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Resources, renewable, extract minerals, mines, poaching, nature, utilization, degradation.

  1. What are resources?

Resources are things that are useful to people and also bring development to a country.

  1. Resources can be natural or man made. Examples of man made resources include Stadium / cars / industries, houses, furniture, etc
  2. What are natural resources?

Natural resources are gifts of nature which are used by the people to satisfy their needs e.g. land for settlement, farming etc, water for transport, irrigation, etc, wild life for meat and education, etc.

Natural resources can also be referred to as God given gifts that are useful to people.

Examples of natural resources.

  1. Land, used for farming, settlement etc
  2. Water/ water bodies.
  3. Vegetation. / plants.
  4. Wildlife.
  5. Minerals.
  6. Climate/ weather/ air.
  7. Human labour.

NB: Resources can be either renewable or non renewable.

Renewable resources.

  1. These are resources that cannot be used up.
  2. They include: climate, wildlife, vegetation, water bodies, land etc.

NB: The above resources are used by people but cannot be used up because they can be remultiplied.

Importance of plants as a resource.

  1. Source of timber/ wood
  2. Source of wood fuel.
  3. Influence rain formation
  4. Attract tourists who bring income
  5. Source of food and raw materials
  6. To control soil erosion

Non renewable resources:

  1. These are resources that can be used up.
  2. When they are used up, they can’t be.
  3. They include Minerals e.g. Coal, gas, oil, Uranium, etc.


Resource utilization means putting resources to use.



Importance of Land as an Economic Resource

Land is one major resource in a country on which all economic activities are carried out.

These activities include:

  1. Farming
  2. Tourism
  3. Mining
  4. Transport
  5. Fishing
  6. Industrialization, etc




Subsistence, arable, horticulture, floriculture, dairy, pastroralism. Transumance, nomardism, viticulture, silviculture, apiary, apiculture, perennial.

  1. Farming is the growing of crops and rearing of animals.
  2. The growing of crops only is arable farming while the rearing of animals and birds is livestock farming.
  3. Farming can be practiced either for domestic use or for income generation.
  4. Subsistence farming is the growing of crops and rearing animals mainly for home consumption.
  5. Commercial farming
    is the growing of crops and rearing of animals mainly for income generation.
  6. Farming can be done on a
    small scale on a small piece of land or on a large scale on a large piece of land.
  7. Monoculture: This is continuous growing of one type of crop on the same piece of land season after season.

NB:  This type of farming leads to soil exhaustion and also promotes the breeding of crop pests.

Farming systems in East Africa.

  1. Arable farming: The growing of crops only.
  2. Livestock farming: The keeping of domestic animals and birds.
  3. Floriculture: The commercial growing of flowers on a large scale.
  4. Horticulture: The growing of fruits, vegetables and flowers mainly for commercial purposes.
  5. Seri culture: The breeding of silk worms.
  6. Viticulture: The growing of grapes to make wine.
  7. Apiculture: The keeping of bees to produce honey.
  8. Market gardening: The growing of fruits, vegetables and flower for the urban market.
  9. Mixed farming: The growing of crops and rearing of animals on the same piece of land at the same time.

  10. Plantation farming: The growing of one type of perennial crop on a large scale for commercial purposes.
  11. Silviculture: The growing of tree mainly for timber production.

NB. The cutting down of mature trees mainly for timber is called lumbering


Subsistence farming:

  1. What is subsistence farming?

    This is the growing of crops and the rearing of animals on a small scale mainly for home use


  2. Why do most people carry out subsistence farming yet it is not profit oriented?
    1. It is cheap to manage.
    2. It does not require a large piece of land.
    3. It does not require skilled labour.
    4. Hand tools can be used and are easily accessed as compared to mechanized farming.


  3. What are the disadvantages of subsistence farming.
    1. It earns little or no income to the farmers.
    2. The farmer gets low yields.
    3. It does not promote the growth of agro based industries which depend on agriculture for their raw materials.


Mixed farming

  1. What is mixed farming?

    This is the growing of crops and the rearing of animals on the same piece of land at the same time.



  2. How is mixed farming an advantage to those who practice it?


    1. A farmer gets a double income from both animals and crops.
    2. There is inter dependence- The animals provide manure to crops and the crops provide food to the animals.
    3. A farmer gets a balanced diet.
    4. A farmer gets a high yield due to inter-independence.


  3. What makes mixed farming expensive.


    1. A farmer has to buy a big piece of land which is expensive.
    2. A farmer has to hire skilled labour which is expensive.
    3. A farmer has to buy animals and crops to start the farm.



  1. Plantation Farming

The growing of a single perennial crop on a very large piece of land for sale


  1. Why is plantation farming not common in East Africa?
    1. It is expensive to maintain.
    2. It requires a lot of both skilled and unskilled labour.
    3. It requires a big piece of land that may not be available.
    4. It requires big machinery.
    5. It needs a big capital to start.
  2. How important are plantations in an area?
    1. They create employment.
    2. They provide raw materials.
    3. They lead to development of infrastructures.
    4. They promote the welfare of out growers (provide market to out growers)
    5. They produce market to other crops in the area (workers buy)
    6. Income is earned by the government through exporting.
    7. They encourage land consolidation.


  3. What are the disadvantages of plantation farming?
    1. It is expensive to maintain.
    2. It requires a lot of skilled labour.
    3. It leads to soil exhaustion.
    4. In case of pests and natural disaster, a farmer loses a lot.
    5. It reduces on the land for settlement and agriculture.


  1. Problems affecting plantation farms in East Africa.
    1. Lowering of prices for the farmers produce.
    2. Crop pests and diseases.
    3. Soil exhaustion
    4. Competition from other producers
    5. Droughts



  1. Who are out growers?

    Farmers around a plantation who grow the same crop on a small scale.

  2. What are perennial crops?

    These are crops that take more than one year to mature.

  3. Examples of crops that are grown on plantation
    1. Sugarcane
    2. Tea
    3. Coffee
    4. cocoa


  4. What is the difference between traditional and non traditional cash crops?

    Traditional cash crops are those that were introduced by colonialists mainly for export while non traditional cash crops are those that were formally grown for food but can also be sold today.

  5. Examples of traditional cash crops.
    1. Coffee
    2. Tea
    3. Cotton
    4. Tobacco.
    5. Cocoa
    6. Sisal
    7. sugarcane
  6. List any four examples of non traditional cash crops.
    1. Maize
    2. Beans
    3. Cassava
    4. Rice
    5. Millet
    6. Groundnuts
    7. Sun-flower
    8. Sweet potatoes


  7. Which was the first cash crop to be introduced by Europeans?


  8. How did Kenneth Borup contribute to the economic development of Uganda?

    He introduced cotton growing in Uganda in 1903

  9. How did Sir Hesketh Bell promote cash crop growing in Uganda?
    1. He built roads to ease transportation of cash crop.
    2. He built port bell to ease exportation of cash crop.
    3. He encourages the growing of cash crops in Uganda.


  10. Why did the British encourage cash crop growing in E. Africa?
    1. They wanted to get raw materials for their home industries.
    2. They wanted people to earn money for paying taxes
    3. To develop East Africa economically.



Complete the table below.



Product (s)

Place (s) they are grown

Conditions favouring their growth.



Gun powder, beverages, coffee husks. / coffee drink,

Arabic coffee- slopes of Mr Elgon and Kilimanjaro.


Robasta coffee- plains of East Africa.

  • Fertile volcanic soils, reliable rainfall
  • Fertile well drained soils.


Clothes, thread, cooking oil, cotton wool, Animal cotton cake, soap.

Palins of East Africa (pallisa / Lira)

  • Enough rainfall
  • High temperature.



Kasaku (Buyikwe district), Kasese, Fortportal


Kericho –Kenya (biggest in E. Africa.

  • Acidic well drained soils
  • High altitude.
  • Well distributed rainfall


Ropes, bags, sacks, doormats.

Tanga province in Tanzania.

High temperatures



Sugar, sweets, animal cake.

Kilomero valley in Tanzania (biggest)

Plenty of water.








West Nile districts (Nebbi, Arua, Moyo, Adjuman, koboko



  • Well distributed rainfall.
  • Moderate temperature.


Beverage /cocoa drink





  • Plenty of rainfall.
  • Well drained soils.
  • Warm and wet climate.


Spices, perfumes.

Zanzibar / pemba Islands


  • High temperature
  • Well drained soils.
  • Humidity conditions.

Oil palm

Cooking oil


Coast of East Africa

Kalangala district

  • Warm tropical climate.
  • Plenty of rainfall
  • Well drained soils



Central Kenya and Tanzania

  • Plenty of rainfall
  • Worm temperatures

Wattle tree

Tannin- used soften leather in the leather industries.


  • Moderate rainfall




Enough rainfall.



Qn: What do you understand by the following terms?

  1. Tannin industry: where leather is turned in finished products e.g. shoes, belts, bags, etc.
  1. Ginnery: place where cotton link is separated from cotton seeds.
  2. Spinning mill: place where cotton is processed into threads.

Modern methods of cultivation.

  1. Agriculture mechanization- The use of machines when growing crops.
  2. Machine used may include- Tractors, plough, combined harvesters, etc.

Advantage of agricultural mechanization.

  1. It saves time because a large area is cultivated I short time.
  2. It requires less human labour.
  3. It simplifies work.

Disadvantages of agricultural mechanization.

  1. It is very expensive.
  2. It requires skilled labour.
  3. It cannot be applied in hilly areas.
  4. It leads to unemployment of some people.


Irrigation farming.

  1. This is the artificial watering of crops from a near by water source.
  2. It is mainly carried out in area that receive little or no rainfall (semi-arid areas)

Methods of irrigation

  1. Drip irrigation.
  2. Overhead sprinkler.
  3. Gravitation flow/ canal irrigation.
  4. Bucket irrigation (manual)

Advantages of irrigation method.

  1. Crops can be grown throughout the year.
  2. It improves on crop yields.
  3. Semi arid areas can be turned into arable land.

Disadvantages of irrigation farming

  1. It is expensive to start and maintain.
  2. It leads to leaching of the soil/ soil exhaustion.
  3. It can lead to soil erosion when poorly used.

Examples of irrigation schemes in East Africa.


Irrigation scheme

Crop (s) grown

Water source


Kibimba (Tilda ) in Uganda


R. Manafa


Mweya – Tabere in Kenya


River Thiba


Doho in Uganda


R. Manafa


Ahero polit scheme

Rice. Maize, millet

R. Nyando


Kilombero valley in Tanzania

Sugarcane, Rice

R. Kilombero and Ruaha


West Kano in Kenya

Rice and sugarcane

L Victoria.


Galore in Kenya

Cotton, groundnuts

L. Tana


Mobuku irrigation scheme (Kasese district)

Cotton, Rice, onions, tomatoes , beans.

R. Mobuku

Major perennial crops and their location.

  1. Kakira sugarcan plantation, Jinja district in Uganda
  1. Lugazi sugarcane plantation, Mukono district in Uganda.
  2. Kinyara sugarcane plantation, Masindi district in Uganda.
  3. Kasaku tea plantation, Buyikwe district in Uganda.
  4. Kericho tea plantation. The largest tea plantation in East Africa around Mt. Kenya.
  5. Kirombero valley sugar cane plantation in Tanzania.


Ways Food is preserved in E. Africa.

In E. Africa food is preserved both locally and in a modern way.

Local means include:

  1. By smoking it.
  2. By sun drying it.
  3. By salting it.

Modern means include:

  1. By freezing it.
  2. By tinning it.

How is tobacco dried?

By flu curing


  1. Why did the colonialists encourage cash growing?
    1. To get materials for their home industries.
    2. To enable the Africans to pay taxes.


  2. Why did Europeans introduce taxation in East Africa?

    To get money to meet their administrative costs.


  3. What are agro-based industries?

    Industries which use agricultural law material e.g. kakira sugar industry, Mukwano industries, Textile industries, cooking oil and soap industries.

  4. How is farming important to Agro-Based industries.

    Farming is a source of raw materials to Agro-based industries.

  5. What do you understand by:
  6. Primary industry  Industries which produce raw materials e.g. farming, fishing, mining.
  7. Secondary industries: industries which process raw materials to make new products eg manufacturing industries.
  8. Tertiary / service industry: Industries which provide services to people e.g. tourism, construction, etc
  9. Traditional industries: These are industries that use local materials/ where local materials are used to make goods e.g. the craft industry.


  10. Why do farmers prefer growing clonal coffee over other types?
  11. It produces high yields.
  12. It has bigger berries than other types
  13. It is much resistant to diseases than other types.


  14. How is coffee harvested
    1. By hand picking.


  15. Why is pruning important in both coffee and tea.

    Pruning removes unwanted branches reducing the rate of competition for food hence improved yields.



  16. Write the following abbreviation in full

UCDA: Uganda Coffee Development Authority


  1. Which ministry is responsible for farming in Uganda ?

Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and fisheries.

  1. State any four examples of fibre crops.
    1. Sisal.
    2. Cotton
    3. Hemp.
    4. Jute


Importance of farming in a country.

  1. It is a source of food production.
  2. It creates employment for the people.
  3. It is a source of raw materials to agro-based industries.
  4. Plantation farmers develop infrastructure in the country.

Ways of controlling famine in East Africa.

  1. Growing more food crops.
  2. Promoting food reserves.
  3. Growing drought resistant food crops.
  4. Through mechanizing agriculture

Problems faced by Ugandan farmers.

  1. Crop pest and diseases.
  2. Long spells of draught.
  3. Soil erosion.
  4. Poor transport and communication.
  5. Low prices of agricultural produce.
  6. Expensive modern farming tools.

Importance of cash crops in Uganda.

  1. They provide raw materials.
  2. They are a source of foreign exchange.
  3. They diversify the economy
  4. They earn the government income through taxation.


How governments can improve on the well being of farmers.

  1. Setting price regulation.
  2. Providing improved seeds and modern tools at subsidized prices.
  3. Promoting agricultural mechanization.
  4. Improving on transport to have access to markets.
  5. Encouraging farmers to form small joint groups eg cooperative societies.
  6. Giving loans to farmers to boost their farms.




What are co-operative societies?

These are groups of people who live and work together with same objectives/ aims

Importance of co-operative societies in East Africa

  1. To teach farmers good methods of farming.
  2. To market farmers’ crops.
  3. To provide farmers with quality seeds and animals at a subsidized price.
  4. To provide proper storage for the farmers’ produce.
  5. To provide farmers with modern garden tools at a subsidized cost.
  6. To provide better transport for the farmer’s produce.







Map of East Africa showing cash crops grown (Atlas)





Methods used to improve on crop yields.

Mulching, fertilization, application of mature, spraying of crop pest, irrigation, crop rotation, grafting.


  1. Livestock farming: Is the rearing and management of domestic animals and birds for purpose.
  1. Dairy farming: This is the keeping of animals mainly for milk production.

East Africa, dairy farming is mainly done in the Kenyan Highland.

Reasons why Kenyan highlands favoured dairy farming.

  1. Presence of water and pasture for the animals.
  2. Improved veterinary services.
  3. The area has limited diseases vectors.
  4. The cool climatic conditions.

Reasons why the whites settlers settled on the Kenyan highland.

  1. Favourable climatic conditions for settlement
  2. Presence of fertile soils for farming.
  3. The highlands were near Nairobi which would provide ready market to their dairy products.

How can diary farming be improved in East Africa?

  1. By cross breeding
  2. Planting improved pastures to feed the animals well.
  3. Improving on the veterinary services.
  4. Rearing exotic breeds of cattle.

Products got from a dairy farm.

  1. Milk.
  2. Yoghurt
  3. Cheese
  4. Ghee
  5. Ice cream.


  1. Mention any four dairy farms you know in Uganda. (Children make research)
    1. Gesa dairy farm.


  2. Why is milk produced in Mbarara transported to Kampala?

    It is because of the ready market available in Kampala than Mbarara.

c) Ranching:

  1. This is the keeping of cattle mainly for beef production.
  2. Ranching is carried out mainly in the savana vegetation due to presence of pasture for the animals
  3. In Uganda, ranching is dominant in areas of singo (Mubende and Mityana), Nyabushozi, Mbarara, Kiruhura, Isingiro, Ishaka, Ntungamo, Buruli (Nakasongora, Ngoma, Nakaseke).
  4. Products got from cattle
    1. Hides and skins which are raw materials for leather bags, belts, coats, shoes, wallets,etc.
    2. Horns used to make bangles, necklaces, earring, etc
    3. Glue from cows hooves.
    4. Meat (beef)
    5. Milk.
  5. Give examples of ranching schemes in East Africa
    1. Kisozi ranching scheme
    2. Kabanyoro ranching scheme.

Qn.: Why are goats the most commonly reared animals in East Africa?

  1. They require a small place to graze.
  2. They are more resistant to diseases than other animals.
  3. They do not discriminate feeds so much than the cows.
  4. They can with stand the dry conditions much more than other animals.




This is the traditional way of keeping cattle. It includes;

  1. Nomadic pastoralism: The movement of cattle keepers with their animals from one place to another looking for pasture and water.
  2. Transumance: Seasonal movement of pastoralists from one place to another with their animals looking for pasture and water e.g. the Fulani of Nigeria.

Examples of pastoral tribes in East Africa.

  1. Karamajong
  2. Turkana
  3. Tepeth
  4. Masai
  5. Bahima
  6. Dodoth


  1. What is cattle rustling?

    It is the stealing of large numbers of cattle among tribes.

  2. What has the government of Uganda done to reduce cattle rustling among the Karamongo?
    1. The karamojong have been disarmed.
    2. The government has provided special Education programmes to the Karamojong to reduce illiteracy among them.


Importance of cattle pastoral tribes.

  1. It is used to pay dowry (bride price)
  2. It is a symbol of wealth.
  3. It is a source of food (meat and milk)
  4. It is a symbol of prestige.

Problems faced by cattle keepers in East Africa.

  1. Shortage of pasture and water.
  2. Parasites and animal diseases.
  3. Cattle rustling.

How can the government improve on the lives of pastoral people?

  1. Encourage them to keep less number of cattle.
  2. Extending artificial water sources to them e.g. bore hole / valley dams.
  3. Teaching them modern methods of keeping cattle.
  4. Encouraging them to grow drought resistant pastures.
  5. Supporting projects that promote irrigation farming in their areas.

Methods of keeping cattle.

  1. Paddocking
  2. Tethering
  3. Free range
  4. Zero grazing.






Tourism, sanctuary, game park, game reserve, game rangers, encroachment, giraffe, rhinos, hyena, buffalo, game cropping, wildlife, game, prey, herbivorous, predators, accommodation, tourist, guide, gazette.


  1. What is tourism?

    This is the business of providing accommodation, transport, food and other services to tourist.

  2. Internal tourism: Involves movement of tourists with in the country.
  3. External tourist: Involve movement of tourist across international boundaries
  4. A tourist: Is a person who travels and visits a particular place for pleasure or study.

Examples of major tourist attraction in East Africa.

  1. National Game Park and game reserves.
  2. Physical features e.g. mountains, the rift valley,
  3. Climate.
  4. Coastal beaches.
  5. Vegetation features.
  6. Drainage features e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, seas etc,
  7. Culture etc


  1. Wildlife
  2. Wildlife comprises of birds, animals, insects and plants that live in the natural environment/ habitat.
  3. The natural habitat may include:
    1. Game parks.
    2. Game reserves.
    3. Forests.
    4. Water.
    5. Soil (land)
    6. Bushes etc.
  4. Animals are categorized into domestic and wild
  5. Animals can be herbivores, omnivores or carnivorous.
    1. Herbivores: These are animals which feed on grass.
      1. Examples include: Zebra, buffalos, antelopes etc.
      2. They commonly stay in the savanna vegetation where there is plenty of pasture for them to feed on.
    2. Carnivorous / flesh eaters Theses feed on meat.

They commonly stay in the savanna vegetation where there is plenty of prey for them to feed on.

Examples of carnivores: lion, cheetah, leopard, hyena etc.

  1. Omnivores; These are animals that feed on both grass and fresh

Example of omnivores, raccoon, people, pig, rats, bear etc.




LESSON (5&6)


  1. These are gazette areas where animals and birds are protected and hunting is not allowed.
  2. Game reserves: These are gazette areas where animals and birds are protected but hunting is allowed on permission.
  3. A zoo: A place where wild animals and birds are kept for people to view e.g. UWEC.
  4. Sanctuary: A place where birds are protected for people to view.

Importance of wild life.

  1. It attracts tourists who bring income.
  2. It is a source of meat to people.
  3. It is used for research purposes by students.
  4. It is a source of raw materials to the industries.
  5. It creates employment to the people.

Importance of game parks.

  1. They are sued for research purposes.
  2. They are a source of income through tourism.
  3. They preserve wildlife (rare species of animals)
  4. They are a source of employment to the people.
  5. They promote development of infrastructure in the places where they are locate.

Problems faced by game parks.

  1. Poaching
  2. Bush fires.
  3. Drought which causes shortage of pasture and water
  4. Animal disease and parasites.
  5. Remoteness of some places where game parks are located/ poor transport and communication.
  6. Encroachment on game park land e.g. through farming.

Solution to the problems faced by game parks.

  1. By employing more game rangers and wardens to control poaching.
  2. By enforcing strict laws against poaching.
  3. By ensuring tight security to control people from setting bushes on fire.
  4. By employing more veterinary officers to vaccinate and treat animals.
  5. The game park authority should relocate the people who encroach on the park land

Qn: Why are farmers not advised to set up their farms near game parks?

To avoid animals from attacking them and also destroy their crops.

Complete the following table

Attraction feature(s)

Game park (s)

Mountain Gorillas

Bwindi impenetrable, mgahinga

Flamingo birds

Lake Nakuru


Kidepo valley national park

Antelopes, Crocodiles and Hippos

Queen Elizabeth National park, Muchison falls.

Sanctuary, hippos and buffalos

Kazinga channel.

Giraffe, lions and elephants

Tsavo National park

Cheetahs, jackals, impala etc

Serengeti national park.

Map of East Africa showing National Parks and reserves.

Importance of Tourism Industry to the People of East Africa.
Employment is created.

  1. Bring income to government (local and foreign exchange)
  2. Promotes international cooperation.
  3. Promotes the art and craft industry- Tourists provide market for such materials.
  4. Promotes research and study.

Problems faced by the tourism industry.

  1. Poor accommodation
  2. Poor transport and communication
  3. Insecurity in some areas.
  4. Low level of advertisement of tourist centres.
  5. Poaching.

Qn. Of what disadvantage is tourism to a country like Uganda?

  1. It encourages the spread of diseases to both people and animals.
  2. Some of the tourists who come to visit come as spies which threatens the country’s security.
  3. Some of the tourists carry out poaching which is a big problem to a country’s economy


  1. What is poaching?

The illegal hunting of wild animals and birds from reserves / protected areas.

  1. Why do people carry out poaching?
    1. To get meat.
    2. To get money by selling the animals.
    3. To get ivory from elephants.
    4. To get horns from animals to make new product.


  2. How can poaching be reduced / controlled in E. Africa?
    1. By enforcing strict laws against poaching
    2. By training more game rangers to control the poachers.


  3. Why is poaching dangerous?
    1. It leads to extinction of rare animals species which reduces tourism.
  4. Why is tourism referred to as industry?
    1. It create jobs / employment opportunities
    2. It earns government income from tourists.


  5. Why is tourism and industry electricity termed an invisible export?

    They earn government foreign exchange without exporting any physical goods.


  6. Why is Kenya’s tourism industry more developed than that of Uganda?
    1. Kenya has better and well improved transport and communication services than Uganda.
    2. Kenya has well developed accommodation facilities compared to Uganda.
    3. Kenya has more tourist attraction centres than Uganda e.g. oceans, coastal features, coastal beaches.
    4. Kenya has been more politically stable than Uganda for a long time.


  7. How is Fort Jesus economically important to Kenya.
    1. It attracts tourists who bring income.
    2. It provides employment to Kenya

NB. Fort Jesus was constructed by the Portuguese for protection.

Influence of vegetation on animal species.

  1. Areas with thick forests attract climbing and fruit eating animals eg monkey, apes etc.
  2. Swampy vegetation is suitable for amphibians.
  3. Savanna attracts herbivores and carnivores.
  4. Semi arid areas are suitable for small animals (rodents e great).

Why is wildlife conservation important?

  1. To protect wild life for the future generation to use.
  2. To protect the natural habitant of wild animals.
  3. To promote tourism.
  4. To create chances of employments.
  5. To protect the natural beauty of our environment.

Under which ministry is wildlife?

Wildlife is under the ministry of Tourism, wildlife and Heritage.





























Vocabulary: Vegetation natural, planted, savanna, equatorial, shrub, montane, distribution, temperature, canopy deforestation, mahogany, impenetrable, mangrove, Cyprus, eucalyptus.

  1. What is vegetation?

Vegetation is the plant cover of an area

Types of vegetation  

  1. Natural vegetation: plant cover of an area that grow by themselves.
  2. Planted vegetation: plants that are planted by people.

Planted vegetation

  1. Planted vegetation is grown either on small scale or on a large scale
  2. Planted trees produce soft wood,
  3. Examples of soft wood trees may include;
    1. Pines
    2. Cyprus
    3. Conifers
    4. Eucalyptus

NB:  Soft wood trees mature faster than hard wood trees.

  1. Products made from soft wood trees.
    1. Soft boards.
    2. Ply wood
    3. Pencils
    4. Papers
    5. Sugar paper
    6. Some furniture
  2. Planted vegetation may also include flowers, grass and other crops planted by people.

Qn:  A part from producing soft wood,

give other importance of planted vegetation as a resource

  1. They influence rainfall formation
  2. Some vegetation is used for decoration
  3. Some of it is used a fence
  4. It can be used as mulches.
  5. It is used as a cover crop.
  6. It is used as wind breaks
  7. It is a source of food
  8. It provides us with shed
  9. It is also used for study purpose

Dangers of vegetation to the people to the surrounding area.

  1. They habour dangerous wild animals that can harm people.
  2. They habour disease vectors.
  3. They are hide outs of law breakers.
  4. Some vegetation is poisonous to human beings.

Ways people have misused vegetation.

  1. They have carried out deforestation.
  2. Through human encroachment.
  3. By carrying out bush burning.


  4. By carrying out swamp drainage.
  5. Through over stocking resulting to over grazing.
  6. Pollution from industrial wastes.

Solutions to the misuse of vegetation.

  1. By enforcing strict laws against deforestation.
  2. Through rural electrification/ By using other alternative sources of fuel other than wood.
  3. By planting trees.
  4. By planting grass to control soil erosion.
  5. Through Agro-Forestry.

How do we take care of planted vegetation?

  1. By irrigation
  2. By pruning them
  3. By spraying
  4. By thinning
  5. By adding manure or fertilizers to the soils.

NB: Due to the increasing population and demand for land, both natural and planted forests have been cut down e.g. Namanve is being cleared to get land for industrialization.

LESSON (3&4)

Natural vegetation

The following are the major vegetation regions we have

  1. Rainforest/ Tropical rainforest/ equatorial vegetation
  2. Savanna vegetation
  3. Montana vegetation/ mountain vegetation
  4. Swamp vegetation
  5. Semi arid vegetation
  6. Mangrove vegetation.

Factors that influence the vegetation of East Africa

  1. Climate (rainfall)
  2. Areas that receive high rainfall encourage growth of thick forests.
  3. Areas that receive unreliable rainfall have little and scattered vegetation


  4. Attitude and temperature

    Areas of high altitude have low and cool temperatures encouraging the growth of trees and forests while low altitude areas have jot temperatures encouraging the growth of hard wood tropical grasses.


  5. Nature of the soils
  6. Human activities (mans activities)
  7. Government policy.
  8. Latitude of an area.


  9. Equatorial rainforests / tropical rainforests.
  1. They are mainly located in the Equatorial region.
  2. They are located in areas with high temperatures and heavy rainfall.

Characteristics of Equatorial rain forests.

  1. Tree grow very tall.
  2. Trees have buttress roots
  3. They from a complete canopy.
  4. They are ever green
  5. Trees grow close to each other.
  6. They have a thick under growth.
  7. The forests have many tree species.


  1. Why do trees in the equatorial rain forests grow very tall?
    1. To compete for sunlight.
    2. They receive plenty of rainfall.
    3. The areas have fertile soils.
  2. Examples of rainforests I Uganda.
    1. Mabira forest
    2. Marabigambo forest
    3. Kibale forest
    4. Bwindi impenetrable forest.
    5. Mt. Elgon forest.
    6. Budongo forest.
    7. Bugoma forest.
    8. M. Rwenzori forest.
    9. Maramagambo forest, etc.
  3. Examples of trees that grow in rainforest.
    1. Mahogany trees
    2. Mvule trees
    3. African walnut trees.
    4. Rose wood trees
    5. Ebony trees


  4. Why don’t trees in rainforests shed their leaves?

    Presence of plenty of rainfall in the area requires them increase the rate of transpiration (also why – broad leaves, to allow loss of excess water through transpiration)

  5. Why do the trees in rainforest grow buttress roots?

    To provide extra support since the trees are very tall.

  6. List the activities done in rainforest of East Africa
  7. Lumbering,
  8. Tourism.
  9. Why do people plant trees.
    1. To modify climate
    2. To get poles for electricity, communication lines, building etc.
    3. To maintain the supply of wood fuel.
    4. To provide local herbs.
    5. To get fruits.
    6. To serve as wind breaks
    7. To provide timber

LESSON (5&6)






  1. Savanna vegetation covers the largest part of East Africa.
  2. Areas close to rainfall have wet savanna while areas close to semi and areas have dry
    savanna / wood land
  3. The type of savanna in an area relies on the amount of rainfall received.


  4. Characteristics of savanna vegetation.
    1. They have tall bushes
    2. Dry savanna has short grass.
    3. They have scattered trees.
    4. Most of the tree shed their leaves during the dry season.
  5. NB Trees that shed their leaves are called d-ciduous trees.

    They shed their leaves to reduce the rate of transpiration

  6. Examples of trees in savanna vegetation.
    1. Acacia
    2. Baobab
  7. Activities carried out in savanna vegetation.
    1. Pastoralism
    2. Tourism
    3. Crop growing


  8. The most prominent example of wood land savanna is miambo wood land in central Tanzania.
    1. It is sparsely populated due to presence of tsetse flies and prolonged drought.
    2. People in miambo wood land carry out apiculture because the bees cannot be attacked by the tsetse flies.
  9. Savanna is sometimes referred to as tropical savanna because it is located in the tropical climate.

Or it lies with in the tropics.

  1. Montane vegetation / mountain vegetation
  2. Montane vegetation is located in the mountain climate.
  3. The montane vegetation varies with altitude.

Cross section of montane climate.

Image From


Bare rock

Heath and moor land


Rain forest.

Savanna vegetation

  1. Qnt: Why is there little or no vegetation on mountain peaks?

    It is too cold to support plant life.

  2. Economic activities carried out in mountain areas.
    1. Pastoralism
    2. Tourism
    3. Crop growing
    4. Lumbering





  1. A swamp is a water logged area with vegetation.
  2. Swamps are mostly found along big water bodies e.g.
    1. Shores of lake kyoga
    2. Along R. Kilombero in Tanzania
    3. Along R. Rukwa in Tanzania
    4. Along R. Tana in Kenya
    5. Mangrove swamps are located along the coast.

NB: Swamps inland have papyrus reeds while swamps at the coast have mangrove forests.

List any 4 crops grown in swampy areas.

  1. Coco yams
  2. Rice
  3. Sugarcane
  4. Water melon

Suggest any four importance of swamps.

  1. We get water for home use.
  2. They are used as fishing grounds
  3. They help in rain formation
  4. Mangrove swamps promote tourism
  5. They filter dirty water.
  6. They control floods
  7. We get raw materials for making crafts e.g. clay

Dangers of swamps to people.

  1. They are breeding places for diseases vectors
  2. They have dangerous water animals that attack people.
  3. The areas can flood during rainy season.
  4. They are hiding places for law- breakers

Problems faced by wetland.

  1. Drought
  2. Water pollution through dumping waste materials
  1. Swamp drainage

    Swamps drainage is the clearing away of swamps for a purpose .

    1. Farming
    2. Brick making/ pottery.
    3. Settlement
    4. Industrialization
    5. Mining
    6. Road construction, etc.

Dangers of swamp drainage

  1. Droughts / desertification
  2. Floods
  3. Destroy animal habitant e.g. fish, snake, frog etc,/ displacement of wild animals.

Why should swamps be conserved?

  1. Ro control flood
  2. To control droughts
  3. To protect animal habitants
  4. To influence rain formation
  5. To get water for home use.

Economic activities carried out in swamps.

  1. Crop farming
  2. Pottery / brick making
  3. Crafts making.

How important are mangrove swamps?

They produce water proof wood used in the ship making industry to make ships.

What is dissertation?

Is the process through which an area changes into and arid area.

Shrub / scrub

  1. This is dry bushy vegetation found in areas with long dry season.
  2. They have small thorny trees and bushes.
  3. It is mainly located in south, North, Western and North Eastern Kenya, North Eastern Uganda and North western Tanzania.
  1. Semi desert vegetation
    1. This type of vegetation is located in semi desert climate.
    2. Its rainfall distribution is too low with less than 250mm.
    3. The grass dose not grow well.


  2. Mangrove vegetation

    This type of vegetation is found along the coast of East Africa.


  1. Human activities.
  2. The climate of an area
  3. The nature of soils in an area.
  4. The latitudinal location of an area/ latitude of an area.
  5. Government policy.
  6. Pests and diseases.





Map of East Africa showing natural / rain forests.




  1. Give the meaning of the following terms:
  1. Deforestation: The cutting down of trees on a large scale.
  2. Agro forestry: The planting of trees alongside other crops.
  3. Afforestation: The planting of trees where they have never been.
  4. Re-afforestation: The planting of trees where they have ever been cut.
  5. Lumbering: The effective cutting down of mature trees for timber.
  6. List any two planted forests you know.
    1. Lendu forest
    2. Magamaga forest
  7. How does vegetation influence population distribution?
  8. Area with dry savanna vegetation hasss sparse population because there is little rainfall.
  9. Miombo woodland: are sparsely populated because they receive plenty of rainfall.
  10. Rainforest areas are densely populated because they receive plenty of rainfall.
  11. Mangrove forested areas are densely populated due to presence of rainfall, coastal climate and fertile soils.
  12. How does vegetation influence climate?
  13. Areas with thick vegetation receive a lot of rainfall while area with less vegetation receive less rainfall.
  14. How does vegetation influence economic activities?
  15. Rain forest promote lumbering
  16. Savanna vegetation is a habitant of wild animals that promote tourism.
  17. Forested areas have fertile soils that promote crop growing.

LESSON (3&4)


Vocabulary: Mining, extraction, copper, cobalt, silver, phosphates, fertilizers, minerals, explosives, specimen, electricity gypsum, bugle, quarrying.

  1. Mining: This is the extraction of mineral deposits from the ground.
  2. Mining
    is a primary industry because it produces raw materials.
  3. Minerals are important substances that are found underneath the earth/ minerals is wealth found under the ground.

Mineral distribution in East Africa.


Place / mine

Product made


Kilembe in kasese Uganda

Copper coins (500), electric wire, bullet shell, phones, trophies, bugle, artificial bums,


Kilembe – Kasese Uganda

Jet plane engines, can brake systems, surgical blades, artificial body parts e.g. heaps, knee joints, etc.


Hima- Kasese

Toro at sukuru hills Uganda




Sukuru hills in Toro- Uganda

Artificial fertilizers

Crude oil

Lake Albert

Petrol, diesel, paraffin, plastics


Lake katwe – Uganda

Lake magadi – Kenya


Soda ash

Lake magadi



Shinyanga in Tanzania near Mwadui




Karamoja in Uganda.

Gold medals





Methods of mining used in East Africa.

  1. Underground,Deep cast or shaft mining method.
  2. Opencast / open pit method.
  3. Drilling method
  4. Panning method (used in salt mining.)
  5. Tunnel method / adit /Drift mining
  6. Quarrying method. (used in mining rocks/stones)
  7. Alluvial mining
  1. Open cast Mining

    This is the extraction of minerals which are near the surface of the earth by clearing the top soils, rocks and vegetation.

  2. Underground mining

    This is the type of mining where minerals are extracted from underground by digging shafts and tunnels. E.g. copper


    The rocks containing minerals are extracted by using explosives.

    Problems Associated with underground mining.

  • Floods.
  • Falling of rocks.
  • Suffocation due to too much heat and loss of fresh air.


  1. Alluvial mining

    This is the type of mining used to extract minerals from alluvial soils or sand.


  • Gold
  • Diamond.
  1. Drift mining.

    This is the type of mining where adits are used to reach minerals from a valley into a hillside.

    -Minerals mined in this form usually have horizontal layers.


  • Coal
  1. Sub marine mining.

    This is the type of mining used to extract minerals found in the rocks and at the bottom of seas.


    In this method, sub marines are used to transport both the miners and the machines to and from the bottom of the seas.

  2. Drill mining.

    This involves pulling/extracting minerals from underground using long pipes.


  • Petroleum oil.
  • Water by boreholes.

Types of minerals.

  1. Name the three types of minerals giving examples of each.
  • Metallic minerals e.g. gold, manganese, copper, zinc.
  • Non metallic minerals e.g. Phosphates, limestone, salt, clay.
  • Fuel minerals e.g. Coal natural, gas, oil and ignite.

Other minerals mined in East Africa.

Lead, coal, gas, zinc, gypsum, tin.

NB: Minerals are detected in an area by use of geothermal air born exploration made by the specialists called geologists.

Map showing mineral deposits in East Africa.







  1. Why did the mining of copper collapse in Uganda?
  1. Law prices of copper on international market.
  2. Political instabilities.
  3. What is the difference between copper ore and blister copper?

    Copper ore is mixed with other substance while blister copper is copper with no other substance.


  4. How was copper from kilembe transported to;
    1. Kasese- using pipe lines.
    2. Jinja – using trains.
  5. Why was copper transported to Jinja?

    To be smelted since the smelting industry was in Jinja where electricity supply was enough and constant.

  6. What is copper smelting?

Is the process of separating pure copper from components.

State any four mineral components of copper ore.

  1. Sulphur.
  2. Cobalt.
  3. Nickel
  4. Silver
  1. By what method are following minerals mined?
  2. Salt- panning
  3. Crude oil – drilling
  4. Sand- open cast
  5. Copper – tunnel open cast / shaft.
  6. Gold-open and deep cast

Importance of mining in East Africa.

  1. A source of income to government / foreign exchange
  2. A source of employment
  3. Produces raw materials used in secondary industries.
  4. Leads to the development of infrastructure.
  5. Leads to urbanization.
  6. Promotes tourism
  7. Strengthens international relationship from foreign investing countries.

Disadvantages of mining in an area.

  1. leads to pollution
  2. Leads to land degradation
  3. Promotes oil erosion
  4. Leads to displacement of people.
  5. Accelerates landslides.
  6. Leads to los of lives.

Problems faced by the mining industry in Uganda.

  1. Flooding of mines.
  2. Collapsing of mines thus loss of lives by miners.
  3. Mineral exhaustion in an area.
  4. Poor technology or shortage of machinery.
  5. Shortage of skilled labour.
  6. Inadequate funds.
  7. Competition from other mineral producing countries.
  8. Unreliable power supply/ power failure.

Solutions to the above problems

  1. Floods can be controlled by draining machines.
  2. Collapse can be reduced by building pillars to support the cracked rocks.
  3. Poor technology and shortage of machinery can be solved by importing modern technology.
  4. Shortage of funds can be solved by use of foreign investors or borrowing money from foreign financial institutions.
  5. Power shortage can be reduced by starting many small power stations or use of other alternative sources of power.
  6. Shortage of skilled man power can be reduced by training more miners.



  1. How has the discovery of oil affected the people of Bunyoro negatively.
    1. They have been displaced from their land / pollution.
    2. They have environmental pollution.


  2. How will oil drilling in L. Albert promote development?
  3. It will create employment
  4. Development of infrastructure
  5. Income to the government






Drainage features in East Africa.

Water as an economic resource in the region.

  1. Vocabulary- drainage, features, down warping, depressional, kyoga, carter, lava, oxbow, meandering, tributary, distributary, confluence, estuary, delta, glacier.


  2. What is are drainage features?

    These are physical features which contain water in them.


    Examples of drainage features.

  3. Oceans / seas
  4. Rivers
  5. Springs
  6. Lakes
  7. Swamps
  8. Streams.


  1. An ocean is a large water mass which separates one continent from another
  2. East Africa is boarded by the Indian Ocean to the East which separates it from Asia and Europe
  3. Other oceans includes;
  1. Pacific ocean
  2. Atlantic ocean.
    1. Lakes

      Lakes are categorized by their formation.

  1. Rift valley lakes
    1. These are lakes which were formed by faulting.
    2. They are located along the Rift valley of East Africa

Characteristics of Rift valley lakes.

  1. They are narrow
  2. They are long.
  3. They have regular shapes.
  4. Some have salty waters.

Examples of lakes in the Eastern arm of the Rift valley.

  1. L. Turkana
  2. L. Natron
  3. L. Eyasi
  4. L. Manyara
  5. L. Magadi
  6. L. Naivasha
  7. L. Nakuru
  8. L. Elementete

Examples of lakes in the Western arm of the Rift valley.

  1. L. Tanganyika
  2. L. Edward
  3. L. Kivu
  4. L. Albert
  5. L. George

NB. L. Malawi is between the Eastern and western arms of the RIFT VALLEY.

  1. The Great Rift Valley extends from R. Jordan and stretches south wards to Mozambuque. It further continues northwards up to L. Albert in western Uganda.
  2. It is 7000km long, 5600km lying in East Africa.
  3. It is 50km-60km wide.
  4. Lake Katwe is a crater lake and it was formed by volcanicity


Qn. How is the rift valley politically important to Uganda?

It forms an international/ natural boundary between Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo


  1. Why are some rivers in East Africa not navigable?
  2. They are shallow and narrow.
  3. Presence of sharp and big rocks.
  4. Presence of Rapids and water falls.
  5. Presence of Sudds- Floating vegetation / presence of water hyacinth.
  6. They have Dangerous marine animals.
  7. Which river forms a natural boundary between Mozambique and Tanzania?

    River Ruvuma.

  8. Name the power station located on each of the following Rivers.
  9. River Nile
    1. Nalubaale dam in Uganda
    2. Bujagali dam in Uganda
    3. Kiira dam in Uganda
    4. Karuma dam in Uganda.
    5. ——————————– in Sudan
    6. Aswan high dam in Egypt
  10. River Tana in Kenya ——————————————————————-
  11. River Pangani in Tanzania ————————————————————
  12. River Rufigi in Tanzania —————————————————————
  13. How is power generation important in the development of East Africa?
  14. It’s a source of power for running machines in industries
  15. It’s a source of power for running machines on plantations and farms.
  16. Power generation creates employment opportunity.
  17. Importance of Lakes and Rivers as Resources
    1. We get fish.
    2. We get water for home use, irrigation and industrial use.
    3. They influence rain formation.
    4. They are used for water transport.
    5. We get sand.
    6. They are used as natural boundaries
    7. Some lakes are used for mining, e.g. salt, soda ash and crude oil.
    8. Some rivers are used in the generation of Hydro Electric Power (HEP).
    9. They attract tourists who bring income.
  18. Dangers of Lakes and Rivers to the people in the region.
    1. They can flood during wet seasons and cause danger.
    2. They habour/keep disease vectors.
    3. They habour/keep dangerous marine animals.
    4. People can drown and loose lives.
    5. They habour wrong doers like pirates.




















Qtn. What is an inland port?

These are places on lakes where loading and off loading is carried out.

Qtn. What is a sea port?

These are places on seas and oceans where loading and off loading is carried out .

Examples: Port Mombasa and Dar-el-Salaam in East Africa

Qtn. Name the inland ports on the following lakes in East Africa.

  1. L. Albert Port——————-and Port Wanseko.
  1. L. Tanganyika port———— and Port Kigama.
  2. L.Victoria













Qtn. How are inland ports important in the development of East Africa?

  • They handle the imports and exports of the East Africa countries.















  1. Vocabulary- preservation, tilapia, nileperch, tinning, freezing, refrigeration, over fishing, exploitation.

Qtn. What is fishing?

Fishing is the extraction of fish from water body.

Qtn. Under which ministry is fishing in Uganda?

Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Animal Industry.

  1. Fishing is an example of a primary industry.

Qtn.What is primary industry?


Fishing grounds in East Africa include;

  1. Oceans, lakes and rivers.
  2. Fish can also be reared in fish sponds- acquaculture.
  3. There are two types of fish.
  4. Fresh water fish got from lakes and rivers.
  5. Marine fish got from oceans and seas.
  6. Examples of fish caught in East Africa
    1. Tilapia (the most common type of fish in East Africa)
    2. Nile perch ( the largest fish caught in Uganda)
    3. Star fish
    4. Lung fish
    5. Mud fish
    6. Silver fish.
    7. Star fish
    8. Cat fish

Methods of catching fish in East Africa .

  1. Modern Methods
  • Trawling
  • Drifting
  • Fishing rods.


  1. Traditional Methods
  • Spearing method.
  • Fishing baskets.
  • Fishing hooks.

Fish preservation.

This is a method of keeping fish for a long time without going bad.

Methods of preserving fish

  1. Modern Methods
  • Freezing.
  • Tinning/canning.
  1. Local/tradition Methods
  • Smoking
  • Salting
  • Sun drying
  • Deep frying.


  1. Give two modern methods of preserving fish.
  1. ————————————————————-
  2. ————————————————————–
    1. Mention any three local methods of preserving fish
  3. ———————————————
  4. ———————————————
  5. ———————————————-
    1. Identify the most common method of preserving fish


Importance of fishing to people.

  1. A source of food.
  2. A source of employment.
  3. A source of income to people and government.
  4. A source of raw materials to some industries.
  5. Fish bones are used as animal feeds.
  6. Oil from fish is used to make industrial lubricants like soap, cosmetics, etc
  7. Sport fishing attracts tourists.

Problems faced by fishing industry in East Africa.

  1. Poor transport and communication.
  2. Poor storage facilities.
  3. Using poor fishing methods like fishing poison.
  4. Pollution of water bodies which kills fish.
  5. Water hyacinth / water weed
  6. Dangerous marine animals
  7. Bad weather e.g. storms.
  8. Pirates.
  9. Unsteady prices of fish

Qtn: How can the above problems be solved?

  1. By constructing better roads that lead to fishing grounds.
  2. By importing proper storage facilities for fish.
  3. By enforcing strict laws against poor fishing methods
  4. By constant removal of water hyacinth/water weed/floating vegetation by the government.
  5. By relocating dangerous marine animals to restricted areas.
  6. Putting strict laws on dumping of wastes into water bodies.
  7. Constructing and maintain of roads connecting to fishing grounds.

Qtn: How does the water hyacinth obstruct fishing?

  1. It suffocates fish / it kills fish.
  2. It destroys fishing tools / materials.
  3. It causes accidents during water transport
  4. It harbours dangerous marine animals e.g. crocodiles.

Qtn: How can water hyacinth be removed from the water bodies?.

  1. By using machines
  2. By removing the water weed using hands
  3. By using insects to eat the water weed

NB Spraying the water weed is dangerous to both human and marine life

Qtn: State any four uses of fish.

  1. Fish is a source of food
  2. —————————————————————-
  3. —————————————————————-
  4. —————————————————————-

Qtn: Identify any three modern methods of fishing

  1. By using gillnet method
  2. By using the fishing rods
  3. By using fishing hooks.
  4. .—————————————————————-






  1. What is transport?

Transport is the movement of people and their goods from one place to another.

  1. Other social services provided to the people of East Africa include,

a). Medical services.

b). Security services.

c). Education services.

d). Insurance services.

e). Communication services.

f). Banking services.


Other than the government, social services are also provided by Non government Organisations (NGOs) and Private Companies.

  1. Traditional means of transport in East Africa include;
    1. Animals.
    2. Canoes.
    3. Stretcher.
    4. Carts.
    5. Dhows.
    6. Rafts.
    7. Logs.
  2. Modern means of transport in East Africa include;
    1. Cars
    2. Buses
    3. Lorries/trucks
    4. Pickups.
    5. Aero planes
    6. Helicopters
    7. Jets
    8. Ferries
    9. Ships
    10. Trains
    11. Balloons
    12. Rockets,etc
  3. Challenges/disadvantages of traditional means of transport.
    1. They are slow.
    2. They are exposed to high risks of accidents.
    3. They carry limited goods and passengers.
    4. They are not durable/don’t last for long.
  4. Importance of transport.
    1. It promotes tourism.
    2. It links urban areas to rural areas.
    3. It promotes communication.
    4. It promotes trade.
    5. It promotes security.
  5. There are four major types of transport and these include:
    1. Road transport
    2. Railway transport
    3. Water transport
    4. Air transport



Road transport.

  1. Roads can either be tarmac or murram.
  2. Tarmac roads are mainly found in urban areas and high ways.
  3. Murram roads are commonly found in rural area and serve as feeder roads.
  4. Feeders roads are commonly found in rural areas and serve as rocks that connect to urban roads.
  5. Importance of having a well developed transport network.
    1. It makes transportation of goods and services easy.
    2. It also eases administration in an area.
    3. It promotes trade in an area.
  6. Seasonal roads. Are roads are mainly used in the dry season and impassable in the wet.
  7. A seasonal road is also referred to as a path.
  8. Murram roads are common because they are cheaper.
  9. Give the types of roads used in the East Africa region
  10. Tarmac roads.
  11. Murram roads / feeder roads
  12. Seasonal roads / paths
  13. List four means of transport.
    1. Cars
    2. Lorries/ truck
    3. Bicycles.
    4. Buses.
    5. Pick ups
    6. Camels and Horses
  14. Advantages of road transport.
    1. It is very common/ it extends to most ports in the region.
    2. It is cheaper for shorter distances.
    3. It is cheap to construct roads.
    4. It has many means of transport.
  15. Disadvantages of road transport.
    1. Some roads are affected by bad weather condition.
    2. They are many accidents on road.
    3. Roads are easily damaged.

    Major Road Network across East Africa

    1. The Great North Road.

    -This road starts from Cape Town in South Africa to Port Alexandria in Egypt, North Africa.

    -This road passes through countries like; Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and finally Egypt.

    b. Trans African Highway.

    -This Road starts from Mombasa in Kenya, through Uganda, DRC, Central African Republic, Cameroon, and end at Lagos in Nigeria.

    1. State the Common causes of road accidents in East Africa.
      1. Over speeding.
      2. Over loading.
      3. Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drunken drivers.
      4. Driving vehicles in dangerous mechanical conditions.
      5. Poor roads
      6. Driving on shoulders.
      7. Not following road signs.


  16. Different ways people in East Africa can control road accidents.
    1. By enforcing strict laws against over loading.
    2. By enforcing strict laws against over speeding/ by using speed governors.
    3. By following road signs.
    4. By encouraging people to follow traffic rules and regulations.
    5. By driving vehicles in good mechanical conditions



  17. How important is road safety education?
    1. To reduce on the rate of road accidents.
    2. To teach people how to use the road well.


  18. On which side of the road should pedestrians move?

    A long the pavements / or the right hand side.


  19. Why are the following important to road users?
    1. Zebra crossing- They encourage drivers to stop over speeding for pedestrians to cross safely.
    2. Speed governors – To control the speed of running vehicles.
    3. Seat belts- To hold passengers firmly in one place incase of an accident
    4. Helmet- Protect the head from damage in case of an accident
    5. Humps– To control the speed of running vehicles.

    – To reduce the rate of road accidents.

  20. How is road transport useful to peter, who has travelled from London to Uganda by air?
  21. Road transport is good for door to door services.
  22. Road transport will help peter to reach his destination

LESSON 4,5&6


  1. The First Railway Line in East Africa was the Tanga – Korogwe Railway line built by Germans Tanganyika in 1893.
  2. The Uganda Railway was started at Port Mombasa in Kenya at 1896 and ended in Pakwach in Uganda in 1965.
  3. The Tazara Railway was built in 1970 link Zambia to the coast so that copper could be transported easily to the coast
  4. Another name for Tazara Railway is

    Tanzam Railway

  5. Why did the colonialist construct railway lines in East Africa?
    1. To stop slave trade
    2. To promote trade in the region.
    3. To make transport easy/ To make transportation of goods and passengers easy.
    4. To link some countries to the coast.
    5. To make their administration easy.
  6. Why was the railway network linking Mombasa to Kisumu called the Uganda railway?
    1. This railway line was mainly constructed to link Uganda to the coast.
    2. It was mainly constructed to develop Uganda economically.


  7. Why were the Indian coolies brought to East Africa?

    To construct the Uganda Railway.

  8. Why were the Indian coolies brought to construct the Uganda Railway?

    The Indian coolies were well skilled

  9. What contribution was made by each of the following during the construction of the Uganda Railway?


    1. George White house- He was chief engineer during the construction of the Uganda railway,
    2. Major Macdonald- He surveyed the area where the railway line was going to pass.
      1. He was the Chief surveyor during the construction of the Uganda Railway.
    3. Colonel Peterson – He killed the man eaters at Isavo National Game Park.

NB: Man eaters were lions

  1. List the effects of constructing the Uganda Railway.
    1. Transport was made easy.
    2. Uganda was linked to the coast.
    3. Slave trade was stopped.
    4. The Uganda Railway promoted trade in the region.
    5. British administration was made easy.
    6. It led to development of other social services in East Africa.
  2. Problems faced by the railway builders.
    1. attacks from hostile tribes e.g. Masai and Nandi
    2. Shortage of labour.
    3. Attacks from man eaters at Isavo National Game Park.
    4. Hostile climatic conditions in some areas/ Harsh climate.
    5. Difficult to cross highlands, the Rift valley, rivers and wetlands.
    6. Poor transport and communication.
  3. How was the problem of labour shortage solved during the construction of the Uganda Railway?
    1. They brought mores Indian coolies to construct the Uganda Railway. .
  4. Why did the Africans at first refuse to construct the Uganda railway?
    1. They never wanted the railway line to cross their land.
    2. They never wanted to leave their families.
  5. Why was railway network extended to the following places?
  6. Pakwach- To transport agricultural products from that area ie cotton and tobacco from West Nile region.
  7. Jinja – Namasagali- To transport cotton from Busoga region.
  8. Kasese- To transport copper from kilembe to Jinja fro smelting.
  9. Which government funded / sponsored the construction of the Uganda Railway?

    The British Government.

  10. What type of money was introduced by the Indian coolies during the construction of the Uganda Railway?

    The Indian Rupees.

  11. Which type of money was replaced by the Indian Rupees in East Africa?

    The cowrie shells

  12. State the contributions of the Indian community in East Africa
    1. They built the Uganda Railway
    2. They developed towns in East Africa / they built shops in E. Africa.
    3. They introduced the Indian Rupees
    4. They built industries and factories.
  13. State the advantages of railway transport.
    1. It is the best for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
    2. It is not affected by traffic congestion.
    3. It works on a fixed timetable making it reliable.
    4. It is not easily affected by dad weather.


  14. Give the disadvantages of railway transport.
    1. It is expensive to construct and maintain.
    2. It does not reach people’s homes/does not reach most parts of the country.
    3. It is difficult to construct in mountainous areas.





  1. It is the fastest type of transport although it is very expensive as well.
  2. It is suitable for carrying perishable goods because of its fast.
  3. What are perishable goods?

    These are goods that can easily get spoilt or damaged

  4. Give examples of perishable goods known to you.
    1. Fresh fish
    2. Flowers
    3. Fruits e.g. tomatoes
  5. International airports in E. Africa
    1. Entebbe International Air port
    2. Dar-es-salaam International Air port
    3. Mombasa International Air port
    4. Nairobi International Air port
    5. Eldoret International Air port.
  6. Examples of means of air transport used in East Africa
    1. Aeroplanes.
    2. Helicopters.
    3. Jets.
  7. Advantages of air transport.
    1. Very fast over long distance.
    2. No traffic congestion.
    3. Convenient and comfortable.
    4. It is reliable since it follows a time table
    5. It links different regions of the world.
    6. It cannot be hindered by most physical features.
    7. It can be used to reach remote areas where no other forms of transport can reach.
    8. It can be used to save people’s lives during natural or man created disasters.
  8. Disadvantages of air transport.
    1. It is very expensive
    2. Can be affected by bad weather conditions.
    3. Air crushes are fatal.
    4. It cannot provide door to door services/ it cannot transport people to their final destination.



  1. Water transport is the cheapest and most suitable for carrying fragile because it is comfortable.
  2. List any four means used on water transport.
    1. Ships.
    2. Boats.
    3. Ferries.
    4. Canoes
  3. Advantages of water transport.
  4. Water is the cheapest type of transport
  5. It is not affected by traffic jam.
  6. It connects continents and countries.
  7. It is the most suitable for fragile goods.
  8. It transports more bulky goods than road and air transport.
  9. Disadvantages of water transport.
  10. Water transport is very slow.
  11. It can be affected by strong winds storms
  12. It does not reach people’s homes.
  13. It can be blocked by floating vegetation.
  14. It is not flexible.
  15. Facilities at landing sites are expensive to build and maintain


This is the movement of goods from one place to another through pipes .

Note:-It is mainly used for transporting liquids such as;

  1. Water
  2. Petroleum/Crude oil




 c. Sewage.


The means under pipeline transport are the pipes

-Pipelines are commonly used at Mombasa in Kenya and Dar-es-salaam in Tanzania for transporting petroleum.

-The longest pipeline in East Africa for transporting oil is between port Mombasa and Nairobi in Kenya.


  1. Advantages of pipeline transport.
  2. It is cheap to use pipelines for transporting liquids.
  3. Pipelines are not affected by traffic congestion.
  4. Pipelines reach peoples’ homes (door to door services).
  5. It does not pollute the environment.
  6. It does not disrupt other activities.
  7. Disadvantages of pipeline transport.
    1. They are very expensive to buy and install.
    2. There is a great loss in case of leakage.
    3. Leaking parts may lead to fire outbreaks in some areas.
    4. Pipelines carry only a specific type of goods at a time.













  1. What is communication?

Communication is the sending and receiving of messages

  1. List the modern means of communication in East Africa.
  2. Using telephones.
  3. Using internet
  4. Using radio.
  5. Using televisions.
  6. Using news papers.
  7. Letter writing.
  8. Using fax machines
  9. Using magazines.
  10. Different means of traditional communication in East Africa
  11. Using drums.
  12. Whistling
  13. Clapping
  14. Using horns.
  15. Using fire signals / by smoking.


Forms of modern communication.

  1. Mass media
    1. What is mass media?

Communication which provides the same information to very many people at the same time.

  1. Examples of means of mass media.
  1. Radio
  2. news papers
  3. News letter
  4. Television
  5. Magazines.
  6. Telecommunication

It involves using the following during communication.

  1. Telephones.
  2. Telex.
  3. Telefax.
  4. Radio calls etc.
  5. Give the advantages of using a radio.
  6. Used for advertisements
  7. Used for entertainment
  8. Used for study purposes through educative programs.
  9. They provide information through broadcasting news.
  10. They can be used by people who can not read
  11. They are widely used.
  12. Why do most people in Uganda use radio?
  13. Most radios are cheap to buy.
  14. Radio communication is flexible.
  15. Radio broadcast in many languages.
  16. Identify disadvantages of using a radio.
    1. Radio network signals do not reach distant places.
    2. The deaf cannot use radios.
    3. Some programmes teach immoral behaviours.


  17. Advantages of news papers.
    1. Provide detailed information.
    2. Can be kept for record purposes /they can be used for future reference.
    3. They can be used for advertisement
    4. They are source of educative information.
    5. They provide stories for entertainment.


  18. Disadvantages of news papers.
    1. Expensive to buy daily.
    2. The illiterate do not benefit.
    3. They sometimes give wrong information.
    4. Take long to reach remote areas.
    5. Some newspapers portray pornography.
  19. Why are news papers not commonly used in Uganda?
    1. There are very expensive.
    2. They do not cater for the blind people and illitterate.
  20. List any news papers published in Uganda
    1. Bukedde news papers
    2. New vision news papers
    3. Red pepper. news papers
    4. Onion news papers
    5. Etop news papers
    6. Weekly observer news papers
    7. Rupiny news papers
    8. Kamunye news papers
  21. Examples of Government owned News papers in Uganda .
    1. Bukedde news papers
    2. Etop. news papers
    3. New vision news papers
    4. Orumuri news papers
  22. Examples of Private owned news papers in Uganda.
    1. Daily Monitor
    2. Onion
    3. The East African
    4. Red pepper
    5. Kamunye.
  23. How important are news papers and radio stations in the development of the country.
    1. They create employment opportunities.
    2. Promotes communication
    3. Increases on government revenue through paying taxes.
    4. Used for advertisement
  24. How is communication important in trade

Its used in advertisement of goods.

  1. Give advantages of using a television
    1. It is audio visual/ gives clear illustrations of situations
    2. It’s used for entertainment
    3. It helps us to access information which may be inaccessible.
  2. Disadvantages of using television.
    1. Televisions are expensive to buy and maintain
    2. Requires electricity which is not common in rural areas.
    3. Transmits in few languages.
  3. Which is the fastest means of communication


  1. Advantage of using telephones
    1. Telephones give first hand information
    2. Telephones are Very fast
    3. Telephone give immediate reply
    4. They serve a number of purposes e.g telling time and accessing internet
  2. Disadvantages of using telephones.
    1. Expensive to buy and maintain
    2. Poor network in distant places.



The post office

  1. Roles of the post office in our community
    1. To send letters and parcels to owners
    2. Sells postage stamps.
    3. Provides employment opportunities to people.
    4. Provides telephone services.
  2. Disadvantages of letter writing
    1. Letter writing is slow
    2. No immediate reply.


  3. Mention problems affecting communication network in our region.
    1. Presence of some physical features that block communication signals / network failure.
    2. Expensive to install and maintain.


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