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i. Kigunda
The exploited character
Bad tempered and cruel to his family
He is Gathoni’s father and wangeci’s husband
He is a farm labourer who receives low wages
A drankerd
A man of contradictions
He is illiterate and not wise
He is a funny character who despises women despite his weaknesses he have.
ii. Gicaamba
He is a factory worker who works for long time and he is paid low wages.
He is kiguunda’s neighbour and Njooki’s husband
He is a wise man
He is a traditionalist hence against new religion
He is a patriotist and mobilizer as he calls for the people to unit as it is the only weapon for success
He is constructive man as he always give positive idea.
iii. Wangeci:
She is Kiguunda’s wife
A wise woman than her husband
She force her daughter to get married
She is also illiterate
She hates the tendency of drinking so much
She represents all women experience humiliation from their husband by being bitten and isolated by the system
iv. Gathoni
She is not educated but eager to be educated
Unmarried girl
She does not want to be force into marriage hence she wants freedom in her own affair.
She is the lover of Muhumi who impregnates her
She was gilted by John Muhumi as she ended being chased away by her father
She later becomes a barmaid
She suffers humiliation of being called a whore or prostitute.
She represents young generation who want changes after being frustrated with life.
v. Njooki
She is Gicaamba’s wife
She is aware of the existence of classes hence she believes that it is very difficult for the rich to Marry from the poor people
She also represents women who are oppressed
She is a wise woman
vi. Ahab Kioi wa Kanoru
He is a wealth person
He is John’s father and Jezebel husband
He is Ikuua’s business partner
An exploiter
He is a black capitalist as he works for the interest of the white(Hypocrite)
vii. Ikuua wa (Nditika)
He is Kioi’s business partner
He also represent the class of black capitalist who exploit fellow Africans
He is a polygamist
viii. Ndugire
He is saved and encourages Kigunda and Wangeci to be saved
He also represent the class of exploiter who collaborate with the foreigners to exploit fellow Africans
Himself plus Kioi and Ikuu
a use bible as an instrument to soften fellow Africans so that they can do their evils. Without any protest.
He is up becoming rich.
i. Exploitation
People like Kigunda and Gicaamba are selling labour power in the plantations of few people like Kioi,Ikuua and the whites and they are paid low wages. This is through the use indigenous like Ikuua and Kioi who act as the middlemen, Landlords and church men. These exploiters link the multinational companies and the Africans
Gicaamba provide his man power in the factory he don’t even have time to rest but he is paid very little wages.
Also Kiguunda works in Kioi’s farm but also he is paid low wages.
These people also use church to exploit people as they demand Kiguunda and Wangeci to have their marriage being blessed as we see that Christian marriage needs a lot of money that’s why Kiguunda takes the loan from the bank to facilitate the ceremony.
Also poor people are exploited as they are demanded to contribute something for the buildingof church, despite the fact that they are poor.
Generally we find that in this play churches are used to clear the way for the domination of Neo- Colonialism.
ii. Land Alienation
  • People like Kiguunda and Gicaamba are alienated from their fertile land. The minority like Kioi and Ikuua own large piece of land and the foreign companies are the only people who own Large and fertile land.
  • The land has been taken from colonial error and even after independence the land has not yet given back to the owner
  • Poor people are marginalized and are given piece of land to the areas which are not fertile. As we read from the Kiguunda is having one and a half acre for the whole family.
  • Also we see in the play that rich people work hard to take even the small land that poor people have. The foreigners wants to establish a project but they want to get a small piece of land from Kiguunda i.e one and half acre.
iii. Awareness
People like Gicaamba are aware with the existence of exploitation that’s why Gicaamba complains that they work for long duration but they are paid low wages. He says they are paid the amount that cannot even sustain their essential needs.
Gathoni also is aware that education is very important that’s why she is complaining to her mother for not having sent her to school. Also Gathoni is aware that she has the freedom of selecting her partner, so she knows her right of making decision.
Also Wangeci is aware on the impact of drinking excessively. That why she tells kingdom to leave that habit, as she knows that they won’t get away (get rid) from the pity of poverty. She knows that many people who used to drink too much they always end up with nothing. This is due to the fact that excessively drinking lead to irresponsibility.
Not only that but also , Gicaamba is aware on the danger of relying on promises that’s why he advise Kiguunda and Wangeci not to rely on promises as promises does not mean delivery . he tells Kiguunda and his wife that Gathoni and John may not marry because of their class differences .
Gicaamba is aware on the best way of solving the existing problem. That’s why he says that they need to come together and think deeply so as to identify their real enemy so that they can select the best way to fight against him/her. So Gicaamba calls for unity and patriotism. Hence he uses a song to mobilize his fellow Africans.
iv. Conflicts.
Conflict between Gathoni and her parents. This is when Gathoni complain about their poor living condition. She complains that she uses rags and the floor as her bed. Also she complain of not being taken to school like her brother instead she is left at home for domestic activities and for picking tea leaves so that she can get money.
Another conflict is Gathoni Vs her father. This is when Gathoni is back from Mombasa as she tell her parents that she is pregnant. Kiguunda become furious as he claims that Gathoni never listened to his advice.
Conflict between Gathoni Vs John Muhuuni. This is when John cheats Gathoni to conceive so that he can merry her claiming that he is afraiding of marrying a barren woman. Gathoni accept that but after being pregnant and tries to tell John, he refuses chase Gathoni away and accompany her with insult as he calls her a prostitute
Conflict between traditionalist Vs Christians. At the beginning we see Kinguunda , Wangeci, Gicaamba and Njooki are against Christianity as Christianity is connected to the whites and they believed that if they accept Christianity is like to accept neo – colonialism. That why Kiguunda chases the group of singers away from his home. He says he doesn’t see the necessity of contributing for harambee to build the church while it is used only once a week.
Conflict between Kioi’s family and Kiguunda’s family, The first conflict is when Kioi and Ndungire family went to Kiguunda to preach him the word of God and convince her to be Christian. In this case Kiguunda seen to have no interest hence he chases them away.
The second conflict in this is when John Muhuuni impregnated G
athoni hence Kiguunda and his wife decide to go to Kioi’s place to tell him about their idea to let the children marry first this idea has completely denied by Kioi. This cause Kiguunda to be exasperated hence he decides to pull out his sword to threaten kioi so that he can accept the idea.

Intra- Personal Conflict:
About the poor living condition
Of not being taken to school
After being jilted.
About obstinate (stubborn) of her daughter
Also after her daughter being jilted
About excessive drinking behavior of her husband
Unhappy with low wages which makes they live in poor living condition and obstinacy of her daughter.
Also unhappy with the system who seem to favor rich people even if they are guilty. That why Kiguunda uses his sword
v. Illusion
  • Gathoni has the illusion that once she get a husband she will have better life but until the end we find that nothing has come as she expects.
  • Also Wangeci has illusion that the relationship between Gathoni and John Muhuuni will lead to their marriage. She even believes that the visiting of kioi is to talk about the marriage of their children but we see there is nothing like that. She also connect the idea of Christianity as the paving way towards the marriage of their children that means if they accept Christianity it will pave the way of marriage of the two.
  • Another illusion that Wangeci has is when she believes that Kioi will agree with the idea that they should let the children marry first as John has impregnated Gathoni
vi. Education
In the play we see that girls are not given chance to education, they are left at home to do domestic activities and to work in forms e.
g Gathoni. Girls are not taken to school because of culture influence and poverty of the family. In the play we see that girls are not given equal chances as boys in education. Women are considered as people who are not important in the society. This is gender imbalance in the society.
In the play we see that education is so important as majority who are illiterate fail to opt for the best way of solving problems in different life perspectives eg Kiguunda
vii. Neo – Colonialism
Not only Germans, Japanese or Americans who buy large area of Kenyan land for ereacting their factories and dominating major means of production but also we see black imperialist enriching themselves under the umbrella of neo- colonialism for instance Kioi who plan to create tourists hotel in Mombasa but he does not want to be recognized hence he uses the name of his son.
viii. Classes (social stratification)
Ie the classes of poor represented by Kiguunda and Gicaam Vs that classes of rich represented by Kioi and Ikuua who are in antagonism. This is because the rich use the poor to enrich themselves. Other themes include
ix. Poverty
x. Disappointment
xi. Position of women
xii. Love affairs and
xiii. betrayal

Selected Poems of East Africa – Institute of Education
Poetic appreciation is a step by step analysis of the features or the elements within a poem
The word appreciating a poem attempts to understand it in detail and therefore enjoy the sounds and purpose, the elements of the poems also differ.
There are many ways of appreciating a poem just as they are very many different elements to be found in different poems.
Since the person appreciating the poem attempts to look in the poems and the success we do not talk about what is not found in the poem rather we are satisfied by the elements within a particular poem
S – Subject matter
P – Purpose
E – Emotions/mood
C – Crafts man ship/technique / style
Can assist as the identify poetic elements in a poem the craftsmanship consist of
S – Structure
L – Language
I – imagery
M – Movement/Rhythm
S – Sound
Mandessi was born in Bordeaux, France by a Senegalese father and a Cameroonian mother. He was one of the leading lights of Negritude. He published only one book of poetry on which his fame rests. After the independence of Guinea, he went to work there as teacher. He died in a plane crash in 1960 together with his wife. The manuscript of his new book of poetry was also lost in the crash.
Africa my Africa
Africa of proud warriors in ancestral savannahs
Africa of whom my grandmother sings
On the banks of the distant river
I have never known you
But your blood flows in my veins

Your beautiful black blood that irrigates the fields
The blood of your sweat
The sweat of your work
The work of your slavery
The slavery of your children
Africa tell me Africa
Is this your back that is bent?
This back that breaks under the weight of humiliation
This back trembling with red scars
And saying yes to the whip under the midday sun
But a grave voice answers me
Impetuous son that three young and strong

That tree there
In splendid loneliness amidst white and faded flowers
That is Afric
a your Africa
That grows again patiently obstinately
And its fruit gradually acquire
The bitter taste of liberty
The poem is about a person who has lived away from his continent (Africa) therefore he does not know it well.
The person laments about suffering of Africans who works like slave and their blood and sweat plus those of their children irrigate the fields. The person compares Africa with an impressive lonely tee in the middle of the white and fade fowlers. The tree(Africa) has produced fruit which has gradually acquired the test of Liberty
The persona portrays the exploitation done to the Africans who was treated like slaves because they worked and sweated for their masters to enjoy. For instance in stanza two
“your beautiful……………………

The message we get from this poem is that

All forms of exploitation should be banned in the society
  1. UNITY
We see the essence of unity as the oppressed Africans who decide to mobilize themselves and form the warriors in order to fight for the liberation of their continent for instance in 1st stanza the 2ndverse the persona says
“Africa of proud warriors in ancestral savannahs. The message is that, unity is important to the oppressed so as to end oppression in the society
The personal shows humiliation to Africans as the Africans were treated as if they are not human. While they are in their own continent. For example in 3rd stanza verse 1,2,3 and the person says,
“ is this your back that is bent?

This back that breaks under the weight of humiliation.

This back trembling with red scars,

and saying yes to the whip under the midday Sun”.
The message from this theme is that, all people are the same under. The sun so they deserve equal treatment
This show that the person has realized that though he was not born and grew in Africa still he is an Africa because of the African blood which flows in his vein. As we observe it
in 1st stanza, 5th and 6th verses. The message we get is, “we need to be aware and proud of our origin”.
The poet shows sacrifice made by African warriors who were whipped and shed their blood in ancestral savannahs, the savannah where their blood irrigated the fields but they never give up the fight. We observe this in 1st stanza the 2nd verse.
The message we get,
“we need to sacrifice ourselves for the betterment of the society”.
The poet shows alienation of those who were born and live in foreign countries like the poet himself so these people who are born and grow in Diaspora they find themselves alienated because they do not enjoy the way indigenous do in their home countries in 1st stanza the 5th verse the personal says
“I have never known you”
In this verse we see that the poet he could know his place of his origin and enjoy his home land as the whites do in their home land.
The message from this theme is that “people should remember their place of origin even
if they are born and grow in other places which are not the place of their origin”.
In this poem we see movement done by the African warriors so as to get rid of the colonial regime. For instance in 4th stanza the last four verses the person says
“That is Africa your Africa
That grows again patiently obstinately

and its fruit gradually acquire the bitter test of Liberty”
The message from this theme is that, “mobilization, self-sacrifice and until are very important when struggling for liberation in any societ
Sound devices
This is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of the words in the same verse. For example in the 2nd stanza the 1st verse
“your beautiful black blood………. “Also in 3rd stanza the 1st verses
“Is this your back that is bent?
This back that breaks under the weight of humiliation”
This is when the poet decides to repeat the same or very similar consonant sounds usually at the end of words in the same verse
“Impetuous son that tree young and strong
The sound/Å‹/ is repeated in two words
This is the repetition of similar vowel sounds in the same verse. For example the 1st stanza verse 4 in the words “distance” and “on the banks of the distance river”
The poet uses the words like “red scars to symbolize suffering (oppression which is done to Africans. The 3rd stanza verse 3)
“this back trembling with red scars”
Visual image where we see the poet use lonely tree represent Africa
Image of taste, the poet use words like

“the bitter taste of Liberty” this show this reflects the bitter feeling that African warriors had against the colonialist. For instance the last stanza in the last verse
Africa as a continent is given human character as it seems that the continent speaks like a human being for example in the 2nd stanza the last verse the persona says
“Africa tell me Africa”
Mood of the poem
The mood of the poem can be sad or sympathetic due to exploitation, humiliation, oppression etc done by the colonialists
Tone of the poet
The tone is bitter this is due to the fact that the themes revealed tell about the condition of the oppressed Africa.

A Tanzania poet who worked for the Tanzania Tourist Corporation
The Dying, Child
Thin and red,
Skinny and bald
The boy groans on the ground
Swollen stomach
Full of waste,
Thin arms,
As the boy
Fights with files
Over the empty plate

Ten years old
He looks older than ten,
And so small
As he wriggles
Of his unproportioned body,
‘Mother’ shouted the boy
When I grow up
I will carry a gun
And not a pen!
‘My son’ shouted the mother
‘My son” cries the mother
‘You will never live to carry a gun
There is no meat for us

The poem is about a ten year boy who suffers from Kwashiakor caused by Malnutrition, where we see the boy is busy fighting with flies over the empty plate. The boy is thin. Bald red skin, has thing leg and arms .
The boy has swollen stomach which is full of waste which makes the boy groans on the ground
because of his imbalanced/proportioned body
We see the boy who is ten years old but he looks older than his real age. The boy has vagence mind hence he tells his mother that when he grows up he will carry a gun and not a pen but the mother shouts to her boy that he will never live to carry a gun as there is no meat for him to make him survive. This shows that the mother is disillusioned.
  1. Poverty
The persona shows that the boy is living in extreme poverty to an extent that they cannot afford to buy a balanced diet. The mother tells the boy that he will never live to carry a gun as there is no meat for them. As in stanza two, verses 14 & 16th . he says,
“ you will never live to carry a gun
there is no meat for us”
Also we see the boy is busy competing with the flies over the empty plate. All these are the indicators of poverty. As it is shown in 1st stanza the 10th and 11th verses
“the message we get from this is that, “people should work very hard so as to get enough money to buy balanced diet for healthy of our families”
  1. Classes
In this poem we see that the poet depicts the existence of classes in the society. That is the people who can afford to eat meat. In the 2rd stanza the 15th and 16th verses the mother tells her son that he will never grow up to carry a gun because there is no meat for them “ you will never live to carry a gun there is no meat for us”
The message from the above theme is that, every human being has to eat a balanced diet for good health and longer life. Also classes are not good in the society as they may cause disunity among people within the society
  1. Disappointment
In this poem we see the essence of disappointment as we observe this through the mother who tells her son that he will never live to carry a gun this shows that the mother is disappointed hence she believes that her son will not live longer as they are eating unbalanced diet. In the 2nd stanza the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th verses.
The message we obtain here is that, “we should never accept failure in our lives instead we should fight to the last minute
  1. Awareness
We see that the boy has realized that changes in the society can be brought through the use of gun or by force and not peacefully means or education for example in the 2nd stanza, the 8th, 9th and 10th verses.
Also the awareness of the mother that her only son can not live to carry a gun be he will not live longer.
  1. Irresponsibility
The poet shows irresponsibility of the government which does not show any concern to those people who live under extreme poverty. Hence the citizen are living hopelessly for instance the mother who cries bitterly to her dying son. As we see in 2nd stanza 14-16verses. Also we see irresponsibility show by the mother as she lives her son to fight with flies over the empty plate as in 1st stanza verse 9th up to 10th
“fights with flies over the empty plate”
This is irresponsibility because the mother knows very well the effects of eating with flies
Imagery: The poet draws the mental picture so that we see the dying
child as the son has thin arms swollen stomach, thin leg and has unproportioned body also we see the image of the groaning and staving child who is fighting with flies over the empty plate due to shortage of food as a result of his poor family
The choice and arrangement of words in a poem in this poem we see that the poet is real struggling to use words which will effectively convey what the intended to the society, so while reading any poem one need to be very keen in making sense of the words used as they both have exactly meaning and connotations. For example words like “skinny”, “bald” “thin” swollen stomach, “flies” and “pen” they are all used in associate meaning. For example from the poem the word “flies” in the 1st stanza the 9th stanza associate with dirty or rotten
  • Also the word skinny in the 2nd verse 1st stanza associate with hunger/malnutrition/starring etc
  • The word “bald” in the 1st stanza 2nd verse associate with absence of balanced diet
  • The world “pen” in the 2nd stanza the 11 verse associate with learning /knowledge
  • Again the word prisoner in the 2nd stanza the 6th verse associates with absence of freedom/presence of suffering/torture and many other word in the poem.
In the 1st stanza the 3rd verse the words “groans” and ground the consonant/g/is repeated. Therefore alliteration is used to show emphasis but also create the rhythm of the poem
‘the boy groans on the ground’
In the 1st stanza the 4th verse the word “swollen “and “stomach” also alliterate because they both begin with consonant sound/s/ This repetition is made intentionally to emphasize the concept of poverty, malnutrition and the suffering of the boy
swollen stomach
Use of stanza
The poem has two stanza. The 1st stanza has 11 verses and the 2rd stanza has 15 verses
In 2nd stanza the 13th and 14th verse are parallel
The verses have similar structure to emphasize the disappointment of the mother who sees the suffering of her dying child
“my son, shouted the mother

My son cries the mother”
The word “thin is repeated in the 1st stanza in the 1st, 6th and 7th verses to express the horrible condition of the boy. This repetition helps the poet to evoke the feeling of sympathy towards the referred boy
“Thin and red…
Thin leg
Thin arms”
The poet uses the dialogue between the boy and the mother, this is made to reveal the real situation of the mother and his son. As we see in the 2nd stanza, the 8th , 9th, 10th, 11th, 13th and 15th verses the poet says
“ Mother, shouted the boy
When I grow up
I will carry a gun
And not a pen!
“my son, shouted the mother

my son, cries the mother
“you will never lie to carry a gun

there is no meat for us”
An African Thunderstorm (by David Rubadiri)

What is the subject matter?
The poem is about the incoming of a certain situation in a village, suddenly and out of nowhere living the people shocked as they wonder about.
– Identify the instances of Alliteration
In the second stanza, the 5th line “wind whistles” in the third stanza the 4th line “whirling wind” in the third stanza the 4th line “whirling wind” in the 2nd line of the 4th stanza “wind whistles” 2nd line of the 1st stanza clouds come.
Explain the effect of onomatopoeia
Being words which imitate sounds produced by an action, onomatopoeia in this poem occurs “whirling wind” (3rd stanza 4th line) the effect of it is that is emphasized on that is been told and it enhances imagination at large tremble, Rumple….
– Identify and explain the use of imagery
Imagery in the poem is greatly used to explain the incoming of the storm which is said to be hurrying with the wind, here and there like a plague of locusts showing its speed like a mad man chasing nothing its direction.
“Pregnant clouds” showing the shape of the clouds which are likely to be heavy and ready to release its weight anytime. “Clothes wave like tattered flags expressing” expressing the situation of the women’s clothes due to the wind direction.
– Show and explain the significance of personification in the poem
Personification refers to the process of giving non- human beings human traits. In the poem “pregnant clouds” (2nd stanza,1st line) clouds are said to be pregnant representing their current state of expansion.
The significance of personification in the poem is that it brings a dramatic expression and makes the poem interesting to convey the mood of any kind meant by the poet. Also personification makes it easy to relate (the poet idea and the object personified).
  1. Comment on the structure of poem
The structure of the poem involves four stanzas each with a different number of lines, 1st stanza has nine lines, six lines for the second, eleven for the third and seven for the fourth.
The lines are of different sizes arranged in any irregular manner. Without a rhyme scheme. The poem is likely to follow modern way for writing poems.
  1. Explain the use the similes
    Similes refer to a figure of speech that involves comparing of two dissimilar things using the words like or as. In the poem similes are found
Here and there “like a plague of locusts this is meant to express the movements direction of the wind as it approaches the village.
clothes wave like tattered flags this represents the situation of the women’s clothes due to the winds showing how they were humiliated.
8. Why do mothers hurry in and out?
Due to the fear they have because of the approaching storm, the wind and noise of thunder. What could possibly happen to them and their children?
  1. Why do th
    e children cry with delight?
Children are naturally always pleased to experience something interesting, the wind, and thunder was thought to be of great pleasure to them so they cry with delight, there not aware of the danger.
10. Explain the deeper meaning of the poem
The poem is about the incoming of colonialism in Africa from the west “clouds come hurrying with the wind”, this represent the colonialists rushing to Africa for their needs such as raw materials market and land. Turning sharply her and there like a plague of locusts. His involves the great number or influx of the colonialists in Africa, like a madman chasing nothing, knowing the potentials of the territory.
“Pregnant clouds”, the colonialists are seen to be excited and and ready to exploit any chance they get in Africa. The whole second stanza show how determined they were and also proved to the evil “like dark sinister wings” wind whistles by using force and measures such as congest land alienation forced labour and others for the aim of getting what they want.
The third stanza explains the reaction of the nature of native of Africa to the incoming situation, that is colonialism filed with fear, women dart about in and their children screaming with delight, the fact that they are more or less pleased to see and experience new people and probably new rules in their villages. There said to move madly posing confusion among them toward the situation
In the whole situation, the last stanza shows how colonialism exploited and humiliated African clothes wave like tattered flags due to the wind which in this case is colonialism. They were put under poor working conditions as slaves paid low wages and more.
  1. Paraphrase the poem
The poem an African thunderstorm entails of the coming of a storm in a village, originating from the west coming in a hurry up and down, here and there, the wind whirls and is said to move like a madman chasing nothing because its fast and moves randomly.
Clouds during the storm filled up and ready to rain gather around, the wind blows making trees bend, In the village, children scream with pleasure as their mothers are filled with fear they move in and out. Their clothes are blown by the wind exposing their bodies’ flashes of thunder strike.
  1. Assonance, identify and comment on the use repetition of value sounds without regard to the preceded consonant sounds. Eg. Here and There
13. Consonance, show and comment on its use final consonant sounds are agreed but the vowels that precede them differ.
E.g. ……..about,……….out

Your pain
Yet more my pain
Shall suffocate oppression
Your eyes
Yet more my eyes
Shall be speaking of revolt

Your scars
Yet more my scars
Will be remembering the whip

My hands
Yet more your hands
Will be lifted fully armed
My strength
Yet more you strength
Shall overcome imperialism
My blood
Yet more your blood
Shall irrigate our victory

Your pain is the poem which was written during the struggle for independence.It was written by the present President of Mozambique (Armando Guebuza).
The little of the poem matches with the content of the poem as we see the persona encourage other members of the society to take action/part in the struggle for liberation. The pain that the persona repeats every time is the commitment that he asks this fellows so that their straggle can be successful.
The type of the poem
This poem is didactic as it gives instructions to the reader. The poem teaches readers what to do so as to win in their struggle.
The language in the poem
Armand Guebaza has used the standard and understood language as the choice of words match with the content of the poem.
He has also used some figures of speech as follow
This has been used for artistic affect of the poem as we see that the inanimate things have given attributes to act as human being. The person says
“Say your pain……
Shall suffocate appression”
Also in 3rd stanza
“Your sears
Yet more sears
Will be remembering the whip”
So scars have been given the ability to act as human being
This poem is full of symbols
Scars symbolize suffering/ humiliation
Hands/strength symbolize unity.
Blood is symbolize sacrifice.
This is done for the purpose of showing emphasis to what the poet is trying to communicate; in this poem we see the repetition of the phrase
“Yet more……” in very stanza. In this repetition the poet wants to mobilize his kinsmen to offer total commitment for their liberation straggle
Sometimes poet repeats so as to catch the music purposes
The rhyming Patten of the poem is regular to the large extent. The regularity of this poem is when we see the repetition of similar words in first two verses of each stanza

For example.
………….. pain
………….. eyes
…….. ……scars
……………scars etc

So the rhyming pattern of this poem is aab, ccd, cce
Due to this pattern, the poem sounds very musical.
We see alliteration in this poem as we observe the repetition of similar consonant sounds in one verse at the beginning of word. For instance
“Your pain
Yet more my pain”
If you observe the poem you will realize that the consonant sound/m/is repeated. This also catch the musical feature of the poem.
There are many issues talked in the poem,some of them are as follow
Rising awareness/consciousness
The poet rises awareness to his follows by revealing the real situation in which they are. The poet makes, his people aware of the situation so that they can take action hence succeed in their fighting. As we read in the second stanza,
“Your eyes
Yet more my eyes
Shall be speaking of revolt”
Here the poet wants his fellow to open their eyes and see the real situation and by seeing them they can be away of what is prevailing.
Lack of humanity
In this poem we see words likes “scars” and “whip” which gives the evidence that there is humiliation. These words show that people were whipped as if they are animal hence experienced severe pain. This situation angers the persona and that is why he decides to mobilize his fellows to fight against humiliation. This can be proved form the following verses,
“Yours scars
Yet more my scars
Will be remembering the whip”
This is the indicator of inhumanity and torture the people experienced.
In the first stanza we see the essence of oppression as the person says.
“Your pain
Yet more my pain
Shall suffocate oppression”
This stanza shows that people are oppressed so now they want to start the movement against oppression.
Struggle against imperialism
We see the issue of imperialism as in stanza five the personal says;
“My strength
Yet more your strength

shall overcome imperialism “
In this we observe that the persona wants his people to come together and unite so that they can uproot imperialism or colonialism.
This is another issue we get from this poem as the personal want this people to sacrifice themselves for their freedom. In the last stanza the poet says
“My blood
Yet more your blood
Shall irrigate our victory “
The relevance of the poem
The poem still relevant to our country today as we still need unity among us so that we can reach our goals. For instance we need unity so that we can boost our economy; we also need freedom against neo-colonialism. There are good number of problems that we have in our society today which real need coope
ration among us so that we overcome them.
Shall i compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate,
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summers lease hath all too short a date.

Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines,
An often of his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometimes declines.
By change or nature changing course untrimmed.

But they eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession on that fair thou oust
Nor shall death drag thaw wanders in this shade
When in external lines to time thaw grows

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see
As long as lives this and this gives life to thee
1. What is the subject matter of the poem?
2. Identify the main theme of the poem
3.Comment the mood of the poet
4. Comment on the rhyme scheme.
5.What type of the poem is that?

  1. Subject matter
The subject matter of the poem is love where by the poet talks about his feelings towards a woman, she is compared with a summer’s day, she is more lovely and temperature with a summer’s day, she is more lovely and temperate. In the two last lines (couplet) the poet says so long as men can breathe or eyes can see.
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see meaning so long as life, goes on and many shall pass the woman will never be compared with another.
2. The main theme of the poem is LOVE
The poem is talking about love. The poet has love feelings towards a woman who he describes as the most beautiful and lovely woman. He compares her to summers day. And whatever happens, life
goes in but she will always be the best.
3. The poet is in romantic mood as he expresses his feeling tow
ards a woman
4. Rhyme scheme
abab, cdcd, efef,gg
5. Spencerian sonnet
This sonnet combines the Italian and the Shakespearean poem, it has three quatrains and a couplet but it has linking rhymes among the quainttrains. The Spenserian sonnet rhymes schema is ababa bcbc ee e.g. however those sonnets are very rare.

The term communication is defined as follows;
a). Communication Is the exchange of information and understanding between parts.
b). Communication is the process of transferring of information and understanding between parts.
c). Communication is a transferring of information between parts, from a source or sender to a receiver through media.

From the above definitions communication is characterized by the following;
  • Communication is the process not an event; it is something that takes the form of continuity.
  • Communication is the two way process. It involves exchange of position or a role between a sender and receiver.
  • Communication become complete where there is a feedback (Information from a receiver to a sender).
  • Communication involves exchange of information (intangible things) and not goods. Sending of tangible things called transport/transportation and not communication.
  • Communication requires medium (language) and channels.
  • Communication is not rarely sending but also understanding between parts is the communication process.
Tools or means of communication and categories into
a). Verbal tools (language)
b). Non verbal tools e.g. Body language, sign, signals e.g. Traffic light, colours etc. Therefore the major tools communication is languages.

The term model is used to refer to a diagram or pictorial representation of a certain idea, fact or process.Therefore communication model is a diagramic or pictorial representation of a communication process more specifically communication is a representation of a verbal linguistic communication process.
Communication model
Speaker or spoken orTelevision Listener or
– Writer – Written Radio – Reader
– Dialogue etc.
From the above model a message originate from a person who is called encoder or sender, then the sender selects a language e.g. (English and Swahili) and it’s from spoken or written. Then a sender selects channels or means methods for message transition. Finally the message reaches the receiver who decodes (interprets the message into understandable idea or thought, finally the receiver again select a medium and channels and sends a feedback to original speaker making a communication process.
Guide Questions
With the aid of communication model explain how communication takes place in human language.
Communication breakdown or failure is a situation or circumstance
intended message timely and effectively. It entails the following situation or circumstances;
i. Failure of a message to reach the intended/targeted destination Receiver.
ii. A message is misunderstanding by receiver.
iii. A message arrives to the right receiver but not timely (arrives late) and therefore it become useless.
iv. Message passed through a wrong medium or channels.
v. Sender sends a wrong message e.g. Rumors.
There are several negative effect of communication breakdown some of them include;
  • Conflict fight /war/misunderstand.
  • Hatred/hostility and anger against one to another.
  • Lack of trust and existence of suspicion.
  • Destabilizing sociology-economic activities.
  • In a learning process, teachers and students fail to understand each other. Hence failure in a
    cademy, It is also the source of strikes and boycott in schools and colleges etc.
Effective communication is a cure to communication failure/breakdown were quite certain special skills so that we avoid the above dangerous or risks. These skills are referred to as communication skills. Communication skills are fundamental to effective communication.
Definition of effective communication
Effective communication can be defined as;
a) A careful and timely sending/transferring of right information and total understanding between parts.
b) Is the process of sending right information through right media and channels to the right receiver at the right time.

The factors that influences effective communication is the same (if received that can lead to communication breakdown
These factors are categorized into
a) Linguistic factors
b) Psychological factors
c) Environment factors

d) Social or cultural factors
These are language related factors. They include
i) Proper pronunciation.
ii) Use of language according to the level of the audience.
iii) Use of right/ appropriate register or style depending on the field of study or area of specialization e.g.: science, law, literature.
iv) Use of appropriate dialect common to the audience.
v) Being clear and use of common language avoid using bombastic words and unnecessary vocabularies.
These are factors associated with attitude interest, perceptions and only other feelings of the sender or receiver of message. They include the following;
i) Avoid being judgment or biased. We should not judge people’s personality. Status or history but the message they give us. That is we should not judge a book by its
cover but by its contents.
ii) We are advised to cultivate interest when we intend to communicate (to say write, read or listen) this promotes effective communication.
iii) Psychological preparation is important when we want to communicate we have to come down from anger or emotions otherwise w
e may fail to communicate effectively.
NB: Tensions frustrations, anger, hatred emotions etc do affect our communication and therefore causing communication breakdown.
These are factors related to beliefs, traditions, ideology, customs and norms. During communication one has to be sensitive or aware of these issues so as avoid offending others or create hostilities we need to be carefully and respect other people beliefs, ideologies, traditions customs and norms for active communication.
These are factors related to climate conditions and other environmental condition. They include
i) Noise
ii) Rainfall
iii) Wind
iv) Temperature (heat or coldness)
v) Psychological interruptions interference e.g. speech interfere, passing of people, vehicles or animals.
vi) Smell
vii) Dust and other climatic extremes
viii) Timing of information is also key to effective communication of the above are not carefully analyses e.g. we want to communicate, we may fact communicate effectively.
Advantage of effective communication
Effective communication has the following advantage
i) It promote unity, cooperation and solidarity in a society
ii) Effective communication promotes peace, security and order of disputes or conflict are discussed amicably and compromise is reached peaceful.
iii) It promotes social and economic development
iv) It facilitates understanding e.g. in education or learning process
v) Serves time
vi)Serves resources(financial capital)

This is the study of differences or variations or language style which depends on the situation in which the language is used and the effect the user wishes to create on the person he is addressing (addressee). It is important to understand the following key words in the definition above.
This refers to the different forms of the same language that are known or used. Any different form of the same language is called a variety.
This refers to this non- linguistic variable which makes the user choose a certain variety as appropriated, for example the relationship existing between a user and addressee may cause the user to choose a variety which he finds to be appropriated.
When we intend to create a good relationship with another person and therefore solicited a prompt favorable reaction we may use a polite language.
However if we are at a higher position over another person we may revert to a commanding language to ensure that things are done promptly e.g. a police inspector to a recruit.
There are 2 major types of variations of language;
a. Variation according to user(Dialect)
This is causes by people belong to a particular place or class in a large geographical or social scale.
b. Variation according to use(Register)
This is the variation that is caused by the condition placed on the user due to use the underlying situation.

Language variations according to user
The characteristics of a user may cause language variations. This is so especially when we compare users to the same language but from two
t circumstances. These lead to detect and accents.
i. Dialect
A dialect is language variety distinguished from another by differences of vocabularies and grammar. It is usually defined as variation of language which contains typical idiosyncratic features which particular to any individual, peace and social class.
A variety of language used by people from a certain geographical setting is called a regional dialect.
A variety of language used by a particular social group upper class or lower class educated or uneducated is called sociologist.
ii. Accent
An accent is the way a speaker pronounces a language in a way that speakers from a certain geographical area do e.g. British accent, American accent. It is a way of pronouncing the words of a language that shows which country or area a person comes from
Language variation according to use
The use for a language must choose the language elements and structure to fit in the situation requires, these varieties of language resulting from different use are called register.
The following are the names of registers according to the use;

Field of discourse (domain)
This refers to an area of operation where the language activity takes place. This is basically the subject matter of the speech activity it could be agriculture, physics History or Geography etc.
The subject matter determines whether to use technical or non technical language.
For example: in a medical seminar, a wide range of medical vocabularies and other medical technical terms will be expected to be used.
The language choice will be more formal and language construction would therefore be expected to have longer sentences.
Mode of discourse (medium)
This refers to the medium of language activity we therefore get the written and oral modes. The difference of the two is that the written language is more organized with careful punctuation and sentence structures shine the oral language will be expected to be less organized with gap fillers pauses hesitations slips of the tongue ellipsis etc.
tenor of discourse ( status)
This refers to the relationship between user and addressee (s) it is in this that use distinguishes between polite and impolite language or formal and informal styles. Involving temporary causes permanent or intimate forms of relationship manner which one behaves.

Styles of registers identified in stylistics
i. Consultative/common core/basic style: Spoken anywhere at any times even a stranger while seeking information.
Example of dialogue
Caro: Muumuu excuse me miss
Stranger: Yes, may I help you?
Caro: Yes I can’t seem to find the PPF tower
Stranger: Oh! Actually we are standing right opposite to it
Caro (smiling): oh oh, I see one
Caro: Thank you

ii.Casual: Among friends.

Example of dialogue
Noreen speaking to her friend Irene through the phone
Irene: what’s up girl, tell me,
Noreen: You tell me
Irene: Girl please I call you and you get nothing to say
Noreen: Well I didn’t ask you to call me
Irene: Ha ah…. okay goodbye.
iii. Intimate: Spoken to more friendly /close partners e.g. Married couples
Wife: Baby please takes the kids to school
Husband: Thought that was your responsibility wife stares at him then says “but am tired sweetly”
Husband: I always tell you not to look at me like that when you ask for something
Wife: (smiles) I don’t do it on purpose you know
Husband: Yes right, fine i will take them
Wife: Love you mean it
Husband: Love you too
iv. Formal: Official, proper grammar
Example of dialogue
At the Transform office, Mbezi
Bundala: Cecy would you bring me those files
Cecy: Yes, boss
(She takes them in Bundala’s office)
Bundala: I need you to make a call to Neringo and have him meet me at 12:00 noon sharp.
Cecy: Yes boss
(She departs)
Other characteristics of formal language
i. Proper punctuations
ii. Proper Grammar
iii.Use of more polished vocabulary
E.g. poor health – impoverished
Go down – descend
iv. Frozen style
This is used in particular field of discourse such as literature, religion and law. It is called frozen because it is usually never affected by changes as it retains its features.
In the field of literature, the frozen style is mostly found in poetry than in prose. In religion, it is shown by the use of special religion terminologies and archaism. In law, it is indicated by the use of legal terms. Search style is always familiar to the people who use it always.
Other terms used
Various features constitute some peculiar features which make them be treated as varieties to be labelled, these include;
STANDARD VARIETY (Standard dialect or language)
This language variety has the highest status in the community or nation. It is a kind which is usually based on the speech or writing or of educated nature language speaker. A standard variety is generally used in the news, media and literature. It is the variety found in dictionaries and grammar and is taught in schools and to foreign learners of the language in question.
This is the one that is marked by serious deviations from the so called standard spoken variety. It is characterized by wrong pronunciations and grammar sometimes with wrong pronunciation and grammar, infect it may have wrong language uses.
This is the informal use of words and expressions that are more common in spoken language, especially by a given group of people. Slags are always new, flashy and popular words which are usually short lived in terms of use.
It is normally used in familiar talk among peer groups but is not accepted as good language. When spoken or written language. The central reason for use of slang is desire for novelty, vivid emphasis for being knowledgeable, being up with times or a little ahead.
Example of such words include
Crib – cheat
Contract – order to kill someone
Dough – money
Peg out –die
These are words or expressions which are used by a particular profession or group of people, and are difficult for others to understand. It is therefore a language of a special group profession or activity. It is usually compared with a ling in fact, any speech that sounds strange to people who do not understand it while it is well understood by people of the special profession as doctors, lawyers and other scientists is associated to jargon.
This is a word or phrase used instead of another which is deemed to be embarrassing or unpleasant, sometimes to make it seem more acceptable. It is used to make speech less harsh or unpleasant example the word “pass away” for die short call for pee etc

Situations calling for different language varieties
a.Write a press release to the Tobacco farmers at Tabora together with their Agricultural officers concerning a disease affecting their crop and how to combat it.
b.A play written to encourage farmers at Mwika to plant more coffee due to its profitability.
In (a) we are going to use Formal language – official
-proper grammar
– Standard language – has high status in community or nation
– Language should incite the awareness of the disease, its causes, effects and ways to combat it.

In (b) Language should be simple.
Casual – to farmers talking
Formal – If it involves official scenarios such as a meeting and someone with facts is addressing the people.
Persuasive – the fact coffee is likely to bring profit.
DIALOGUE:- Study the Diaogue below
Setting : Vulage
Characters : Atu
Rwega : Waguma
Swega : Are you from the farm?
Uswedi : No am from taking Rubisi
Rwega : at this farming time
Uswedi : Forming time!! What farming time are you talking about?
Rwega : I mean now shouldn’t you be pruning your coffee
Uswedi : ha ha ha man Rwega,I thought you were a very understanding man …everyone is complaining about the coffee does not full our packets
Rwega : Uswedi my friend, we are fast reluctant to implement what our officers tell us.
Wane/Atu: hallo
Uswedi : Hallo
Rwega : where are you young beautiful ladies coming from?
Wane : We are from SUA University we are here on field studies
Oswed : ooh so your swat
Atu : Ha ha! yes, we are actually studying agricultural.
We happen to overhear your conversation may we could be of help.
Uswedi : Rwega your people (leaving)
Rwega : Uswedi where are you going let us hear from them
Wane : It seems your having problem with coffee farming, this matter can be resolved by just using the proper agricultural skill or technique.
Atu : My colleague is right, the only key to a better production as sufficient technology.
Uswedi : sorry what do you mean by sufficient technology
Wane : It is applying the proper tools and methods which can help to yield high out puts for example this village has shortage of water but
coffee can be produced here, you can employ irrigation as a solution.
Atu : Not only that, but also employ perfect tools and not hand hoes thus by doing so you will be able to earn more output considering the fact
that coffee is very profitable.
Rwega : I think you have very good ideas and i think it’s the right time to plan a seminar so that all Mwika coffee farmers will be aware.
The analysis is done by looking at language features used which are either the features/levels
– Lexical features (kind of vocabulary)
– Phonological features
– Graphologist features

– Semantic features
– Syntactical features (grammar)
A. Conversational style
Is likely to have informal language
Features expected to be seen
a) Lexical features/level (vocabularies)
Characterized by Colloquial, Idioms and slang vocabularies
Colloquial vocabulary refers to the words used informally especially in everyday conversation,
such words are avoided in formal writing or speaking, this is evident in casual style were people predominantly use this kind of language variety.
I told him to shove off
Use you coconut
Such words are used in spoken (conversation ans)
Conversational Style, avoids technical terms this style uses the words the words that are not technical as it is naturally inform where technical terms

are used they are meant at be humorous (funny).
b) Syntactic level (grammar)
The grammar of a conversational style is characterized by the following
Use of interjection
Words the o feelings or emotions of the people involved in the conversation
To express

Oh! Aah!
Hush! Ssh!
Hi, hallow
What! Ah!
Use of attention calling devices to make the listeners get what the speaker says, he or she may use attention calling expressions such as
You see
Look here
I Mean
By the way
I say
You know what
When the speaker thinks what to say in the act of on utterance, these expressions are used as fillers for gaps
…..e eh…..
….. umm….
Use of sentences beginning with coordinators are used because the sentences are said in response to what is been discussed.
E.g. But he didn’t attend the party
Or may go to Arusha
And they took everything in the shop
Use of non – sentence expression
E.g. see you there
See you later
Sorry for disturbance
Pleased to meet you
Use of simple sentences
Language of conversation is characterized by use of sentences that are simple in that they lack subordination or use them very rarely.
E.g. I will be there
We shall see
He came
Use of short responses
In conversations were we know the context very well we may use short responses because we are aware that the speaker knows what is taking place when we are speaking.
E.g.: Yes I did (for – did you see him)
No I can’t (for- can you drive)
To Arusha (for – where did you go last week)
Short responses save time that could otherwise have been used
Use of contracted forms
Aren’t you coming today?
I’m sorry, I am not
What is wrong?
Use of question tags
E.g. A. Marry come here, didn’t she
a. Yes she did
b. You like honey, don’t you?
c. Of course I do, don’t you
d. Yes, but not that much
Lack of clarity
Some of the info may not be said since the speakers know the premise of discussion making it hard for a passerby to understand what they are saying.
Use of incomplete sentences
A – Yesterday I………………….
B – What did you?
A – I…. er….I
B- You took alcohol?
A – Not so —- er I mean ….I…….
Random topics
When people meet and start talking they do not pick a topic it comes randomly
Carefully write a dialogue between two street boys arguing over a possession. Then show the evidence of a conversational style in you dialogue according to
a) Syntactical level
b) Lexical level of Analysis

Suggested answers
Setting: street in town
Characters: Omar
Omar : You good?
Adam : Yeah
Omar : You still have the Gush, don’t you?”
Adam : … eeh ….mumm
Omar : What
Adam : No, not…. I mean, yes
Omar : No what
Adam : I had it yoh
Omar : What do you mean you had it, where is it right now?
Adam : Shit happened to me
Omar : Don’t give me crap, where is the iish
Adam : Think I lost it
Omar : Aah!!!
Adam : I swear I had it before…….umm
Omar : Before what (grabs Adams neck)
Adam : Lis….te…n (he coughs with pain)
Omar : Give me answers fool, that shit cost us our lives (he lets go Adams neck)
Adam : (coughs while holding his neck) i will look for it
Omar : Piss off, don’t trust you no more
Adam : Told you shit happens
Omar : Shit my foot (he leaves)
Analysis under syntactical level
-Use of interjections such as Aah! To show pain what! To show the act o surprise (omary’s reaction after Adams confection of losing the item)
-Use of hesitations such as….. eeh…. uumm
(Adam hesitates to tell the truth)
-Use of short responses such as “yeah” for – you good)
– Use of question tags such as
You still have the crush, don’t you?
-Use of incomplete sentences
Adam – I swear i had it before …er..
Omar – before what
– Lack of clarity
The dialogue does not give room for a passerby to tell what the argument is about, the topic is discussion is made a secret through not mentioning it or use of words such as cash which not many are familiar with.
Analysis under lexical level
The dialogue has involved some features that show or prove the existence of lexical features
– The use of colloquial vocabulary such as piss off
– The use of slang vocabulary such as oh in the dialogue
Graphological features
Such conversation can be found recorded in novels, plays short stories and journal interviews
The features found are as follows
1. The use of exclamation marks – To show emotion
A -The man is dead
B-What…..! are you sure?
2. The use of italics, bolding, capitalization and underlining to show unusual stress especially emphasis.
Phonological features of conversational style
Normally the conversational style is phonologically shown by the rise of the voice to a louder volume or higher pitch.
1.In the example below, the emphasis (loud volume words) is shown by the use of capital letters.
E.g. I wanted to go
You don’t want me to but a will
2.Some people use a pronunciation that is dialectically identified to the direct of the people in the pronunciation.
3.I humorous style some speakers imitate sounds of the people being quoted, in principal this is an informal style in that it is said that the style deals with matters which are not very serious.
– Is the English found in the written material such as news papers political speeches reports
– It is a language style which lacks all the features to be found in the conversational style.
– Poems, Novels, short stories, critical essays etc
– Unlike these works, plays use the conversational style
– The language in formal literary styles involve emotion working words
– Imagery and other figurative expressions
The following extract from the rape of the pearl by Magala Nyago
Winnie had been brought up a staunch Roman Catholic her parents had been little short of fanatic. She could not recall a day when her parents had missed a Sunday mass unless they had been seriously ill. Even then, armed with a rosary, the invalid would keep on saying one after the other, the “ Hail Marry” the” our father” and “glory be to the father not less than seven times a day………………………………….
The extract about is full of figurative
“Her parents had been”
“Armed with a rosary”
“Those two were more catholic than the pope himself”
a. Lexical features of a formal literary style
– Use of symbolic words: most literary works use words that stand for things other than what they say.
– Use of emotion evoking words such words are found by the use of imagery.

Reader is affected by words that appeal to various senses such as touch, smell, taste, sight and hearing.

These senses make the reader feel like participating in the sense been described
b. Syntactic features
-Use of the simple and complex sentence done to maintain variety
Language of literary works use both simple and complex sentence done to maintain satiety
Language of literary works use both simple and complex sentences, complex are mainly descriptive because they full tell the readers about the characters as well as incidents at the setting at which such incidents took place.
Mugo felt nervous, he was lying on his back and looking at roof locks hung from the fern and grass thatch and all pointed at his heart. A pure drop of water was delicately suspended above him. The drop fattened and grew steadier as it absorbed grains of soot. Then it started drawing toward him (from a grain of wheat by Ngugi wa Thiong’o
Use of pre and post modifies in noun phrase. Pre and post modifies are used to describe characters and the incidence which help to make work sound live. This ma
kes the reader feel as if they were present at the places of the ancient, in that way readers understand the works.
-Narrations are either made of first person or second person subject of narrations either I, she or he
Extract :
A terrified nurse, who happened to be
passing by, let out a nerve shattering scream which echoed through the entire hospital (from the rape of the pearl)
This is the language used by people of the same specialization such as lawyers, teachers, and doctors.
It can be referred to as a Jargon. It’s understood by specialists therefore outsiders like you and I cannot understand.
Words like photosynthesis, phyla, etc can be understood by biologist’s nouns, adverbs, morphemes by linguists.
General features of technical style;
1.Its characterized by the use of technical terms that is words that are meant to be understood by specialists of a given field.
2.The use of impersonal language i.e. most of the statements are passive (not interested with the subject but the action).

3. It sound objective e.g. Fruits are served with lunch
4. The sentences are well connected so as to show a logical flow of ideas
5. It shows headings and subheadings which make readers know which issue is included under the other.
6. Use of generalization
Uses general statements that are mainly in a simple present tense and are used as if they are principles e.g. the Archimedes principle states that when an object is partially or totally emerged in water, the water displaced has the weight equivalent to that of the object emerged.
Various examples of a technical style
Scientific style
This is the style that we find in natural sciences such as Biology, chemistry, physics etc
Lexical features of the scientific style
1.Makes use of words that have Latin or Greek origin e.g. diameter
2.They use S.I units for measurements which are internationally recognized e.g. 4 kg 45dm
3. Use numbers and formulas
E.g. CaCO3, CaO + CO3
4. Use abbreviations for S.I units
E.g. cm, kg
Structural features of scientific style
1. The use of passive voice
Passive voice is dominating used in order to make the information being presented sound objective aim is to make scientific findings look different from opinions, the observes distant themselves from
E.g.: “The experiment was carried out, 1st a small amount of calcium carbonate was hated. Then a colorless gas was liberated. The gas was tested using burning splint. The splint stopped burning. It was then concluded that the gas was carbon dioxide”.
In the text above, we do not know who performed the experiment because the report is given in passive voice.
2.The use of past tense in reporting experimental findings in the text above, we can see that the report is in the post tense. This is something common in most experiments.
3.The use of completed sentences
The sentences are mostly complete and clear. These sentences are normally complex with connectors that show how ideas are logically organized
4. Noun phrases are well modified for clarity reasons noun phrases are accompanied with modifiers e.g. dense white fumes where modified”
Graphological features of scientific style
1.The use of diagrams and figures as well as tables for illustrations
2.The use of symbols
The long of science is full of symbols that stand for various measurements; they include things like ℇ, ÆŸ, ∏, H2SO4

3. Well patterned paragraphs as well as headings and subheadings

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