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APPRECIATING LITERARY WORKS OF ART
1. NOVELS
2. PLAYS/DRAMA
3. POETRY
1. NOVELS
DIVINE PROVIDENCE (by S. Ndunguru)
Chapter 1
SAINT Theresa, hospital in Namath which was run by sister Devonian but since her departure the hospital now deteriorating to a point that it can be called a dispensary. It is now under sister Valerian assisted by Madonna a sister also. Is happens to be the same hospital which Nolana is in after having to deliver a baby the previous night before Christmas day. Unfortunately a baby had died due to the inability of hosanna to deliver her own. She was attended by sister Valerian who also at some point adduced her regarding her past life and her health at the moment.
This incidence brought back memories to Hosanna about her life. Aunt Pauline who was Hosanna sole serving relative was with her taking care of her during this situation. She also advice her for her betterment. Regarding the fact that the day after she had given birth to a dead baby and the following day was Christmas as she was in pain, Hosanna said to her aunt who was telling her about the burial of her child and the fact that she could not see the dead baby. She said “it is strange, others are celebrating the birth of the Baby who was born last night while you buried my baby the same night she said this while weeping.
Old father Wolfgang had married Hosanna and Richard, who has already walked out on there to start a new life due to her character including not caring about their daughter mallet who was now living with Richards uncle. The same old man was now conducting the Christmas service in the nearby church of saint Karola wangle. He was the only white priest still left in the whole area of Bunyan, the land bordering Lake Janaya in Endow. He together with father Hilary Kaiser Brother Poly carp and sister Atropine were the ones who started the mission station at Namath in 1920. During the Christmas service old father Wolfgang preached to the people weasels of wisdom and spoke of how he felt this was the last Christmas for him to share with the people regarding his health status which is deteriorating as days go on. His preaching made some people weep. After this people would engage themselves in the mango as part of the celebrations.
Hosanna had demanded to see father Wolfgang and so Aunt Pauline had to go ask him to come see her. On the arrival at the house were father lived, she met Boniface Amanda who was the house Keeper, they spoke for some time until father Wolfgang had the conservation and agreed to meet and listen to Pauline. Father,after hearing this agreed to see her.In the afternoon he went to the hospital, meeting with
Boniface who also had been to see hosanna. Entering the room father Wolfgang stared at hosanna who begun weeping due to what had happened to her and knowing this and through expensive father Wolfgang did not stop her until she calmed down, He spoke to her on words of encouragement and eased her pain. This was also good to him that one of his lost sheep and returned to the fold.
Six months since Hosanna had left the hospital and life went on together with her Aunt. Hosanna thought of starting a new life with a new job. At the same time father Wolfgang health was deteriorating and was taken to Ngerenge without delay under Dr Hoffman. It was later found out that the cancer of the duodenum and his days were numbered. He news about fathers witless was sent to animation and prays were said for him. Hosanna was also affected by this she was unable to sleep and had a terrible dream that she did not understand. This led her have the urge to see father Wolfgang while there was still time so as to get advice and the interpretation of the dream. In the morning she told her aunt all about it due to then notice that she was not in a good mood.
Her Aunt agreed to this and the journey begun, it takes eight hours by the mchakamchaka bus from Namati to Ngerenge. She reached at 4p.m the following morning and did not waste time she went straight to the sisters’ convent where father Wolfgang was being kept. The place was forbidden ground for lay people with much security but she had nothing to lose. Sister Karaoke was the one who appeared after Hosanna’s doorbell three times was pressed at first she was denied and after giving explanation on herself and how important it was to see him. It was later agreed that she may go but not to take too long.
Hosanna was able to do what she come for, the dream was interpreted and father wanted a letter to be written for him to his dear brethren back in Namath advising giving precautions and may other things in the social life. Hosanna kept the letter safe and was ready to leave. Father Wolfgang death was announced a week after Hosanna returned to Namath. It was received with great grief. It was decided that father Wolfgang body was to be buried at Namath, in the cathedral of saint kasongona at Ngerenge was the final decision but a school was to be built at Namath in the Concourse of Father Wolfgang, to be known as TRADE SCHOOL.
Chapter 2
This is Richard Mwandikaulaya’s part of the story whereby he had decided to move on and walk out on his wife Hosanna, after her character changing to a worse one. Seeing his level of education in this chapter on medical issues and was satisfied. He had decided to apply for job advertised in the papers on the medical assistant grace on position. One morning he had received a letter from lilungo for an interview. He wrote a letter to his wife saying bye and ask hornet to look for him.when he reached Lilungu, whereby this was not his first visit, he begun looking for a place to stay at Babbles Holiday Guest house. After refreshing in his room he had an idea of going to see the building which he will be doing his interview the next morning.
After having to eat at a certain restaurant, he went to the Harbors corporation were there was struck security and no one who did not work there was allowed unless one had a special pass.Richard decided to go regardless, on the entrance the mate Mr. Daudi Alale the gate keeper who denied him but after giving him what he had asked for “the so called cigarette” he was allowed escorted by a man called him Athumani. On the day of the interview looking smart and without forgetting the letter as the pass, Richard went to the Harbors cooperation and
wasn’t disturbed this time by Mr. Alale. The meeting or the so called interview went well he met the General Manager Chairman Mr. malipula Maliyatabu, allas Mr. lisp together with other members of the board. He finally got the job as the Assistant medical of the cooperation.
The first month of work wasn’t easy but Richard manager as a hard worker he was people liked him for that. He had already cope with the environment and mostly the language foul language of the port employees phrases such as my tea or my cigarette Richard was so busy considering the fact that Mr.Mawalla had traveled to china for business which he was successful and through a party at his place when he come back and had invited everyone including Richard. From the harbors cooperation. The day of the party workers were taken by a minibus of the cooperation to Dr. Mawalla villa situated in the famous kabisela Beach. The environment was astonishing that I left Richard speed together with other employees.
Within all that time he had few beers as he was not a person who takes hard drinks he also had time to move around the house and ended up hearing a conversation in one among the rooms in the house that left wondering (about Manumit) the party ended at exactly midnight and left with the same minibus dropping everyone off at their paint when Richard dropped behind was Mr. Malipula who was totally drunk and insisted that today was their night and they should enjoy. Richard had to let him in but telling him he was tired and wanted to sleep Malipula drinking brandy sat down at started talking to Richard about how the people lived on their sweat and grow on their labour. So they should drink once they have a chance. Richard just took a coke and listen. Malipula went on talking to Richard on becoming cunning as others so as to be rich. He spoke a lot that made Richard wonder giving example of Mawalla after a half an hour malipula had gone.
The next early morning Richard received a call from Dr.Mawalla telling him that Alale was murdered, Richard asked a lot in panic but no answers were given but rather he was to prepare for leave. Reaching the areas of the scene together with inspector Joel Mwakibete who was working onto scene of the crime later joined by the G.M Mr. Mtekateka, A lot was done under the inspector including removing the dead body to the mortuary. Investigation begun from the ownership of the dagger that had stabbed Alale’s back. His argans such as the liver, heart and more Dr. mawal took control and wrote the report. Suspicion about the recent murder feeled the people of the corporation including Athumani wondered a lot why it had to be Alale who was murdered.
It was well known that Malipula had a dagger with him most of the times. Athumani decided to break it down to the inspector about the dagger. Inspector investigated much on the dagger, initials MM on it and Mr. Manipula being the owner. Malipula admitted to be the owner but had not murdered Alale, he had to write a statement about his activities during the day and night of the murder.
Chapter 3
The murder case begins, Malipula being the victim under judge pritorious Mandwanga and inspector Mwakibete assisted by Kilian Shauritanga and Wilson Okwenje on the defense side and others members of the jury. The case took place with a lot of disagreements on both sides concerning the dagger mostly due to the initials MM Malipula defended himself a lot as the accusations got strong. Athumani was one among the witnesses together with Richard. The case took long discussions on the inner organs issues on rigor mortise and much more that in the end Malipula was declared guilty by court.
Days went after the case; Richard received a call from Kristina who wanted to see her and agreed of a place to meet. It was about the judgment of the case, it’s that she felt malipula was speaking the truth it’s like this on the days you and the others came for the interview Mr. Malipula had left the dagger with me after prohibiting him on not carrying it in the office and so it stayed with me until one day the boss wanted something to cut string of a parcel the dagger was available, I gave it to him and he said he would give it to him. This when Richard told Kristina of how important this would have been if she would have brought it forward to the court but she was afraid to get mixed up.
Richard decided getting to the bottom of this situation believing that malipula is innocent. He started asking different people who are surrounding the environment to begin with Josephine for the issue of” poison x” which he thought would have been used Richard decided to involve supt. Samuel matola with experience unlike the ones who had dealt with the case at first do he called him and asked if he could see him and explained the whole scenario about what Kristina said about “poison x” the silent report of autopsy. It took time for supt. To come to understand all this but finally he did and was satisfied on everything needed to revive alale’s murder case.
Supt. Matola begun getting to the bottom of this it was Monday whereby together with constable William and Inspector Gabriel, they both went to the Harbours Corporation and wanted to hold to meeting with Dr. Mawalla, Kristina, Josephin, Richard and many others seventeen in total. This was about the developments concerning the murder of Alale involving new evidence and the motive for the killing. He went on and explained all to the people in the meeting he did this and took time to see what reaction the listeners had after hearing this and he continued with alale’s murder in connection to the theft of Rolex watches. He conducted by saying that the murder of alale is in this room and that he doesn’t want trouble rather they gave time that anyone involved should turn up the threats seemed to work.
Nobody had turned up at until three o’clock at three thirty sister Josephine come running to Richard office asking him to come see what had happened Dr. Mawalla had died, he had taken cyanide…. into the end the truth always comes out supt. Matolla was well informed Mtekateka was also arrested tor being involved in this.


Chapter 4
This is a story about the sojourn in Africa of Professor Huxley who is a naturalist of the world, he had done work in the Para in the Amazon forest of South America, he was also a young professor at Oxford university, the outcome of research on baboons of the Amazon and the published a book about it. He is now an old man leaving in one of the old Victorian houses in the country side in England. He lived as a bachelor with no children or relatives once he read an article into the naturalist which contained facts about baboons in the forest
along River libobi in kondowe, Africa who showed extraordinary behaviors of tools such as sticks to dig, this astonished and interested him that without wasting time he made plans to travel to Kondowe. He joined a group of tourists who were coming by ship so as to enjoy marine fauna. The trip was nice it he was bothered by two Spaniards who kept asking questions about his work and more. Professor had no intentions of going with the tourists around game reserves and other activities. All he wanted was to go to libobi for his research. He wanted for the ministry of Tourism and natural resources to finalist arrangements.
Jorome Gladman was throwing a cocktails party in hour of the major of Lilungu in MV Liverpool before it left many people were invited including Richard and father professor Huxley’s. During the arrival of the divests in the slip which one had to climb down a ladder which led to the lung, while this went on Richard noticed a white man who was very drunk and seventh he was falling into the sea. Rich went after him with speed without having to think twice using his experience from way back home in the shores of lake Nyanja, without taking off his suit or shoes there he was in the sea strongly to rescue a man’s life while all this was going on people had already noticed and two seamen went to help Richard. Back on dry land Richard used his skill to make the old man so this helped but it was suggested that he was to be taken to the harbor cooperation Hospital.
Jerome Gladman agreed to this suggestion and had to write a note to the professor explain what had happened for he had to start sailing the following day. When the professor wake up realizing he is a hospital work asking where he was Richard had to tell him the story and confirmed it by captain Gladman.Professor stayed for four days in the hospital and during that time Richard had a time to get to know him and share his life experience with him and professor thanking him. When the plans were ready for him to go libobi, 2 days after he left the hospital the professor was on his way.
Professor arrived were he would set camp for his research at the research station that used to be home of the Mr. Rebman Schneider, a German then later the government made it a research center were even the natural that had written about the strange behaviors of baboons had infect carried out his research from here. It was built with many little huts whereby professor close to occupy on which distance from the main building was avoiding noises. He embarked on his research without delay, taking photographs and writing copious notes. Two months later he was done and ready to leave. One night, at around ten o’clock still at the center professor had people knocking at the door thinking it was beauts, the house keeper and he opened the door. Only to his surprise it was Miranda and scapula, the two Spaniard tourists holding automatic pistol
They led professor away to a car were there was a third members Perez Franco of Kondowe who runs a saw mill. All this was planned from the journey from Britain the stay a Libobi they were watching him. This was a kidnap and with it these Spaniards had their demands of release f their fellow members of the terror international so they used professor as their shield and promised to kill him in case their wants were not fulfilled. They sent a letter to British high commissioner in Lilungu. In a short time the news had spread and people grieved by the news including Dr. Richard who had just known and saved the man.
Hosanna on the other hand after finding out that Richard had worked out on him, she had gone to live with Mr. Boko and things did not work well these also she went back to live with her aunt and when she had brought the lette
r of father Wolfgang to father Malyuga she entered church to pray. Now Hosanna wanted to look for job and search for a new life changing her name was also what she did it was now Grace Watua. She went or malenyi was she got a job as a mid wife and worked very hard also volunteered to social work as a leading girl guide in a scout group. Hosanna was well aware of the kidnapping as one afternoon as grace and her girls did their exercises in the bush, using a binocular to check the girls she noticed a hut into the middle of the bush two white man followed by an order person who was tied at the roof posts. Grace was shocked and decided to postponed the exercise until next time she went to the police. The investigations begun the same night from the centre in libobi, Beatus to identify the professor and going to the hill for observations.
The next morning gathered together Grace told Sugt. Ndalama that they should get to the bottom of this and she gave out a plan that went well it involved Grace acting as a woman injured to punk the kidnappers who were then shot by the ambushed police and professor was saved and also their plans failed as the police were in time to stop the terror international from escaping and send them back to Britain. Before leaving for Britain, Professor met Richard and explained the experience he had curing the kidnap and about Grace Watua.
Chapter 5
Days went on and the death of Dr. Mawalla was been spoken of at large. His wife started having a hard time, there were unpaid bills surrounding her and all this became a wage until she was left with no choice but to give the house to the bank and move in with her brother in Makadara misufini. People started talking about Dr. Mawalla’s death and suspecting someone else to have been the cause, Dr. Richard it was he who received the case the evidence was strong that Dr. Mawala had to commit suicide knowing the truth will come out anywise. Richard’s life was now in danger people were hunting him down to kill him by any means the some to Kristina the secretary who was forced to move to another town and get a new job for safety. Richard was longing to hear from the professor and it come so.
He received a letter from the professor that a university of Glasgow in Scotland was found for him it had the best medical training and professor new one of the Deans of faculty of medicine professor Buchanan. Richard told no one about this regarding the present situation preparations begin for the trip passport, visa health paper and new clothes not arrival in London, Richard told no one about this regarding the present situation preparations begun for the trip passport visa health paper and new clothes. On the arrival in London, Richard was to stay at Hotel Russell booked by the professor. The following day he had time to go around the streets and admire them, he could not believe he was in London. He even compared all he saw with the situation back home in Kondowe. The journey from London to Brighton took one hour and fifteen only to professor house. Richard was pleased with the big, old and clean house credit goes to MacKay who has worked for the professor for over ten years.
Richard stayed with the professor for month before going to Glasgow. Being there was so far the best thing for Richard, the environment the people and him being determined to the best which he did. He made friendship with buncan kaona from ushisha. By the time he was done with his studies professor had advice him to stay in Britain for another two years working under Dr. Taylor fox more advantage professor was now seventy six his health was failing.
Professor had not forgotten Grace Watua who recently had written to him saying she would be in Britain in two months time for the girl guider issue, he wrote back giving details on how to reach Brighton, Richard was well informed of the visit of Grace watua and two others. During the day of the arrival a lot happened that demanded explanation but filled with joy Richard meeting Grace watua who is Hosanna Yoakima. All this was clear after a lot of conversation. Professor found this interesting and great and thought he was not a man of going to church or doing such stuff he had or felt the urge to declare that there was divine providence and that all happen for a reason and it directed from above professor persuaded Hosanna at stay with her husband and so the other two went back.
Arrangements were made for Hosanna to get a job as a midwife where Dr. Richard was working at the Queens hospital. A year after Hosanna gave birth to baby twins called Kenneth and Wolfgang. Richard was astonished by his wife’s character change all this time. At a time when everything seemed well, professor’s health was deteriorating rapidly. One morning Richard received a call room MacKay about professor, together with Hosanna and Dr. Taylor they went hurriedly in Brighten and had a chance to speak to the old man before he died.
The burial was done and the lawyer initiated the will whereby it was declared that half of his property was Dr. Richards, A quarter for Mackay and the rest to the Royal scientific society and the house as a museum of natural history. Having this huge sum of money Richard and Hosanna saw no point in remaining in Britain but rather go back to kondowe and open a hospital. Richard begun purchasing equipments for that and shipped them to Lilungu there months before he and his family left.
Chapter 6
Back in Kondowe, Dr and Mrs Mwandikaulaya spend the first two months resting and visiting relatives uncle Ndomondo being one of them, he was now advanced in age, it took him time to understand how his marriage (Richard) had gone back to normal, Hosanna and Richard were anxious to see their daughter but Ndomondo told them that she had gone to Ushisha with his friend Joshua Chikawe who has promised to take her to the best schools in Ushisha but as time went by he stopped writing and Ndomondo was now too old to travel to the city. This information did not please Richard and his wife, it only increased their worries and so Richard had to travel to ushisha. Afterwards they visited Aunt Paulina who was very excited to see them and the grandchildren he was also advanced in age.
Richard also went to Namatvi to see father Malyunga who was now the priest in charge he spoke of his intentions to build a hospital some were in Unyanja. At this time saint Theresa hospital was in a despicable condition there were no drugs and no equipments. Father had no objections and advised him to use the same hospital, to renovate it so as to avoid expenses of having to build a new one. He was even free to change the name if
he had to. Dr. Hoffman also paid a visit and agreed to help Dr. Richard with some unused equipments back at Ngerenge. When the renovations were complete Dr. Richard begin work immediately with Hosana in the maternity wing. They charged nominal fee only considering the financial status of the people.
Worries about their daughter increased and Richard decided to contact his friend Duncan Kaona who was a doctor in Lundo, the capital of Ushisha asking him to find about the were about of her daughter and the man called Joshua Chikawe in a small town called Chita Dr. Kaona wrote back informing Richard that Joshua chikawe had died of cholera and had claimed many lives in the chisita area of ushisha and that no one knew were Marietta may have gone if she survived the outbreak. This did nothing to away the fears of the mwandikaulayas plane, was the easiest way to reach ushisha but all flights start from lilungo so Dr. Richard had to travel to Lilungu to catch his plane to Lundo. Arriving lilungu Richard stayed at a new built Mapinduzi Hotel after having lunch he felt the very urge to around places he knew since he had worked there before. He noticed some small changes. He saw shop named D.M.S Grocery on the way past the house he had lived then. He saw an old man who was kind of familiar to him but he never bothered and also a woman. From there he decided to go to the port area, approaching the area he heard two people talking one was Mr. Thaidi and the other was Mr. Malipula according to the conversation he was having. They spoke of what had happened to people who did evil now that they believe in God, especially Malipula who was more like confessing.
Richard found it hard to believe that in reality the man and woman he saw was old Dickson Mtekateka and the former G.M of course and the woman was Dr. Mawalla’s wife who later got married to the old Dickson. He pictures the lady he had seen back in the party the elegantly depressed lady standing on the steps on her Kabisela avila. Back in the hotel Richard relived his afternoon experiences and found himself recalling the words spoken by professor Huxley in his death bed that affairs of man are directed from above. The plane took one hour to land at lundo airport. Dr. Kaona was at airport to meet is friend. The following saturday Dr. Kaona felt the need to show him around. He took him to famous night club in Lundo, it was situated in the outskirts of the city. The club was beautiful itself through much of what is said about it. Only the best bands were allowed to play. Through this Richard was able o realise why ushisha was to famous for its dances. Dr Kaona ordered drinks for both of them. He was also a man who coved dancing and could not help the good music. Richard also had to join in with other.
CHARACTER ROLL CALL
Richard Mwandikaulaya
Hosanna Yoakim
Marietta
Sister Valerian
Sister Madonna
Aunt Pauline
Father Wolfgang
Boniface Bondman
Dr. Hafmann
Sister Deokara
Father kleofas Malyinga
Mr. Chakamchaka
Amelia
Mr. Boko
Dr. Van
Daudi Alale
Athumani
G.M. Malipula Maliyatabu
Mr. Dickson Mtekateka
Dr. Reginald Mawalla
Mr. Christant Kapungo
Inspector Mwakibete
Constable Shauritanga
Jason Katiti
Judge Pritorious Mandwaga
Wilson Okwenje
Members of the jury
Dr. Maxwell Nyirenda
Captein Gladman
Professor Huxley
Miranda and capilla
Supt. Matola
Dr. Nyirenda
Sister Josephine
Inspector Gabriel
Constable William
Chapter
Character
Trait
Illustration
1
Hosanna
– Not a good
mother
– Not faithful –Determined
– Intelligent
– Faith
– Carling
– Humble
– Hard working
In regards to the loss of her baby the night before Christmas. This brings back memory of her awful past life, due to this she demands advice from father Wolfgang at large and aunt Pauline and sister Valerian being one among the divisors.
Father Wolfgang
Wise
Spiritual
Humble
Carrying
Respectable
Only white priest left in Namatui. A wise man that tough well his perishes about life, the lord God and much more. He was the one who gave Hosanna advice when she wanted to see him and gave her hopes of life regarding matters such as her family reunion. He later on dies out of cancer.
Aunt Pauline
Caring
Wise
The only relative Hosanna has left who took care of her during her recovery from the body close incidence. She is caring and advised hosanna ones she had to.
Sister Valerian
No – nonsense
Woman and a good advice
A German who now runs the saint Theresa hospital assisted by sister Madonna. She attended hosanna during her child bearing process of all her children. Knowing hosanna well she was able to also advice her about her heath then and the things she did and asking her to begin new life
1
Boniface
Bondman

Dr. Hofmann
Helpful
Father wolf gangs house keeper for many years. He saw hosanna at the hospital page a lay missionary, Doctor by profession who attended father Wolfgang at Ngerenge, he found out that it was concern that disturb him.
Abort Norbert and sister Deokara
Assisted Dr. Hofmann in Ngerenge hospital they felt sorry for father Wolfgang during his sick period.
2.
Richard
Hard working

Hosanna husband, he gets a new job at the harbors cooperation as is said to be a hard worker and also a man with dreams but due to lack of enough money by his parents he never had a chance to go for further studies until then page 26 and continuous seniors’ medical officer for the Harbors corporation, A man who is sold to the cunning in what he does so as to be rich. He was involved in stolen watches and the murder of Daudi alale. But was not recognized until later on.
Daudi Alale
Corrupt drunker
The gate keeper of the Harbors corporation who is very corrupt (demanded cigarette from Richard page 30. He is also a great drinker as stated in what happened at kabisela Beach page 35. He was eventually murdered page 10
Kristina
Beautiful five of hospitality
Secretary who received Richard at the corporation and escorted him to the area of the interview.
Malipula
Maliyatabu
Drunk
Accused of murder.
Malipula shows that he is suspected/Accused of alale’s murder regarding the dagger that was used.
Inspector
Mwakibete
Inspector on the prosecution side, he is very good at his work.
He gets to the bottom of the case, this insides investigating people like athumani, Jason and more
Athuman
Alale’s friend
Mawallas wife
Elegant
Vengeful
Economically
Dependent
Courageous
Good wife
Marietta
Beautiful
Intelligent
Professor
Huxley
Intellectual
Anti – social
Generous
Rich
Alcoholic
THEMES IN S. NDUNGURU’S DIVINE PROVIDENCE
1. Betrayal
To break someone’s trust
a. Hosanna betrays Richard (goes against the vows, she starts having an affair, planning to murder him and also Richard betrayed her baby running away
b. Dr. Mawalla betrayed Malipula Alale
2. Crime
– Terror international (international crime)
– Stolen goods (watches)
– Murder of Alale
– Suicide (Dr. Mawala)
– Attempted murder – Hosanna
– Mrs Maawala
3. Conflicts
Internal
Hosanna
External
Richard and Hosanna.
Richard and Mrs Mawalla.
Terror international and the British government.
4. Role of women in the society (use the positive traits Hosanna)
Women can change from bad to good
Grace Watua
– Hard working
– Brave
– Contributing to the society
– Loving mother and good wife
Pauline
– Caring
– Consoling (hosanna)
Kristina
– courageous
Marietta
– Strong willed
5. Bravery
Grace Watua
Richard
Kristina
6. Role of Religion
Religious institutions – social service, Faith and Counseling.
7. Patriotism – feeling of love towards your country Richard come back of Africa to build a hospital he make justice exist, police duty toward the heroism Kristina giving evidence above the loss of the dagger.
8. Corruption – misuse of office or power for personal interests.
9. Protest – a reaction against any unwanted situation active – demonstrate, Boycott, chaos
Passive – Singing, poems, novels
10. Alienation – move away usually by use of force direct or indirect


A MAN OF THE PEOPLE (By C. Achebe)
SYNOPSIS OF THE NOVEL
A man of the people is a novel reflect most of African Countries after independence where by Most of the leaders show Moral decay to their citizens.
Through the central character (Chief Nanga) Leaders are reflected as corrupt people. As we see through the Novel Chief Nanga posses luxurious cars and owns Mansions. Chief Nanga as minister for culture he misuses the public funds for his benefits
This shows dishonest of some leaders and how they secure a position in the government.
Not only leaders but also the author wants to show how citizens are blinded by their leaders pretending that they are good to them while they are not. The narrator tells us that the Anata grammar school hall was full of the villagers waiting for the Honorouble Minister chief Mirah A. Nanga to address This is an obstacle to the few people like Odili who have come to realize that chief Nanga is not a good leader a he stands for the bad decision made by the PM believing that only by doing so he will secure his position in the government.
Also author shows us that in African countries privileged people continue to exploit unprivileged people. This is through Josiah who possess a shop and a bar exploit his customer by selling his commodities at a higher price. A gain he steal Anzages stock for the purpose of getting richer.
Together with the central theme, the author shows minor themes like ignorance. Conflicts, poverty, protect, Betrayal, Nepolism, immorality, Irresponsibility. Cultural imperidom sacrifice etc.
Here the author wants to make us aware that we need to fight against corruption as it is the obstacle of development to the society.
FORM
The title. The title A man of the peoples is a satarical/ironical title as Chinua Achebe wants to tell us that a man they consider as a man of the people is not because of some of the features we observe from him (Chief Nanga) e.g. Being womeniza helping Edina for the self interest, using public funds for personal benefits, being nepotist. Etc.
The setting: A man of the peoples an immaginary novel (fictional novel) as Chinua Achebe uses immaginary towns like Bori and villages like Urua and Anata. Though students do belive that the setting of novel is Nigeria, appart from the pidgin used in the novel we don’t have any other due that support us when making such a generalization. It is obvious that all other works of C. Achebe set in Nigeria but this is different in the novel “A man of the people” where he uses immaginary setting so as to be in a safe side regarding issues he rises in his novel as they direct tovel the government.
The plot: This refers to the arrangement of events in the novel Chinua Achebe uses chronological plot as he starts at the beginning to the end. The novel has thirteen chapters – in chapter one the narrator introducethe honorable Minister Chief Nanga and his visit to Anata Grammar school. In chapter two chief Nanga invite Odili to visit Born. In Chapter three Odili visit his home village urua before making a long journey to the capital. Odili describes Ezekiahs family and in this chapter we see Odilin Chief Nanga’s empire. Odili Explains that living with Chief Nanga makes him and know manythings which many people do not know. Odili is supprised because chief Nangas house as seven bathrooms each with WC.
Chapter five, Odili and Nanga are invited by Jean and John to a part on Saturday. We see Odili and Jean exchange ideas. Chapter six Odili explains the relationship between him and Elsie and the book Exhibition.
In chapter seven, Chief Nanga as a politician, the visit of the editor Julio, also the love affair between Nanga and Elsie, Odili become fusions with Elsie behaviour Odili leaves Chief Nangas home and go to his friend Maxwell. Chapter eight At Maxwell’s home Odili recalls the previous wents about betral of Elsie. Odili and Maxwell discuss about their new political party CPC(Common People Conversion).
In Chapter nine, is about the discussion of Josiah as an exploitation, we are also told about the blind begger (Azoge) defined as a thief in the name of trade. Odili meets Edna on their way to the hospital to see Edna’s mother they get a bicycle accident. Chapter ten Christians at Anata village Odili convices Edina not to be the second wife of Nanga. Odili tells many student who come have co
me back to anata spend christimas, they are found of western culture. Odili announces to contest against chief Nanga hence he is hated by everyday. Chapter eleven, Odili receives a letter from Edina, Odili enters the danger game of politics, Chief Nanga tries tto bribe Odili he offers Odili a scholarship so that Odili can leave the bad game of politics, Odili denid the offer .
Chapter twelve. Odili’s father welcome CPC members in his hence, Maxwell receives corruption from chief Koko. Odili’s father condemns Odili for rejecting the offers campaign starts.
Chapter thirteen, Odili attends the Nanga’s campaign meeting chief Nanga beats Odili and Odili is taken to the hospital. We are informed the death of Maxwell Edna visits Odili in the hospital, Eunice shoots chief Koko, the Army takes over the government. Edna marries Odili.
Though the plot is chnological this does not hinder C. Achebe to use flashback as we see in chapter one Odili takes us away back in 1948 where he tells us that chief Nanga was his teacher in standard 3 and how he become a minister in 1960 after supporting the firing of Dr Makete and other ministers.
Also we see the flashback in Pg. 28-29 Odili tells us how he was chased away by his friend’s father just because of the hatrage that Ezekiah samalu had to the people. It is in this pg. That we get to know who is Ezekiah samalu.
Style of the Novel.
This novel “A man of the people” is well developed in style as we read the novel we find that in narrating the story the authory uses all persons but 1st person singular is dominant. The author use Odili to narrate the story of Chief Nanga. In chapter one we see how Odili starts to narrate the story using the first person point of view “…………………………… I have to admit this ……………….. I was teaching at the time ………………… I took one look……………………. I couldn’t remember when I last ……….. Pg 1
Also the author use another genne in a none for instance the author uses poems in the novel
“it is the time to spread the news abroad
That we are well prepared
To tie ourselves with silvery chord ………………………….” Pg 22
He also uses songs (i) Pg 122 & Pg 80
“Hip, hip – hip -,
For they and jolly good fellows
For they and jolly good fellows ………….”
Again me see the use of letters in Pg 10 and Pg 133
Likewise the author use stroy telling in chapter one Odili takes us way back in 1948 and tells us the story of Nanga. Also in the same chapter when he was chased away by his friend’s father. Also in Pg. 96 the gives the story of the group of dancers. Also in Pg 106
Language use:
Generally the Language in “A man of the people” is understood but it is a bit difficulty to say whether the Lg is complex or simple, such kind of generalization can base on an individual reader.
The author use pidgin in some incidences intentionally so as to make cleara distinction between characters basing on education Chinua Achebe use pidgin to distinguish two classes in the society ie the schooled and unschool people where by educated people use the standard Language while the uneducated people. Use nonstandard Language (Pidgin). Eg. –“Why I go kill my master?………………….. I de eraze why I no go go jump for insider lagoon instead to kill my master?” “Pg said tge cook in pg 34. Another pidgin in Pg 14 and 15 after the ministers speech. Also in pg 31 by gate keeper.
He also use American diatect. Eg…………. But at the same time we have gotten somewhere” In British English we don’t have such past participle. This is in Pg 44 where Odili was making conversation with John the husband of Jean, these are the a parties who are advising their government on how to improve public image in America.
Together with this we have different figure of speech that accompany Language Use in the novel

Similes:
  • District officer was like the supreme deity” and the interpreter the principal minor god who carried prayers and sacrificed to him says Odili Pg. 28
  • His huge body was quivering like jelly
Chief Koko’s cook quivered as he was brought by the cowboy to answer to why he put poison to bis boss’s coffee. Pg. 34
  • “………. the towel as lager as a alapa” Pg 37
  • “…………….. looking as fresh as a newly –hatched chick……….” Pg. 43
  • “He turned on are then like an incised leopard” Pg 73 said Odili
  • “You are eating all the hills like yam” Pg 93
Sayings:
  • “Do the right and shame the Devil” Pg 11. Means that one should be honest to others and od things according to ten commandments.
  • “Kick the bucket” – to die “I nearly kicked the bucket, Pg 25 this shows the way Odili and Elsie was very close.
  • Pooring a little water into a dried up well” said by Odili when she remembered her died mother hence he says giving thing to his father is nothing as he used to have more than that Pg. 27
  • “When one slave sees another cost into a shallow grave he should know that when the time comes he will go the same way Pg 35-36 quesed Odili that the fear of Chief Nanga is not the safet of chief Koko rather himself
  • “Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown” said Elsie in Pg 61. She comes to say this after Nanga says that being a Ministers is like to welcome problems.
  • “Man no fit fight tiger with empty hand” Said Boniface Pg. 113 –Means one should be full equiped when fighting for 5th
  • “He that knows not and knows not that he knows not is a fool” Pg 117
  • You have lost the sky and the ground Pg 120 samalu tells Odili.
  • A man of worth never gets up to unsay what he said yesterday Pg. 135 samalu tells Odili.
Symbolism:
  • Azoge the blind begger- stands for the people in the society who are blind hence can not see the evils done by their leaders like corruption, misure of government resources etc
These people are poor hence are exploited cheated easily
  • Azoge stick – This symbolize the remaining wealth for the poor people. That means it is the only resource that poor and blind people are left with. Because of the blindness these people do not make effective use of it hence the preveleged ones want it so as to increase their wealth.
  • Cadillac in the novel stands for wealth
  • Gun is a symbol of power.
  • Love making in the represent trouble instead of pleasure
  • The journey to the hospital on bicycle stands for struggle.
  • The refusal of the villagers to buy commodities to Josiah’s investment is a symbol of unity.
Irony:
The title of the book
  • “Teaching is a very noble profession” in Pg. 9 by Chief Nanga is an ironic expression as he means the opposite
  • “I can swear to God that I am not as happy as when I was a teacher” The opposite is true. Pg 9.
  • “If someone wants to make you a minister run away” The opposite of this is true Pg 36
Biblical language:
“A voice was heard in Ramah
Weeping and great limitation
Rachel weeping for her children
And she will not be comforted, because they are not Pg. 81 (Merthew 2:18)
Satire:
Chief Nanga tells Odili that he can bring him six girls and Odili will have sex with them fill he gets tired Pg. 72
“If you like I am bring you six girls this evening”
Chief Nanga says Julio has composed a song instead of a book
“I know Mr. Julio himself his composed a brillant song called ……. erm ……….. what is it called again?” Pg 63
Chief Nanga prones that he does not know the meaning of book exhibition
“Book exhibition? Asked Elsie How they de make that one again? My sister, make you de ask them for me- O Pg 61
Chief koko realizes that the coffee was not poisonous Chief Nanga starts tearing him.
“ But S.I you to fear death ………………….” Pg. 35
CHARACTER CHARACTERISATION
1. Chief Nanga.
  • He was a teacher later a minister for culture
  • He is corrupt, he receives bribes from different British companies
  • He tries to bride Odili, he uses his possition to influence things
  • He represents African leaders who are immoral ie. Adulterer Womalizer and sexmaniac
  • He uses his money and position to oppress and humiliates women e.g Edina
  • He lives a luxury life.
  • He is a standard six graduate, he does not fit to be a minister
  • He is unfaithful husband as he is having sexual relationship with different women
2. Odili Samalu
  • He is the narrator of the story
  • An educated
  • He represent African intellectuals after independence
  • He is enxious to educate the mass about the evils of the leaders but people are not ready
  • He hates corruption
  • He is a teacher at Anata Grammar school
  • He joins politics because he want to revange chief Nanga.
  • He has honest love for Edna
  • He has weakness towards women (sexist)
  • Politically, he represent people have progressive mind and desire for change.
3. Maxwell Kulamo:
  • He is lawyer and a poet
  • He is one of the founder of CPC
  • He was killed by chief Koko
  • He wants to contest chief Koko’s position Chief Koko bribes him but Maxwell does not withdraw from contesting chief Koko’s position but later on he ends up being killed.
  • He also represents progressive intellecturals in independent african states
  • He meets the qualifications of being “A man of hte people”
  • After the coup detat the new government declare him a hero.
4. Ezekiah Samalu
  • He is Odili’s father
  • He is a polygamist, he has five wives and thirty five children
  • A district interpreter during colonial period
  • Local chairman of P.O.P
  • He invites Odili’s friends from the opposition part O.P.O in his house and allows them to start compaigning.
  • He is corrupt, he blames Odili for rejecting chief Nangas bribe.Edna Oda
5. Edna Odo
  • An educated (chief Nanga sponsored her believ
    ing that he will marry her) Edna lamented but she didn’t succed
  • Come from poor family
  • She represents girls who loose their freedom and surrender themselves to men because of poverty
  • She is sympathy as she went to see Odili to the hospital after being beaten by chief Nanga’s thugs.
  • She married to Odili after being realized that chief Nanga is not her right choice
6. Eunice:
  • She is a lawyer
  • She is Maxwell’s fiancee
  • She is a member of C.P.C
  • She shoots Chief Koko as a vegence
  • She has true love
  • She was prisoned after killing chief Koko and she was released after the revolution
  • She represents, women who can fight against evils without considering their sofety

7. Elsie:
  • An educated (a trained nurse)
  • She is immoral
  • She betrays her feanc’ee Ralph by making love with Odili and chief Nanga
  • She is Odilis girlfriend
  • She caused conflict between Odili and chief Nanga
8. Mrs Nanga:
  • She is standard six leaver
  • She was intelligent but she was forced into marriage (ie by Chief Nanga)
  • She is a traditionalist, she struggled to maintain her tradition value
  • She represents women who are humiliated and oppressed in the society who are considered as house keepers
9. Azoge:
  • He is a begger
  • He is having visual imparment (blind)
  • He represents poor people who are harrassed by the previledge one
Other characters include:-
Mr. Mwege Dr. Makinde, Josiah, Boniface, Jean, John, Mr. Julio, the PM, Odo, Agness etc.


II. CONTENT:
1. Corruption.
Through the novel we see how leaders are corrupt and how they use their little to get what they want, a good example is chief Nanga who use his position to blind the mass so that they can not see his evils. Chief Nanga uses his money to sponsor Edna for the purpose of winning her he tries to bribe Odili so that he can not contenst against him, also Chief Nanga receives bribes from British companies. Also we see the same Chief Nanga bribes the journalist so that he can keep on writing things which are not true or an not be done.
Not only that, but also chief Koko bribes max as the way of weakening the CPC power. Boniface tells Odili that they have bribed the police officer and court clerk to cancel their case
Generally chief Nanga has succeded in this because the majority are ignorant and blind and their silence have paved the way to this succession
“It is impossible to any society to proposer under corrupt leadership.”
  1. Ignorance:
People of Anata are ignorant as they have failed to realize how corruption affect them and the nation at large. Though they encounter problem in their daily life still they don’t take action against it. We are told that even if some one tries to educate them they are conservation
Ezekiah Samalu who is a local leader of P.O.P is not away of what is going on in the party
Edina’s father failure to realize the trick played by Chief Nanga.
Also we see ignorance among the leaders and professionals like Elsie who do not know the meaning of book exhibition
Azoge the blind begger failure to realize the trick played by Josiah proves that people are not even aware with the simple trick played by privileged people.
“People need to be aware and take action once they realize something bad”
“Ignorance lead to blindness”
  1. Poverty
This is the state of being unable to get basic needs. A good example of this is Azoge the blind bigger who earn his living by begging. Edna’s family who are very poor chence Edna sacrifice his body to chief Nanga so that she can get education as her parents have failed to educate her. (to take her to school) Edna’s father want his daughter to be married by chief Nanga so that she could get wealthy
Also when Edna and Odili was on the way to the hospital they get an accident and the food was poured down, Edna cried claming that her mother to buy another food.
All these shows the sign of poverty
Chief Nanga’s brother says he is poor innocent. Victim P.I.V he is just enjoying his brother’s bevelage
Likewise Odili’s life as a house boy in Gillgili all these are the indicator of poverty
“Poverty is an obstack towards development
  1. Self awarenes
In the Novel Achebe shows different evils done by African leaders. Achebe’s intention is to rise awareness to the mass so that they can take action against evils in the novel we see the villagers refuse to buy goods from Josiah as they have realize that Josiah is exploiting them. Not only that but also we see Odili who has realize that chief Nanga is not a good leader as he is a corrupt leader he wants to rise awareness to other.
Not Odili perse also the formation of CPC is a sign of awareness as the main objective of CPC is to fight against corruption .
“People need to the aware with what is taking place in the society”
  1. Nepolism:
The situation of some one who is having authority to asist those he/she knows especially those they share tribe.
A good example of this is the expression we get from the novel that, “No matter what you know but who you know.
All the favour tht chief Nanga provide to Odili is becaused he knows him
Also the old man at Urua (after max’s speech) he says it is the time of Urua people to eat because those of Anata have eaten already
“We need to discourage nepotism as it leads to uneven distribution of services”
  1. Moral decay
  • Being a corrupt leader proves the immorality of African leaders
  • Elsie is also immoral as we do not expect an African lady to be like that (sexist)
  • Chief Nanga shows immorality because as a leader who is a modal in the society we do not expect to see him the way he is ie Womenizer of the society
  • “Leaders and adults should be front line to maintain moral of the society”
7. Betrayal

That means going against certain agreement
In the movel we see Chief Nanga betrays his wife after having relationship with other women.
Also the same Chief Nanga betrays his people as he lives luxirious life while his people are suffering.
Elsie betrays her ex-boyfriend Ralph after having relationship with Odili and Nanga
Agnes betrays her husband after having sex with Nanga
8. Protest
The situation of being against something in the novel we see the villagers are against Osiah’s behaviour of exploiting them.
Odili is against his father’s behaviour of marring many wives hence many children. Who can not be able to take care of them.
Odili is protesting Chief Nanga’s bad behaviour hence he decides to go and live with his friend Maxwell.
“People should protest against bad things”
2. PLAYS
BETRAYAL OF THE CITY (By Francis Mbuga)
It was Kenya’s national entry to the second world Black and African Festival of Art and Culture in Lagos, Nigeria in 1977.It is a play within a play we have the play where Jusper is the main character and it is this main character who composed a play to entertain the visitor which makes creatively ending of the first play. Due to this we can say. Mbuga’s play is very unique as he composes two plays in one .It is the second play which gives the title of the main play which is “Betrayal in the City”.
It is a tragic comedy play as it has elements of both plays (tragedy and comedy).It is a tragedy as it appeals to sadness where we see many people suffer in jail and some of the killing in the play.eg Adika, Chagga, Mulili, Kabito. It is a comedy because there are some areas that appeals laughter .For instance in page 36 where Jusper says” shit! God what crap Is your toilet repaired”, Also in page 47 he says”…you need a little grey and perhaps a blue here and there” again in Page 49.Tumbo tell Jusper” Jusper tell your cousin that life is not a straight line” Jusper tells his cousin………”Jusper tell your cousin that we are here for a season”. Also Mulili language (poor grammar) “so I wakes up .I go to my cousin to explanation him “Page 54”I objection Mr. Chairman! Children should must………”page 55”That one, he be a green grass in snake page 59”.
Generally the play examine problems that encounter most of African Independent countries. As we seen from the play francis Mbuga shows how African leaders treat the citizens. We see in Kafira one is not allowed to shout against evils. We see people like Adika and Kabito who were killed in cold blood.Moses and Jere were jailed because they stand for the truth.
FORM
Plot summary
Francis Mbuge ‘s play start by showing the contradiction between Africans culture inherited government system in Africa Francis cuts a clear distinction between leaders and mass.The play opens by showing the life of Nina and Doga who mourn for their lost child,who was killed on an organized demonstration ,which was focused on Africa dictatorship and corruption.

Plot is built up by the author by adding more character who represent different situations on different circumstances.For instance we see Mulili an illeterate soldier who was employed and given high post because the president (Boss )is his cousin.On the same scene we see Jere who is faithfull soldier and he adores African style of life.Him and Mulili fall into fight since they take different couses of reasoning,Here Mullli representing the ruling class and it is common habits of bulldozing the society.

Again country is provern rotten and how harmfull speaking the truth.
We see how those dare to open their mouths and reveal of truth face difficulties,sometimes are being imprisoned if not sillenced.For example Jusper,Jere and Mosses also the late Adika.
Title of the Play
Title of the play “Betrayal in the city”is straight forward to what we see in the play as the general concept is to show the relationship between the system and the citizens after independence .Leader go against the agreement and the expectation that people had during the struggle for independence.People are still suffering from exploitation,Poverty,injustice and many other evils.So leaders have failed to fulfill what they promised.

Saying(Proverbs and Idiom)
PROVERBS
-“A mouse does not share a bowel with a cat”Doga tell Nina.Here Doga is against the sub chief because Chagaga killed Adika Page 3
-“A cloudy sky does not always cry rain “said Doga as he tells Nina that the ceremony will be conducted no matter what they say page 3

-“Silence is the
best ship home” Askari acknowledge Mosese in Page19

-“The tree -climber begins from the bottom,not the top” page53
Kabito tells his member of the committee that we better know about the potatoes then we shall talk about the responsibilities of the committee

-“Colour name in blood page 59.Mulili tells boss that Kabito colour his name in blood to mean that Kabito has said bad thing against him(Boss).

-“Determination is greater in worth than numbers”Page 65 says Jusper that means if you are determined number is not a factor.

IDIOMS:
” Hot mouth” Page 19 to be tocative. Askari worn Moses

-“In cold blood”Means he died inocently page 24. Moses explains to why he is jailed just by attending the funeral of his student Adika who was killed in cold blood.

-“Bend so low “Page 26.Means to be humble and Mosese is not ready for that ,Moses believes that because he is not guilt he can never bend low as by doing so is to sale his dignity.

-“Black and white”means to be transparent in Page 47 Jusper says in Kafira things are not in black and white instead you need a little grey and perhaps a blue here and there.”

-“Tears in eyes” to cry page 63.This is when Mulili was explaining about the death of Kabito and says “Boss is with tears in his eyes.”
-“Cut short”Means to stop someone from saying something “Don’t cut me short,You do the listening I talk”.Askari tells Jere.

Similes
-“You work like the meteorological department “This means that No public questions into method used and no assurance page 17

-“We have no choice like caged animals,we move but inside the cage .Says Tumbo in Page 62.This means that though they are in the committee they’ve no choice they are to do as the instruction of the boss”.

Hyperbole
-For instance Regina says”there is no brand of beer that Jusper hasn’t tested”Page 41.This is exaggeration of fact because it not true that Jusper has tested all brand of beer.The idea here is that Jusper drinks too much.

Symbolism
-Coins in the grave symbolize money of illiteracy of the people in the system.

-Potatoes symbolize money page44

-Mulili poor grammar is a symbol of illiteracy

-Also the picture on the cover of the play shows the pressure of injustice/torture

Foreshadowing

-When Jusper picks up two sticks and hold them as if they were two pistols…….squad,attention!Aim…..one,two….in page 66.This was a prediction of what will happen later,he kills Mulili at the end in the same way.

-Doga’s curse foreshadow the death of Mulili…..”….May you die the way Adika died!”page 10.

-Paradox eg:Jere tells Askari “I know .innocence can be an offense “page29.

-Has it ever occurred to you that the outside of this cell may well be the inside of another Page 16.

Soliloquy
Is a speech in a play in which a character who is alone on the stage,Speaks his/her thoughts it is like monologue

e.g.Observe Jusper speech on page 5-6
also Mosese’s speech on page 30-31

Onomatopoeia
e.g- Tu-tu-tu-tu !this is the sound of the gun given by Jusper in page6.This means that in Kafira state killing is something common
Generally Language used in the play is standard and understood except the ungrammatical structure used by Mulili which is made intentionally to show incompetence of some of the leaders.Mulili is the adviser of the boss while his English shows that he is uneducated person .This lead to the failure of the government due to involving people who are not qualified.


Character & characterization
1. Jusper Wendo
Patriotic – he advocated for change
Brave – did not sway away regarding issues for truth
Courageous
Stubborn
Creative
Philosophical
2. Mulili
· Soldier, Jere’s colleagues then a farmer bods distance cousin
· Betrayer
· Flamboyant
· Not very educated
· Self centered
· Ego
3. Jere
· Mulili’s colleague, comes from a difference culture
· Kind heated
· Trust worthy
· Short- tempered
· Religious
· Naive
4. Boss
· Head of state of Kafira, wasn’t liked by the students mostly
· Arrogant
· Naive
· Dictator
· Womanizer
5. Mosese
· Lecture in Kafira, Regina’s brother, framed for drugs and got arrested
· Intellectual
· Silent
· Philosophical thinker
· Caring
· Patriotic
· Tolerant
6. Nina
Caring
Religious
Tradition
Courageous (pg 9)
Uneducated
7. Doga
Traditionalist
Religious
Courageous
Vocal
Egocentric
Looks down upon women (wife)
8. Regina
– Caring
Truthful
Naive
Courageous
9. Tumbo
Corrupt
Self centered
Kind
Coward
10. Nicodemo
Lazy
Greedy
Betrayer
Self centered
Coward
Uses innuendo
11. Kabito
Considerate
Coward
Corrupt
Greedy
Educated
Unhappy
ELABORATION OF TRAITS
1. Jusper wendo
Patriotic because he advocated for change being one of the students in Kafira university he also played port in the protest that ended up with the death of Adika (one who loves his country).
Brave and courageous due to the fact that the was not afraid to speak truth regarding matters of Kafira and he did not sway away from that.
Stubborn, this is seen through the conversation between him and his mother (page 6) and also with Regina his girlfriend who seems to be advising him and convincing him to change (scene 3) page 32 (determined not to change)
SYNOPSIS OF THE PLAY

Ibsen is a Norwegian playwright he was born in 1828-1905.The play deals with political and environmental issues .The action of the play passes during four consecutive days in early spring of the year 1881-1882 at a costal town in southern part.
The town in which the play was set built a huge bathing complex which was very crucial for the development of the town .Doctor Stockman discovers that the baths drainage system is seriously contaminated. He decides to report the matter to Mr. Houstad,Billing and Aslaksen who are the people working in the newspaper(The Herlad).
Next morning his brother Peter Stockman who is the Mayor of the town hears that his young brother has discovered something in the bathing system. Mayor tells Dr. ignore his discovery as it is very expensive to repair the bathing system.
As if not enough the mayor goes to the Herlad to order the workers (Horstad,Billing and Aslaksen) that they should not print Dr’s article. After that obstacle Dr. Decided to call the meeting to talk to his people about his finding once again he finds some challenges in getting the venue. Finally, Dr. succeeds to find a place where he can address the majority .Unfortunately the solid majority see his speech offensive to them .Next morning they went to Dr’s house and renderlise it. Her daughter Retra was fired from her job, Morten and Elif was chosen away from school, Captain Hostar and Dr. himself

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