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STYLISTICS AND COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
The term communication is defined as follows;
a). Communication Is the exchange of information and understanding between parts.
b). Communication is the process of transferring of information and understanding between parts.
c). Communication is a transferring of information between parts, from a source or sender to a receiver through media.

From the above definitions communication is characterized by the following;
  • Communication is the process not an event; it is something that takes the form of continuity.
  • Communication is the two way process. It involves exchange of position or a role between a sender and receiver.
  • Communication become complete where there is a feedback (Information from a receiver to a sender).
  • Communication involves exchange of information (intangible things) and not g
    oods. Sending of tangible things called transport/transportation and not communication.
  • Communication requires medium (language) and channels.
  • Communication is not rarely sending but also understanding between parts is the communication process.
Tools or means of communication and categories into
a). Verbal tools (language)
b). Non verbal tools e.g. Body language, sign, signals e.g. Traffic light, colours etc. Therefore the major tools communication is languages.

COMMUNICATION MODEL
The term model is used to refer to a diagram or pictorial representation of a certain idea, fact or process.Therefore communication model is a diagramic or pictorial representation of a communication process more specifically communication is a representation of a verbal linguistic communication process.
Communication model
Speaker or spoken orTelevision Listener or
– Writer – Written Radio – Reader
– Dialogue etc.
From the above model a message originate from a person who is called encoder or sender, then the sender selects a language e.g. (English and Swahili) and it’s from spoken or written. Then a sender selects channels or means methods for message transition. Finally the message reaches the receiver who decodes (interprets the message into understandable idea or thought, finally the receiver again select a medium and channels and sends a feedback to original speaker making a communication process.
Guide Questions
With the aid of communication model explain how communication takes place in human language.
COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWN OR FAILURE
Communication breakdown or failure is a situation or circumstance intended message timely and effectively. It entails the following situation or circumstances;
i. Failure of a message to reach the intended/targeted destination Receiver.
ii. A message is misunderstanding by receiver.
iii. A message arrives to the right receiver but not timely (arrives late) and therefore it become useless.
iv. Message passed through a wrong medium or channels.
v. Sender sends a wrong message e.g. Rumors.
EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS
There are several negative effect of communication breakdown some of them include;
  • Conflict fight /war/misunderstand.
  • Hatred/hostility and anger against one to another.
  • Lack of trust and existence of suspicion.
  • Destabilizing sociology-economic activities.
  • In a learning process, teachers and students fail to understand each other. Hence failure in academy, It is also the source of strikes and boycott in schools and colleges etc.
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS
Effective communication is a cure to communication failure/breakdown were quite certain special skills so that we avoid the above dangerous or risks. These skills are referred to as communication skills. Communication skills are fundamental to effective communication.
Definition of effective communication
Effective communication can be defined as;
a) A careful and timely sending/transferring of righ
t information and total understanding between parts.
b) Is the process of sending right information through right media and channels to the right receiver at the right time.

FACTOR OF INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
The factors that influences effective communication is the same (if received that can lead to communication breakdown
These factors are categorized into
a) Linguistic factors
b) Psychological factors
c) Environment factors
d) Social or cultural factors
A) LINGUISTIC FACTOR
These are language related factors. They include
i) Proper pronunciation.
ii) Use of language according to the level of the audience.
iii) Use of right/ appropriate register or style depending on the field of study or area of specialization e.g.: science, law, literature.
iv) Use of appropriate dialect common to the audience.
v) Being clear and use of common language avoid using bombastic words and unnecessary vocabularies.
B: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
These are factors associated with attitude interest, perceptions and only other feelings of the sender or receiver of message. They include the following;
i) Avoid being judgment or biased. We should not judge people’s personality. Status or history but the message they give us. That is we should not judge a book by its
cover but by its contents.
ii) We are advised to cultivate interest when we intend to communicate (to say write, read or listen) this promotes effective communication.
iii) Psychological preparation is important when we want to communicate we have to come down from anger or emotions otherwise we may fail to communicate effectively.
NB: Tensions frustrations, anger, hatred emotions etc do affect our communication and therefore causing communication breakdown.
C: SOCIAL FACTORS
These are factors related to beliefs, traditions, ideology, customs and norms. During communication one has to be sensitive or aware of these issues so as avoid offending others or create hostilities we need to be carefully and respect other people beliefs, ideologies, traditions customs and norms for active communication.
D. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
These are factors related to climate conditions and other environmental condition. They include
i) Noise
ii) Rainfall
iii) Wind
iv) Temperature (heat or coldness)
v) Psychological interruptions interference e.g. speech interfere, passing of people, vehicles or animals.
vi) Smell
vii) Dust and other climatic extremes
viii) Timing of information is also key to effective communication of the above are not carefully analyses e.g. we want to communicate, we may fact communicate effectively.
Advantage of effective communication
Effective communication has the following advantage
i) It promote unity, cooperation and solidarity in a society
ii) Effective communication promotes peace, security and order of disputes or conflict are discussed amicably and compromise is reached peaceful.
iii) It promotes social and economic development
iv) It facilitates understanding e.g. in education or learning process
v) Serves time
vi)Serves resources(financial capital)
STYLISTICS

This is the study of differences or variations or language style which depends on the situation in which the language is used and the effect the user wishes to create on the person he is addressing (addressee). It is important to understand the following key words in the definition above.
Variation
This refers to the different forms of the same language that are known or used. Any different form of the same language is called a variety.
Situation.
This refers to this non- linguistic variable which makes the user choose a certain variety as appropriated, for example the relationship existing between a user and addressee may cause the user to choose a variety which he finds to be appropriated.
Example;
When we intend to create a good relationship with another person and therefore solicited a prompt favorable reaction we may use a polite language.
However if we are at a higher position over another person we may revert to a commanding language to ensure that things are done promptly e.g. a police inspector to a recruit.
TYPES OF VARIATION (CAUSES)
There are 2 major types of variations of language;
a. Variation according to user(Dialect)
This is causes by people belong to a particular place or class in a large geographical or social scale.
b. Variation according to use(Register)
This is the variation that is caused by the condition placed on the user due to use the underlying situation.

Language variations according to user
The characteristics of a user may cause language variations. This is so especially when we compare users to the same language but from two
different circumstances. These lead to detect and accents.
i. Dialect
A dialect is language variety distinguished from another by differences of vocabularies and grammar. It is usually defined as variation of language which contains typical idiosyncratic features which particular to any individual, peace and social class.
A variety of language used by people from a certain geographical setting is called a regional dialect.
A variety of language used by a particular social group upper class or lower class educated or uneducated is called sociologist.
ii. Accent
An accent is the way a speaker pronounces a language in a way that speakers from a certain geographical area do e.g. British accent, American accent. It is a way of pronouncing th
e words of a language that shows which country or area a person comes from
Language variation according to use
The use for a language must choose the language elements and structure to fit in the situation requires, these varieties of language resulting from different use are called register.
The following are the names of registers according to the use;

Field of discourse (domain)
This refers to an area of operation where the language activity takes place. This is basically the subject matter of the speech activity it could be agriculture, physics History or Geography etc.
The subject matter determines whether to use technical or non technical language.
For example: in a medical seminar, a wide range of medical vocabularies and other medical technical terms will be expected to be used.
The language choice will be more formal and language construction would therefore be expected to have longer sentences.
Mode of discourse (medium)
This refers to the medium of language activity we therefore get the written and oral modes. The difference of the two is that the written language is more organized with careful punctuation and sentence structures shine the oral language will be expected to be less organized with gap fillers pauses hesitations slips of the tongue ellipsis etc.
tenor of discourse ( status)
This refers to the relationship between user and addressee (s) it is in this that use distinguishes between polite and impolite language or formal and informal styles. Involving temporary causes permanent or intimate forms of relationship manner which one behaves.

Styles of registers identified in stylistics
i. Consultative/common core/basic style: Spoken anywhere at any times even a stranger while seeking information.
Example of dialogue
Consultative
Caro: Muumuu excuse me miss
Stranger: Yes, may I help you?
Caro: Yes I can’t seem to find the PPF tower
Stranger: Oh! Actually we are standing right opposite to it
Caro (smiling): oh oh, I see one
Caro: Thank you

ii.Casual: Among friends.

Example of dialogue
Casual
Noreen speaking to her friend Irene through the phone
Irene: what’s up girl, tell me,
Noreen: You tell me
Irene: Girl please I call you and you get nothing to say
Noreen: Well I didn’t ask you to call me
Irene: Ha ah…. okay goodbye.
iii. Intimate: Spoken to more friendly /close partners e.g. Married couples
Wife: Baby please takes the kids to school
Husband: Thought that was your responsibility wife stares at him then says “but am tired sweetly”
Husband: I always tell you not to look at me like that when you ask for something
Wife: (smiles) I don’t do it on purpose you know
Husband: Yes right, fine i will take them
Wife: Love you mean it
Husband: Love you too
iv. Formal: Official, proper grammar
Example of dialogue
At the Transform office, Mbezi
Bundala: Cecy would you bring me those files
Cecy: Yes, boss
(She takes them in Bundala’s office)
Bundala: I need you to make a call to Neringo and have him meet me at 12:00 noon sharp.
Cecy: Yes boss
(She departs)
Other characteristics of formal language
i. Proper punctuations
ii. Proper Grammar
iii.Use of more polished vocabulary
E.g. poor health – impoverished
Go down – descend
iv. Frozen style
This is used in particular field of discourse such as literature, religion and law. It is called frozen because it is usually never affected by changes as it retains its features.
In the field of literature, the frozen style is mostly found in poetry than in prose. In religion, it is shown by the use of special religion terminologies and archaism. In law, it is indicated by the use of legal terms. Search style is always familiar to the people who use it always.
Other terms used
Various features constitute some peculiar features which make them be treated as varieties to be labelled, these include;
STANDARD VARIETY (Standard dialect or language)
This language variety has the highest status in the community or nation. It is a kind which is usually based on the speech or writing or of educated nature language speaker.
A standard variety is generally used in the news, media and literature. It is the variety found in dictionaries and grammar and is taught in schools and to foreign learners of the language in question.
NON – STANDARD VARIETY
This is the one that is marked by serious deviations from the so called standard spoken variety. It is characterized by wrong pronunciations and grammar sometimes with wrong pronunciation and grammar, infect it may have wrong language uses.
SLANG
This is the informal use of words and expressions that are more common in spoken language, especially by a given group of people. Slags are always new, flashy and popular words which are usually short lived in terms of use.
It is normally used in familiar talk among peer groups but is not accepted as good language. When spoken or written language. The central reason for use of slang is desire for novelty, vivid emphasis for being knowledgeable, being up with times or a little ahead.
Example of such words include
Crib – cheat
Contract – order to kill someone
Dough – money
Peg out –die
JARGON
These are words or expressions which are used by a particular profession or group of people, and are difficult for others to understand. It is therefore a language of a special group profession or activity. It is usually compared with a ling in fact, any speech that sounds strange to people who do not understand it while it is well understood by people of the special profession as doctors, lawyers and other scientists is associated to jargon.
EUPHEMISM
This is a word or phrase used instead of another which is deemed to be embarrassing or unpleasant, sometimes to make it seem more acceptable. It is used to make speech less harsh or unpleasant example the word “pass away” for die short call for pee etc

Situations calling for different language varieties
a.Write a press release to the Tobacco farmers at Tabora together with their Agricultural officers concerning a disease affecting their crop and how to combat it.
b.A play written to encourage farmers at Mwika to plant more coffee due to its profitability.
In (a) we are going to use Formal language – official
-proper grammar
– Standard language – has high status in community or nation
– Language should incite the awareness of the disease, its causes, effects and ways to combat it.

In (b) Language should be simple.
Casual – to farmers talking
Formal – If it involves official scenarios such as a meeting and someone with facts is addressing the people.
Persuasive – the fact coffee is likely to bring profit.
DIALOGUE:- Study the Diaogue below
Setting : Vulage
Characters : Atu
Uswedi
Rwegashora
Wane
Rwega : Waguma
Swega : Are you from the farm?
Uswedi : No am from taking Rubisi
Rwega : at this farming time
Uswedi : Forming time!! What farming time are you talking about?
Rwega : I mean now shouldn’t you be pruning your coffee
Uswedi : ha ha ha man Rwega,I thought you were a very understanding man …everyone is complaining about the coffee does not full our packets
Rwega : Uswedi my friend, we are fast reluctant to implement what our officers tell us.
Wane/Atu: hallo
Uswedi : Hallo
Rwega : where are you young beautiful ladies coming from?
Wane : We are from SUA University we are here on field studies
Oswed : ooh so your swat
Atu : Ha ha! yes, we are actually studying agricultural.
We happen to overhear your conversation may we could be of help.
Uswedi : Rwega your people (leaving)
Rwega : Uswedi where are you going let us hear from them
Wane : It seems your having problem with coffee farming, this matter can be resolved by just using the proper agricultural skill or technique.
Atu : My colleague is right, the only key to a better production as sufficient technology.
Uswedi : sorry what do you mean by sufficient technology
Wane : It is applying the proper tools and methods which can help to yield high out puts for example this village has shortage of water but
coffee can be produced here, you can employ irrigation as a solution.
Atu : Not only that, but also employ perfect tools and not hand hoes thus by doing so you will be able to earn more output considering the fact
that coffee is very profitable.
Rwega : I think you have very good ideas and i think it’s the right time to plan a seminar so that all Mwika coffee farmers will be aware.
ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT LANGUAGE STYLES
LANGUAGE STYLES/REGISTERS
The analysis is done by looking at language features used which are either the features/levels
– Lexical features (kind of vocabulary)
– Phonological features
– Graphologist features

– Semantic features
– Syntactical features (grammar)
A. Conversational style
Is likely to have informal language
Features expected to be seen
a) Lexical features/level (vocabularies)
Characterized by Colloquial, Idioms and slang vocabularies
Colloquial vocabulary refers to the words used informally especially in everyday conversation, such words are avoided in formal writing or speaking, this is evident in casual style were people predominantly use this kind of language variety.
Example:
I told him to shove off
Use you coconut
Such words are used in spoken (conversation ans)
Conversational Style, avoids technical terms this style uses the words the words that are not technical as it is naturally inform where technical terms

are used they are meant at be humorous (funny).
b) Syntactic level (grammar)
The grammar of a conversational style is characterized by the following
Use of interjection
Words the o feelings or emotions of the people involved in the conversation
To express
Interjection
Joy
Hurrah!
Sorrow
Oh! Aah!
Science
Hush! Ssh!
Pain
Ouch!
Wonder
Woow!
Disgust
Puh!
Greetings
Hi, hallow
Surprise
What! Ah!
Use of attention calling devices to make the listeners get what the speaker says, he or she may use attention calling expressions such as
You see
Look here
I Mean
By the way
I say
You know what
Hesitations
When the speaker thinks what to say in the act of on utterance, these expressions are used as fillers for gaps
…..e eh…..
….. umm….
Use of sentences beginning with coordinators are used because the sentences are said in response to what is been discussed.
E.g. But he didn’t attend the party
Or may go to Arusha
And they took everything in the shop
Use of non – sentence expression
E.g. see you there
See you later
Sorry for disturbance
Pleased to meet you
Use of simple sentences
Language of conversation is characterized by use of sentences that are simple in that they lack subordination or use them very rarely.
E.g. I will be there
We shall see
He came
Use of short responses
In conversations were we know the context very well we may use short responses because we are aware that the speaker knows what is taking place when we are speaking.
E.g.: Yes I did (for – did you see him)
No I can’t (for- can you drive)
To Arusha (for – where did you go last week)
Short responses save time that could otherwise have been used
Use of contracted forms
Aren’t you coming today?
I’m sorry, I am not
What is wrong?
Use of question tags
E.g. A. Marry come here, didn’t she
a. Yes she did
b. You like honey, don’t you?
c. Of course I do, don’t you
d. Yes, but not that much
Lack of clarity
Some of the info may not be said since the speakers know the premise of discussion making it hard for a passerby to understand what they are saying.
Use of incomplete sentences
A – Yesterday I………………….
B – What did you?
A – I…. er….I
B- You took alcohol?
A – Not so —- er I mean ….I…….
Random topics
When people meet and start talking they do not pick a topic it comes randomly
Exercise:
Carefully write a dialogue between two street boys arguing over a possession. Then show the evidence of a conversational style in you dialogue according to
a) Syntactical level
b) Lexical level of Analysis

Suggested answers
Dialogue
Setting: street in town
Characters: Omar
Adam
Omar : You good?
Adam : Yeah
Omar : You still have the Gush, don’t you?”
Adam : … eeh ….mumm
Omar : What
Adam : No, not…. I mean, yes
Omar : No what
Adam : I had it yoh
Omar : What do you mean you had it, where is it right now?
Adam : Shit happened to me
Omar : Don’t give me crap, where is the iish
Adam : Think I lost it
Omar : Aah!!!
Adam : I swear I had it before…..er….umm
Omar : Before what (grabs Adams neck)
Adam : Lis….te…n (he coughs with pain)
Omar : Give me answers fool, that shit cost us our lives (he lets go Adams neck)
Adam : (coughs while holding his neck) i will look for it
Omar : Piss off, don’t trust you no more
Adam : Told you shit happens
Omar : Shit my foot (he leaves)
Analysis under syntactical level
-Use of interjections such as Aah! To show pain what! To show the act o surprise (omary’s reaction after Adams confection of losing the item)
-Use of hesitations such as….. eeh…. uumm
(Adam hesitates to tell the truth)
-Use of short responses such as “yeah” for – you good)
– Use of question tags such as
You still have the crush, don’t you?
-Use of incomplete sentences
Adam – I swear i had it before …er..
Omar – before what
– Lack of clarity
The dialogue does not give room for a passerby to tell what the argument is about, the topic is discussion is made a secret through not mentioning it or use of words such as cash which not many are familiar with.
Analysis under lexical level
The dialogue has involved some features that show or prove the existence of lexical features
– The use of colloquial vocabulary such as piss off
– The use of slang vocabulary such as oh in the dialogue
Graphological features
Such conversation can be found recorded in novels, plays short stories and journal interviews
The features found are as follows
1. The use of exclamation marks – To show emotion
A -The man is dead
B-What…..! are you sure?
2. The use of italics, bolding, capitalization and underlining to show unusual stress especially emphasis.
Phonological features of conversational style
Normally the conversational style is phonologically shown by the rise of the voice to a louder volume or higher pitch.
1.In the example below, the emphasis (loud volume words) is shown by the use of capital letters.
E.g. I wanted to go
You don’t want me to but a will
2.Some people use a pronunciation that is dialectically identified to the direct of the people in the pronunciation.
3.I humorous style some speakers imitate sounds of the people being quoted, in principal this is an informal style in that it is said that the style deals with matters which are not very serious.
1. FORMAL WRITTEN
– Is the English found in the written material such as news papers political speeches reports
– It is a language style which lacks all the features to be found in the conversational style.
2. FORMAL LITERARY STYLE
– Poems, Novels, short stories, critical essays etc
– Unlike these works, plays use the conversational style
– The language in formal literary styles involve emotion working words
– Imagery and other figurative expressions
The following extract from the rape of the pearl by Magala Nyago
Winnie had been brought up a staunch Roman Catholic her parents had been little short of fanatic. She could not recall a day when her parents had missed a Sunday mass unless they had been seriously ill. Even then, armed with a rosary, the invalid would keep on saying one after the other, the “ Hail Marry” the” our father” and “glory be to the father not less than seven times a day………………………………….
The extract about is full of figurative
“Her parents had been”
“Armed with a rosary”
“Those two were more catholic than the pope himself”
a. Lexical features of a formal literary style
– Use of symbolic words: most literary works use words that stand for things other than what they say.
– Use of emotion evoking words such words are found by the use of imagery.

Reader is affected by words that appeal to various senses such as touch, smell, taste, sight and hearing.

These senses make the reader feel like participating in the sense been described
b. Syntactic features
-Use of the simple and complex sentence done to maintain variety
Language of literary works use both simple and complex sentence done to maintain satiety
Language of literary works use both simple and complex sentences, complex are mainly descriptive because they full tell the readers about the characters as well as incidents at the setting at which such incidents took place.
Mugo felt nervous, he was lying on his back and looking at roof locks hung from the fern and grass thatch and all pointed at his heart. A pure drop of water was delicately suspended above him. The drop fattened and grew steadier as it absorbed grains of soot. Then it started drawing toward him (from a grain of wheat by Ngugi wa Thiong’o
Use of pre and post modifies in noun phrase. Pre and post modifies are used to describe characters and the incidence which help to make work sound live. This makes the reader feel as if they were present at the places of the ancient, in that way readers understand the works.
-Narrations are either made of first person or second person subject of narrations either I, she or he
Extract :
A terrified nurse, who happened to be
passing by, let out a nerve shattering scream which echoed through the entire hospital (from the rape of the pearl)
THE TECHNICAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE STYLE
This is the language used by people of the same specialization such as lawyers, teachers, and doctors.
It can be referred to as a Jargon. It’s understood by specialists therefore outsiders like you and I cannot understand.
Words like photosynthesis, phyla, etc can be understood by biologist’s nouns, adverbs, morphemes by linguists.
General features of technical styl
e;
1.Its characterized by the use of technical terms that is words that are meant to be understood by specialists of a given field.
2.The use of impersonal language i.e. most of the statements are passive (not interested with the subject but the action).

3. It sound objective e.g. Fruits are served with lunch
4. The sentences are well connected so as to show a logical flow of ideas
5. It shows headings and subheadings which make readers know which issue is included under the other.
6. Use of generalization
Uses general statements that are mainly in a simple present tense and are used as if they are principles e.g. the Archimedes principle states that when an object is partially or totally emerged in water, the water displaced has the weight equivalent to that of the object emerged.
Various examples of a technical style
Scientific style
This is the style that we find in natural sciences such as Biology, chemistry, physics etc
Lexical features of the scientific style
1.Makes use of words that have Latin or Greek origin e.g. diameter
2.They use S.I units for measurements which are internationally recognized e.g. 4 kg 45dm
3. Use numbers and formulas
E.g. CaCO3, CaO + CO3
4. Use abbreviations for S.I units
E.g. cm, kg
Structural features of scientific style
1. The use of passive voice
Passive voice is dominating used in order to make the information being presented sound objective aim is to make scientific findings look different from opinions, the observes distant themselves from
E.g.: “The experiment was carried out, 1st a small amount of calcium carbonate was hated. Then a colorless gas was liberated. The gas was tested using burning splint. The splint stopped burning. It was then concluded that the gas was carbon dioxide”.
In the text above, we do not know who performed the experiment because the report is given in passive voice.
2.The use of past tense in reporting experimental findings in the text above, we can see that the report is in the post tense. This is something common in most experiments.
3.The use of completed sentences
The sentences are mostly complete and clear. These sentences are normally complex with connectors that show how ideas are logically organized
4. Noun phrases are well modified for clarity reasons noun phrases are accompanied with modifiers e.g. dense white fumes where modified”
Graphological features of scientific style
1.The use of diagrams and figures as well as tables for illustrations
2.The use of symbols
The long of science is full of symbols that stand for various measurements; they include things like ℇ, ÆŸ, ∏, H2SO4

3. Well patterned paragraphs as well as headings and subheadings




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