires a lot of labour force.
  1. v) It involves a processing centre ( a factory) Give examples of plantation crops
  2. i) Sugarcane ii) Oil palm iii) Tea iv) Coffee
  3. Cocoa
  4. Sisal
  • Rubber
crops Areas of production
TeaKasaku in Mukono

Kericho in Kenya

Hoima

SugarcaneKakira, Kinyara, Lugazi in Uganda.

Kirombero –Tanzania

Kenana Sudan

Natal province –South Africa

CottonMubuku, Lira, Soroti – Uganda

Gezira – Sudan

Liberia

Rubber Liberia
Oil palm Kalangala, Nigeria
CocoaGhana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast

Mukono, Bundibugyo

CoffeeBuganda region

Slopes of Mt. Elgon

Arua, Ethiopia

Slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro by the Chagga

Give three reasons why plantation is not commonly practiced in East Africa i) Lack of capital ii) Lack of land iii) Lack of machinery

How does plantation farming promote economic development to a country?  i) It employs people. ii) It earns foreign income.

iii) Develops infrastructure in the country. iv) Provided raw materials to industries.

  1. It is a source of taxes to the government. They provide taxes to the government.
  2. They provide market to the out growers.

 

Mention the services that are provided by plantation farms

  • Transport -Education
  • Medical -Housing
  • Banking

Suggest any four ways in which plantation farming can be promoted in Uganda

  1. Giving loans to plantation farmers so as to improve their farms.
  2. Providing land to plantation farmers. iii) Improving road network in the country. iv) Providing chemicals to plantation farmers.
  3. v) Providing quality seeds to plantation farmers.

Mixed Farming

1.What is mixed farming?

The growing of crops and rearing of animals on the same piece of land. 2. Factors that influence the starting of a mixed farm

  1. Enough land with fertile soils.
  2. Capital iii) Enough labour iv) Market
  3. v) Water source vi) Machinery

v)Animals e.g cattle, pigs, chicken vi) Selected seeds

Advantages of mixed farming

  1. i) A farmer get double income ii) A farmer gets a balanced diet. iii) Crops can be used to make animal feeds. iv) Animals provide manure to crops.
  2. A farm employs people.
  3. A farm is used for study purposes,

Disadvantages of mixed farming

  1. i) It is very expensive to start and maintain ii) Animals can destroy the crops. iii) It requires a lot of land. iv) It requires a lot of labour
  2. v) It needs high technology

Problems affecting mixed farming

  1. Crop pests and diseases.
  2. Animal disease and parasites iii) Climatic changes iv) Lack of enough land
  3. v) Poor transport vi) Shortage of market

 

Qn a) Mention the area in East Africa where mixed farming is developed.

Qn b) Give two factors that have contributed to the development of mixed farming in Kenya highlands.

Qn c Give two reasons why mixed farming is not common in East Africa.

Dairy Farming

This is the rearing of animal for milk production

Factors that influence the starting of a diary farm i) A large piece of land ii) Good pastures

iii) Favourable climate iv)Labour
v) Reliable source of water vi)Good veterinary services
vii) Market viii)Capital
  1. ix) good breeds of animals

Advantages of dairy farming

  1. Employs people
  2. A farmer gets a lot of income iii) Good breeds of cattle can be got
  3. iv) Sources of raw material for the dairy processing factory Disadvantages of dairy farming
  4. i) It requires skilled labour ii) It is expensive

iii) It needs a large piece of land iv) Lack of ready market for dairy products

Problems affecting dairy farming

  1. Animal diseases and parasites.
  2. Poor transport network. iii) Lack of pasture for animals. iv) Lack of water for the animals
  3. v) Lack of ready market vi) Lack of good breeds / poor breeds of cattle.

Qn. Suggest any three ways in which dairy farming can be improved in East Africa.

 

Ranching

1.What is ranching?

The rearing of cattle mainly for beef production.

2.Write down the product form a ranch

  • Beef
  • Hides and skins
  • Horns

3.In which way does a ranch contribute to the development of an area where it is located?

  • Provides employment to people.
  • Helps to develop infrastructure in the region.
  • People yet beef from the farm – They get skins from the farm.

4.How does a ranch benefit from people where it is located?

-A farm gets labour.

-A farm gets market.

5.What is livestock farming?

This is the rearing of domestic animals and birds.

6Give the importance of livestock farming – Creates employment.

  • It is a source of income by selling the animals and products.
  • Source of raw material.
  • Source of food.

7Mention three problems facing livestock farming

  1. i) Animal diseases and parasites. ii) Shortage of water and pasture.

iii) Climatic changes. iv) Cattle rustling.

8Mention any three ways of improving livestock farming in East Africa? i) By crossbreeding the animals.

  1. ii) Constructing valley dams to proved water to animals. iii) By feeding the animals well. iv) By vaccinating animals to control diseases.
  2. Planting drought resistant pasture for animal.
  3. By disarming the cattle rustlers.

9.What is nomadic pastoralism?

This is the movement of cattle keepers from one place to another looking for water and pasture for their animals.

10.Give three reasons why people keep cattle?

  • To get milk and beef.
  • Source of income / for home use.
  • For bride price.
  • For prestige.
  • For hides and skins.
  • For ploughing

11.Write five pastoral tribes in Africa

Hausa Fulani

Turkana Masai

Tuareg   Bahima

Dodoth Boran

Pokot Rendille from Somali and Kenya

Somali

  1. Mention the modern methods of keeping cattle
  2. i) Zero grazing ii)Paddocking iii)Tethering
  1. State the traditional methods of keeping cattle

Herding

  1. Give two disadvantages of herding as a method of keeping cattle
  2. Animals destroy people’s crops.
  3. Animals can be stolen. iii) Lead to spread of diseases. iv) They were conflict among people.
  4. Give advantage of keeping local breeds over exotic breeds
  5. Local breeds are more resistant to diseases than exotic breeds.
  6. Local breeds are more resistance to harsh climate than exotic breeds. iii) Local breeds produce better meat than exotic breeds.
  1. Give the advantage of keeping exotic breeds over local breeds
  2. Exotic breeds mature faster than local breeds.
  3. Exotic breeds produce more meat than local breeds. iii) Exotic breeds produce more milk than local breeds.



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