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After African countries experienced the same social, political, economic and cultural problems, post independence African states through their leaders such as late JK. Nyerere, Dr Kwame Nkrumah and Jomo Kenyatta were desired to promote (establish) African unity on both political and economic so as to solve those developmental challenges the solution which was taken in consideration in order to build African countries so as to promote African unity. This element of pan – Africanism bared it roots during struggling against colonial rule.
• Therefore in order to emphasize Pan – Africanism so as to promote African unity the African heads of state called different meeting for e.g.
  • In April 1958 in Accra Ghana and in December 1958 in Accra Ghana were by 28 African states attended.
  • Through Accra Ghana Pan – Africanism meeting of 1958; African countries got one voice, courage and nationalist spirit against colonial rule, oppression and desire for union.
  • The meeting also led to Formation of Pan – African freedom movement of East and central (PAFMECA) in September 1958. The East central and inclusion of South Africa movement led east, central solidarity and union against their common enemy.
1. Pan–Africanism fight for African rights and freedom.
2. It fights against colonial exploitation and oppression.
3. Pan–Africanism built spirit of unity and solidarity among them.
4. Pan–Africanism built patriotic spirit among Africans.
5. Pan–Africanism enabled African leaders to meet and discuss their issues together example J.K Nyerere and Nkrumah etc.
6. Pan–Africanism led to independence of some African countries through providing moral and material support.
7. Pan–Africanism gave courage and desire for independence.
8. Pan – African unity (OAU) in 25th may 1963.
Example: British colonial government type which based on multiparty and parliamentary democracy and finance presidential system.
1. Military government
2. Single (one) party government
1. The effect/ legacy of colonial government (state).
The colonial government policies, laws, system etc. which inherited by post independent African states were poor not for African hence changed them.
2. Bad constitution. Post independent African states changed their political ideology due to constitution which they inherited from colonial did not suit/ favor Africans.
3. Economic difficulties; colonial government left African economies poor and underdeveloped African decided to change their political ideology so as to speed up development e.g.: Ujamaa, African socialism etc.
4. Tribalism( ethnicity); colonial government left African political system after independent having problem of tribalism because colonial government created tribal difference in Africa so as to divide Africans and rule them so African changed ideology so as to bring national unity e.g. through single party system.
Is the type of government which comes into power through military force or overthrown of civilian government.
There process of military government to come into power in French is known as COUP D’ETAT.
Coupe d’état in many African countries occurred as result of failure of post independent African leaders to meet the demands and expectations of their citizen After independence; such as improving social services of citizens etc.
In 1970s many African countries experienced COUP D’ ETAT including many of Franco phones countries (French speaking) except guinea, Senegal and Ivory Coast (Cote d’Ivoire) while Togo Benin, Nigeria, Ghana, Egypt etc. experienced many Coup d’état in 1966 t0 1970s.
1. Poor leadership. Unaccountable and irresponsible leaders was among of the main reasons of African to face many coupe d’état e.g. Mabutuseseseko of DRC Congo.
2. Fraud and corruption. Presence of fraud and competition to embezzle government and public funds to many post independence African states led to Coupe d’état.
3. Tribalism
4. Unequal sharing/ distribution of national wealth on social economic opportunities. African countries experienced many coupe d’état because of uneven development among people which made them harsh.
5. Regions conflicts it was among of factors led to coup d’état as it breaks national unity e.g. Nigeria.
6. Violation of human rights
7. Political instabilities
8. Civil wars
9. External capitalist pressure/ force, many countries experienced many coup d’état as result of capitalist forces since they were out ready to leave African wanted to continue exploits resource by creating political instabilities and their puppet.
Mono (one) party system of government was a political attempt taken (adopted) by many post independent states during 1970s and 1980s; half of African countries which adopted multiparty system failed to maintain, it was only Botswana and Mauritius capable to maintain multiparty of those countries.
Therefore in 1960s and 1970s many African countries developed single party system, which is the situation where by one political party exists and control the government (state).
All leaders in single party system including president, cabinet, and members of parliaments (MPS) belong to the same one political party.
Adaptation of single party was championed by African political leaders such as JK Nyerere (Tanzania), Kenneth Kaunda (Zambia) and Kwame Nkurumah (Ghana) due to the following reasons;
1. To build national unity.
Multiparty system inherited from colonialist destroyed nation unity therefore banning of political parties after independence was a solution of rebuilding nation unity.
2. To maintain African tradition political system. One party system was African tradition political system since before colonial rule Africans were governed directly by one king or chief and their advisors without opposition. Therefore multiparty system was not African system.
3. One party was direct democracy
Post independent African states adopted single party in order to be close to the people unlike multiparty system under colonial rule which was far from people.
4. To maintain political stabilities.
Single party system can easily maintain peace and harmony and political stabilities than presence of many political parties.
5. To bring development to the people.
6. To avoid penetration of puppet leaders.
  1. Sub population/few government leaders.
2. Abuse of power. Single party system in many African states led to abuse of power by some leaders to become dictators
  1. Absence of challenges. Due to absence of challenges from outside; the running party became irresponsible and inactive towards peoples’ development.
4. Absence of rule of law; single party system controlled everything including government, soldiers and parliament as result a ruling party became above the law.
5. Absence of democracy and people’s rights.
Single party system decline in most African independent started in early 1990s for e.g. In Tanzania multiparty system was introduced in July
1992 and the first multiparty political election held in 1995.
Multiparty system
  • Is the situation where by there is a presence of more than one political parties within the same country. Single party system in African decline and give chance to multiparty system due to the following reasons (factors);
1. Single party system was against people’s democracy and rights; single party system was opposed by many people since it did not give chance to people to exercise their democracy and rights e.g.: Right to vote, freedom of expression and association.
2. Economic crisis in state 1970s and 1980s; many Africans in 1970s and 1980s experienced economic hardship i.e. Currency devaluation, poor people and government income. All these problems associated with authoritarian rule and poor policies of single party system in post independent African countries.
3. The decline of the United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). USSR was supporter of single party system in most African countries by supplying military technical and financial aids. USSR declined in 1980s hence single party system declined because of lack of support.
4. Pressure from USA.
USA and other European capitalists countries were not happy with single party system therefore they contributed for its decline in most African states by put pressure to African countries to change their political system in order to get their moral and material support such as Aid and Grants.
5. Pressure from World Bank and international monetary fund (IMF); Africans countries were forced by World Bank and IMF to adopt multiparty system as condition of getting loans because they no longer had faith with single party system to control national economy.
6. Multiparty system avoids abuse of power unlike single party system. Multiparty system avoids dictatorship and people or leaders to be above the laws.
7. Multiparty system made a government to be accountable and responsible to the citizen than single party system.
8. Multiparty system speeds up development to the people because many people put a challenge to the leading party in various issues such as political, economic and social.
1Multiparty system led to distortion of national unity. Sometimes presence of many political parties cause division of people based on political differences hence distortion of national unity.
2. Civil wars. Multiparty system can conceptive to people and made people harsh to the government hence civil wars.
3. Multiparty system can create puppet leaders; many political parties system can create a chance of puppet leaders impanel (placed) by capitalist countries.
4. Multiparty system distorts peace and harmony; since presence of many political parties can cause people to be militant on settled due to many political parties activities.
Despite African countries attained political independence but most African countries were still economically dependent since it took some time before African countries to attain economic independence.
All these were caused by colonial legacy which did not take conscious effort to develop economies suitable for Africans requirements. High concentration of development was kept on their economies abroad as result after independence most of African countries become economic dependent to them. Asia still controlling all commercial activities, manufacturing and mining companies developed by foreign investors were still sending large proportion of their profit overseas/abroad in European countries.
1. Poor economies base.
Most of African countries after independent they had poor and repressive (Oppressive) economic policies such imposition of taxes and agriculture marketing boards which were charged to all regardless of income. This economic policy was a Burden to poor people.
2. Poverty.
Many people were poor economically having no income hence suffered with diseases.
3. Poor industrial base.
African countries inherited poor industrial base from colonialist since during colonialism they discourage industrialization in colonies in order to avoid competition of their manufactured goods.
4. Poor education.
After independence African were ignorant and unskilled since even and during colonial education African.
Structural adjustment program (SAP’s) this was development policy which was introduced by European capitalist nations so as to solve social, political and economic problems/challenges faced Africans countries in 1980’s.
What were the challenges in Africa that led to introduction of SAPs programs in 1980’s?
1. Poverty. In 1980’s many African economies and their people were still poor.
2. Poor science and technologically. Technologically African countries were still poor and backward.
3. Poor industrial base. There were no industrial base in Africa since application of machines in production was low, Africans still depends in industrial base example in Agriculture.
4. Poor/ low value of currencies. African currencies had low value compared to dollars and pounds due to poor prices of crops and poor exportation of crops.
5. Poor infrastructures. In 1980’s African still had no good access and link of infrastructure such round, railway, ports and Harbors.
6. Poor market of agricultural products/crops due to frustration of world markets. African experienced absence or low markets of their crops.
7. Poor provision of social services; in 1980 many Africans suffered from diseases, poor education, food shortage (hunger) inaccessibility of social service etc.
8. International debts. In 1980 many Africans countries had debts crisis because they borrowed lots of loans from capitalist/European nations then failed to repay back.
9. Political instabilities and wars. Civil wars within Africans countries as well as Arab – Israel war of 1973 led to lots of crisis such as oil crisis which rose up the price of oil hence affected African economies. (The Arabs – Israel war of 1973 which led to oil crisis was known as OPEC – oil crisis)
In order to solve those development challenges faced African countries; European capitalist nations came with the program known as Structural Adjustment Program as the condition of obtaining assistance loans and grants from world financial institution including World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Therefore structural adjustment program operated through two world capitalist financial institutions including;
I) World Bank (WB)
ii) International Monetary Fund (IMF)
The Structural Adjustment Program was operating through condition with the policy of Poverty Reduction Strategy papers (PRSPS) in 1990.
Therefore in order African countries to achieve development they had to borrow money from these world financial institutions had to accept and follow SAPs conditions.
I. Devaluation of currencies.
ii. Costs sharing.
iii. Reduction/ reduce government expenditure.
iv. Privatization.
v. Free markets.
vi. Removing price control/ foreign investments.
vii. Good governance and fighting against corruption.
  1. SAPs threaten on national sovereignty.
  2. SAPs open door of exploitation e.g. through foreign investment and privatization which exploited African resources e.g. to be controlled while independent.
3. SAPs led to Neo – colonialism i.e. African countries to be controlled while independent.
  1. SAPs created dependency economy. African economies affected by SAPs policies since many became dependent economically due to loans and grants from WB and IMF.
  2. SAPs created the debts burdens/crisis in Africa.
6. SAPs create social hardship to people. Majority Africans who are poorly economically affected by SAPs condition such as cost sharing to service such as education, health, water supply etc. put them in social hardship.
7. Decline of Agriculture development. SAPs conditions led to stagnation of agriculture sector hence low production, food shortage and hunger.
8. Poverty; Increase of poverty at national level and individual level caused by SAPs conditions since capitalist nations are only benefited with it.
9. Devaluation of currency due to difficulties or hard conditions; loans and grants from WB and IMF as well as debts crisis in Africa led African countries currencies to be devaluated.
10. Inequality.
11. Political instability. Many African countries are not political stable due to policies of SAPs debts burden.
12. Environmental
Africa continued in order to solve their social, political and economic problems it involved itself in two integrations.
i) Regional cooperation include OAU, EAC, SADC and ECOWAS
ii) International cooperation e.g. UNO, UN, NAM COMMON WEALTH ETC.
Organization of African unity (OAU) was organization formed by independent African countries so as to solve social, political and economic problems of their countries on 25th May 1963. OAU changed its name and became African unity (AU) on 9th July 2002.
1. To promote African unity among African countries.
2. To achieve better life of Africans.
3. To remove/ eradicate all forms of Neo – colonialism and segregation.
4. To promote international integrations.
5. To defend African sovereignty, territory integrity and independence.
6. To improve political education and health among members states.
UNICEF: United national international education fund.
WHO: World health organiza
ILO: International Labour Organization.
UNHCR: United National High Commission for Refugees.
UNESCO: United Nation Education, Science and Cultural Organization.
FAO/ WFP: World Food Program.
1. It builds unity and solidarity among African countries.
2. AU formed its banks know as African development Bank (ADB).
3. To investigate and to prevent any situation that might lead to international friction.
4. To recommend methods of adjustment of disputes or term of settlement.
5. The principle of invisibility of inherited boundaries.
6. Respect of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of each state.
7. Eradication of all forms of colonialism.
8. AU gives African voice and power towards international matters (affairs).
9. AU enables/ facilitate African countries every year meeting.
  • Low value of currency.
  • Poverty, many African countries have many natural resources but they still poor.
  • Poor application of science and technology.
  • Poor market of raw materials and crops
1. Political instabilities among African countries.
2. Civil wars led to absence of peace and security among African countries.
3. Poverty among African countries.
4. NEO – colonialism all affected by pressure from big super powers countries.
5. Poor infrastructures.
6. Lack of funds; all lock age of enough fund mining its countries due to poverty among its members.
7. Different ideologies among its members.
8. Poor leaders and presence of dictators’ i.e. Idd Amin of Uganda.
9. Different in levels of development among Africans countries.


African countries worked together to solve political, social and economic problems which faced the continent after independence. Origins of continental cooperation the origin of continental cooperation in Africa could be traced back to the pan- African movement, which refer to the unity of all people of African origin or descent. The word “ pan” means ‘together’ or ‘all’ Africans refers to people, implying the unity of all people of black colour
Some of the objectives of establishing continental cooperation in Africa include
  1. To preserve political independence and freedom
  2. To fight against economic exploitation such as land alienations, poor wages and force labour.
  3. To unite all people of African origin in the struggle against polities oppression
  4. To challenge the ideology of European supremacy which undermines African political independence, economic stability and cultural civilization
  5. To protect African dignity
  6. To preserve African culture from destruction
African co-operation existed through the formation of various organization as shown below;
The rise of African Unity (O.A.U)
O.A.U was an organization of independent African states that was formed firstly by 30 countries in Addis Ababa Ethiopia on 25/05/1963. Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia was the first chairmen of the organization.
Background of O.A. U
Before its formation, African countries attempted to unite Africa to fight against the problems that faced their people. Those effort included
  1. The creation of PAFMECA (Pan African Freedom movement for East and Central Africa). in the late 1950’s
  2. The formation of Brazzaville group in 1961 by Congo, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ivory coast, Niger, Senegal, Mahanet, Mauritania, Burkena-faso, Chad, Gabon and upper-Volta
  3. The charter of union of African States signed by Guinea and Ghana on 23-11-1958 for the purpose of bringing cooperation between them
  4. Formation of military commend and Africa common market at Casablanca- Morocco by the head of states such as Algeria, Ghana, Mali and Morocco itself.
By 1963 African countries realized that there was a need of creating Pan-African organization to bring more strength, unity and development among all countries hence the formation of O.A.U
  1. Civil wars in the member states such as Sudan, Somalia and Sierra leone killed many people in the member countries in 1990’s
  2. Assassination of head of states in many countries for example Melchior Ndadaye of Burundi in 1993.
  3. O.A.U could not impose decisions on its members. Member states used this opportunity to act against the O.A.U interests.
  4. Absence of good infrastructure such as railways, roads which hindered the movement of people between and within the member states
  5. Shortage of money, member states could not contribute money on time different programmes
  6. Interference by external powers in the affairs of the African continent. For example USA, Britain, France
  7. Ideological differences especially during the cold war eg. Tanzania- socialism, Kenya- Capitalism
The objectives refers to the goals which the member state planned to achieve by working under the organization they includes:-
i. To enhance unit among African states
ii. To eliminate all forms of colonialism in Africa
iii. To promote international co-operation in line with UN and Universal Declaration
iv. To coordinate cooperation and efforts to bring better life for African people
v. To defend territorial integrity and independence of the African states.
Principles O.A.U
These were the guidelines which had to be followed by the member states in order to achieve their goals and objectives
i. Non- interference in this domestic matters of this member states
ii. The use of peaceful ways in finding out the solutions to conflicts and disputes between member states.
iii. To accept the movement of Non- Alignment of Afro Asian states
iv. Respect the rights of status to exist as independent countries
v. Sovereign equality of all member states had to be respected by all members countries
vi. Condemn all political assassination and encouragement of people to oppose domestic dictatorship government
Benefits of O.A.U to Tanzania
  1. Tanzania gained fame by hosting the headquarters of the liberation committee in various countries such as Zimbabwe and Angola.
  2. Through African Development Bank Tanzania received some money for improvement of various sectors like agriculture and education
  3. Tanzania made friendship with all countries which had joined O.A.U through participation in various meeting of O.A.U members.
  4. Tanzania got chances to give out its opinion over many problem through various meeting.
Failure of O.A.U
Through O.A.U succeeded, it had also failures which include
i. O.A.U failed to bring better and good standard of living among the Africans
ii. It failed to eradiate neo-colonial exploitation which was practiced by the countries in Western European countries. After its formation Africa export to European markets continued to suffer from lower prices determined by big powers
iii. It failed to solve political conflicts which normally led to this rise of civil war and overthrow the elected government for example Ghana when Dr. Kwame. Nkurumah in 1966.
iv. It failed prevent inter-state conflicts. There were conflicts over boundaries and eventually there were wars for example Tanzania and Uganda in 1978 and Kenya and Somalia in190’s
Despite its failures O.A.U existed for almost thirty seven years. In the late 1990’s Mr. Mwammar Ghadafi, Libyan head of state proposed to other member head of states to create a new organization which could take necessary steps to eliminate problems which were not solved by O.A.U
His proposal was taken positively and the members accepted to form A.U ( African Union)
The Formation of African Union (A.U)
A.U is the organization of African countries which originally started by the declaration to the head of states and Government of the O.A.U to establish African union. It was agreed during the O.A.U summit at Sirte, Libya in 1999.
In the following year, during the lome summit, Togo Head of states and Government adopted the constitutive Act of the union. The Lusaka summit of 2001 further gave the final go- ahead for the establishment of the AU which was born in Durban, South Africa, in 2002
Objectives of the AU
i. To achieve the greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and the people themselves
ii. To accelerate the political and socio-economic inters ration among Africans.
iii. TO promote and defend African common interests
iv. To promote peace, security and stability in Africa
v. To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of member states
vi. To encourage international cooperation
vii. To establish the necessary conditions which enable Africa to play its rightful role in the global or world economy through international negations
  1. To work with relevant international parties in the elimination of printable disease and the promotion of health on the continent
ix. To promote sustainable development at the economic social and cultural levels as well as the integrations of economies
x. To promote democratic principles and institutions, popular participation and good governance.
Problems which threaten future success of AU
This include the following
i. Civil wars in countries such as Sierra Leone, Sudan, Northern Uganda Ivory coast
ii. Poor infrastructure such as railways roads, and water ways continued to weaken smooth transport of raw materials from productive areas to industrial as well as from towns productive areas to industrial as well as from towns to rural areas in many members states
iii. Lack of fund-most of its members are poor nations. It does not get enough money to run it
iv. Epidemic diseases such as HI
V/AIDS kills skilled labour which would have been used by AU to develop many sectors like Agriculture, industries fishing and tourism
v. Corruption, such as mismanagement of public money by this leaders like former president of Zambia Mr. Chiluba discouraged good governance.
The benefits of AU to Tanzania
There are number of benefits acquired by Tanzania from being a member of AU, they include the following;
i. Tanzania would get an opportunity to unite with other African countries to solve political conflicts peacefully in several African states and the country will use AU to discuss on the presence of good relationship between Africa, Europe and USA.
ii. Tanzania will make friendship with other African countries through this joint activities and programs in social and economic sectors
iii. Tanzania gains territorial dignity through participation in the military operations
iv. Tanzania get new ideas and information which will be used to solve many problems in different sectors such as agriculture, health, mining and industry.
v. Tanzania would obviously provided with money as loans and grants from the financial institutions such as African central Bank and the African investment bank.
The need for regional cooperation in Africa, like elsewhere in the world arose from the need to tackle political, social and economic needs of the people.
This regional approach was found more beneficial given that this people in one region are likely eo work more closely together due to geographical, historical and cultural advantages. Among the regional grouping existing in Africa include the east African community ( EAC) COMESA, ECOWAS and SADC.
The East African Community ( EAC)
THE East Africa cooperation after independence was mainly the formation of East Africa
Community (E.A.C) which the formation of East Africa Community such as Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. It was formed on 6th June 1967 after a treaty of East African co-operation signed in Kampala by three heads of states to foster social and economic development in the region.
Arusha became the head quarters in the community in Tanzania
The origin of EAC
It can be traced back from 192 when the British had East African governor conference to discuss maters of common interest in the colonies under the British. In January, 1st 1948 the British formed the East African Governors High Commission which had to perform the following functions
  1. Make rules on inter- territorial common services and good government policies
  2. To administer common serves such as civil aviation, east Africa posts, telegraphs and meteorological department.
Objectives of EAC
Objectives of EAC were desired ends which the numbers intended to achieve, they include:
i/ to facilitate the free movement of the people and understand among the East Africans.
ii/ To provide wider market for goods produced in the region.
iii/ To promote the free trade of goods and services among the members of state.
iv/ To provide common services in East Africa, such as East Africa railways and East Africa airways based in Nairobi, Harbors whose headquarter were Dar es salaam and African community in Arusha while Uganda became the headquarter of post and telecommunication as well as East African Development Bank.
v/ to manage the East African examination council.
vi/ To conduct research in various areas such as agriculture and population.

Achievements of EAC
The first East African Community had the following achievement:
1. Provision of funds to the members of state. This was possible through the East African Bank which was made by the EAC. For example Tanzania managed to produce aluminium sheet, assemble radio and make motor vehicles tyres and tubes.
– Uganda managed to manufacture bicycles and nitrogenous fertilizers.
– Kenya made electric bulbs from the capital given by the bank.
2. It put the East African countries on a course of cooperation when these countries worked together on areas like post, telecommunication and railways

3. It provided a chance for political leaders to discuss economic and political issues of their region

4. Free movement of people, for example Kenyans and Ugandans could move easily to Tanzania.
The collapse of EAC
The East African Community existed for a period of ten years. It collapsed in 1977 and revived in 2000 there were several reasons to its collapse, they includes;
i. Difference in ideologies. Tanzania used socialism and self reliance in which the government controlled all means of production in the national economy while Kenya and Uganda were mainly based on capitalism which allowed the existence of private owned economy, hence they could not work together
ii. Higher growth of Kenyan economy over Tanzania and Uganda, Kenya had many industries and business companies, either members felt they could be exploited
iii. Absence of common currency. It made it difficultly for people to fully not buy good and serves in Uganda and Kenya because their currency was not accepted.
iv. Misunderstanding between the late presidents for example Julius K. Nyerere and Idd Amin of Uganda. Nyerere did not like to work with Amin after overthrowing Milton Obote in 1971
v. Shortage of fund among the East African government. The member states were less development National which could no have financial requirements for community programmes.
All these reasons contributed to the collapse of the first EAC in 1977. Today the new EAC might not grow stronger because of similar ideological practices among the countries. Its implemented on 7th, July 2000.
The principles of he New EAC are guide lines which must be followed by the community members in realizing their goals or objectives. They include:-
  1. Mutual trust between the people of EAC states
  2. Peaceful co-existence and good neighborliness
  3. Peaceful settlement of disputes
  4. Good governance, acceptance of principles of democracy, rule of law and respect for social justice
  5. Co- operation for equal mutual benefit among the member states.
The goals/objective of the new EAC
The objective refers to the desire ends which will be achieved by the members. The objectives includes
i. Establishment of a monetary union
ii. Establishment of a common market in which there services and information technology
iii. Formation of the East African Federation
iv. To promote peace, Security and stability within the region and good neighborliness
v. To develop policies and programmes aimed at wide ring co-operation in polities, economic social defense and judicial matter for the benefit of the postures state
vi. To promote sustainable and balanced growth and development among the members
vii. To promote the role of women in socio-economic development
viii. Achieve equitable economic development and higher standard of living for the people of Africa.
Areas of cooperation. Among the EAC members
The member states intends to co-operate in the following area to reach their goals
a) Trade liberalization and development
They introduced custom union by signing
a protocol in 2004. They also intend to establish common market to provide free movement of labour, good, services and capital.
b) Infrastructure and services
The members are working together to undertake collective policies on road, railway, maritime and inland, air and telecommunication
c) Monetary and fineneias cooperation
(d) Investment and industrial development
e) Development of human resources, science and technology. Member states will conduct measures to advance cooperation in education and training in the development of social science and technology including promotion of research
(f) Agriculture and food security.
Thus cooperate in quality seed development livestock breeding, disease control, irrigation and water catchment management with a view to increase food production and security for the people
(g) Free movement of person, labour, services right of establishment and residence
(h) Health, social and cultural activities
Thus accepted to work as a group in the prevention and control of the disease, they are also committed themselves to promote sport activities, cultural and social welfare programmes
(i) Tourism and wildlife management
(ii) Standardization, quality assurance and testing of goods and services produces in this community
(k) advancement of the role of women in socio-economic development.
(l) Relations with other Regional and international organizations and development partners. They agreed to cooperate with African Union, Un
ited Nations and jointly aim at wider African unity and cooperation
(m) Political matters
They agreed to have a common foreign security and defense policies, strengthen democracy and regional peace and security with the view of even formation of a political federation.
(n) Legal and justice affairs
They agreed to harmonize their legal training and certification and encourage standardization of judgment of courts in the community.
Achievements of the EAC East African Community
  1. The organization has admitted Rwanda and Burundi and increase the scope of the market.
  2. EAC facilitated the improvement of transport and communications among the member states
  3. Opening of the way for free movement of people and goods within this region. It facilitates creation of wealth and job opportunities for peoples of the member states
  4. Introduction of a common market, goods from any members state can be exported to the region partner states without encountering any tariff barriers
  5. The EAC provides an important forum where leaders in this region meet to discuss on this problems and other issues facing the region
  6. The civil society, farmers and other groups are able to interact and exchange ideas freely within the entire region
  7. Opening up of common ventures among the member states in the areas of education, science and research. For example the inter University council for East Africa ( IUCEA)
The challenges of EAC
The challenges refers to all matters which must be worked out in order to achieve its objectives, they include
  1. Conflicts among member the states. EAC has to maintain peace among the member states. The aberrancy peace in countries such as northern Uganda will not enable free movement of people in commercial activities. Peace has to prevail for the eventual success
  2. There are still some fears among member states that countries with stronger economic such as Kenya are likely to enjoy more benefits from the organization
  3. Bilateral issues involving different member states also complicated the work of the organization for instance the contest between Kenya- Uganda since 2007 over the tiny mingingo Island which lies on the boundary between the two countries complicates the affairs of the EAC
  4. Cattle rustling involving border communities in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania has also been another challenge confronting the organization
  5. Membership of the partner states in other regional organizations also creates problems within the EAC. For example Tanzania is also a member of the SADC while Uganda and Kenya are members of COMESA
COMESA is an organization which was created by the treaty that was signed in Kampala, Uganda on 6th November, 1993. It was made to replace the preferential Trade Areas (P.T.A) which had been formed by Eastern and Southern African states by 1982

Objectives of COMESA
COMESA has various objectives such as
i. To make trade much easier within the region by reducing and eventually eliminating tariff between this members
ii. Support co- operation in monetary and financial affairs in order to facilitate sub- regional inter-gration
iii. To promote and facilitate cooperation of the member countries in trade, industry, agriculture, transport and communication
iv. To create joint industrial and agricultural institutions with aimed to increase production in the sub- region
v. Harmonizes and coordinates development strategies policies and plans within the region
vi. To build a strong economic base for members as a step toward economic independence in the region.
The reasons which made Tanzania to withdraw from COMESA
(i) Financial contributions to various economic organizations became a burden to the government expenditure
(ii) She was avoiding duplications of regional cooperations
(iii)Tanzania was discouraged by political conflicts in Zimbabwe and civil war in Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia.
(iv)The country wanted to maximize her effort in some organizations like the East African Community which was formed in early 2000’s
(v) Tanzania wanted to protect its industrial development from other COMESA members such as Kenya, South Africa and Zimbabwe.
Problems facing COMESA
i. Civil war has been prevailing in Somalia since 1990’s
ii. Multimember ship. For example Uganda is a member of COMESA, EAC and IGAD
iii. Heavy dependence on donor countries
iv. Existence of different currencies also presents the major obstacles to the affairs of COMESA. Each member state of the organisation uses a different currency that making transactions cumbersome.
v. Poor infrastructure in Sudan, Ethiopia and other states.
vi. Bad governance in Zimbabwe resulted after dictatorship, inflation and fall of economy in 2008
vii. COMESA also experienced misunderstand arising from interpretation of its rules of Origin. The airport of Egyptian comment to Kenya was hampered by this misunderstanding in 2003
viii. Boundary quarrels. This also slowed down the implementation of COMESA programmes for example Ethiopia and Eritrea had fought over border territories since 1990,s
ECOWAS is an organization which was formed by English, French and Portuguese speaking countries West Africa under the Treaty of Lome on 28TH May, 1975 to bring unity for economic development in fields such as industries, transport, telecommunication, energy, agriculture monetary and commerce
Its aim
i. To eliminate barriers to the free movement of people services and capital
ii. To remove custom duties between the members states to as to make West Africa a free trade area
iii. To coordinate industrial and agricultural development policies
Organs of ECOWAS
i. Authority of the head of states- makes major decisions and policies
ii. The council of Ministers- assist authority in policy recommendations
iii. The community parliament
iv. The economic and social council
v. Community court of justice
vi. Executive secretary and ECOWAS fund.
– Lagos is the headquarter of Executive secretary and controller of fund based in Togo
vii. ECOWAS Bank of investment and Development ( EBID)
viii. Specialized agencies like WAHO- WEST Africa Health Organization and WAWA – West Africa Women Association
Its members
It has about 16 members such as Burkinafaso, Benin, Gambia, Ivory coast, Ghana, Cape Verde, Nigeria, Guinea cannonry, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Togo, Mali, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon
The achievements of ECOWAS

i. It brought unity among West African states by printing conditions in which two different countries could carry out joint projects such as food and transport cooperation between Nigeria and Niger after 1975
ii. ECOWAS formed a military force known as ECOMO the force helped to defeat a military regime which over the forced helped to defeat a military regime which over the force helped to defeat a military regime which over the
force helped to defeat a military regime which over thrown civilian government in Sierra Leone in 1990’s
iii. It set up a fund in 1986 by getting loan from financial institutions in Western Europe and America. The fund improved agriculture, industries, transport and telecommunication in 1929
iv. It made the movement of people between the member states easier since 1979. The member states agreed to eliminate obstacles which prevented people from moving for various activities in the summit held in dalcar,

v. It provided a winder market for the member states commodities
Challenges encountered by the ECOWAS member state
i. Political instability, countries such as Nigeria has had coup’ etat after 1975 civil wars in Sierra Leone in 1990’s. This undermined peace and security seen by in the entire region.
ii. Low prices on products exported to world markets caused poor export earnings of foreign currency

iii. Difference in the official languages between the members make it difficult for West African People to communicate easily in economic activities. The community contain Anglo phone and Francophone countries
iv. Poor infrastructure such as roads still exist in many West African States. This situation hinders easy movement of goods, services and labour.
v. Bilateral and triple cooperation which began before the formulation of ECOWAS appear as obstacle to the realization of its objectives. For example Liberia and Sierra leone had mano River project in 1973 to work in joint
economic development, Senegal, Mali and Mauritania started the organization for the Development of the Senegal river to construct dams since 1973
vi. Some of the member states failed to remit contributions to the organization as required, and this make the running of the organization very difficult
vii. Some of the smaller economics among the member states find the immerse military and economic power of major economies such as Nigeria overwhelming.

viii. Ideological differences especially between the capitalist countries and socialist countries. For example cote d’ivore under Felix Houphout –Boigny-capitalist and Burkinafaso under under Thomas Sankara- socialist
ix. Border quarrels for example Nigeria and Cameroon had to go to international court in the Hague for arbitration over the ownership of the Bakazi Region.
x. Foreign interference in the affairs of the member state. For instance the stationing of French troops in cote d’ivoire since the 1960’s which made the neighboring states including Guinea very uncompromising.
xi. The vast geographic region makes it difficult for affairs of the organization to be coordinated well.
The Southern Africa Development Community (SADC)
The origin of South Africa Development Community could be traced back to 1979 but formally established in April 1980, with headquarters in Gaborone, Botswana
During its early years, the organization was known as the Southern Africa Development Coordination Conference (SADCC).
Currently SADC has a total of 15 members. The member states include Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Seychelles, Mozambique and Tanzania. Other members are Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Mauritius, Swaziland, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe
Objectives of the SADC
  1. To harness resources in the region for the benefit of all member states
  2. To promote economic growth and standards of living ot the member states
  3. To promote environmental protection and utilization of resources
  4. To promote peace and security among member states
  5. To promote sustainable development through cooperation among the member states
  6. To consolidate the age-old social, cultural and historical sites existing among the region
  7. To enhance economic development by promoting transport and communicatios in the region.
Achievements of the SADC
The achievements of the SADC are:-
  1. Enhancement of security in the region. For example establishment of Ecomog in the Western part of Africa.
  2. Promotion of democracy and rule of law among the member states
  3. SADC has facilitated the development of infrastructure among the members states, for example roads, harbour, railways etc
  4. Promotion of agriculture among the member states agreed in a treaty signed in 1995
  5. Member state were able to consult on matters that affect the region using SADC as the main forum
  6. Sharing of water resources in the region. This was agreed in a treaty signed in 1995.
Challenges experienced by SADC member States
  1. Production of goods that compete rather than complement each other
  2. Political instability some of the member states experienced political instability which has interfered with the organization operations. Eg Democratic Republic Congo
  3. Language barrier
  4. Differences in political ideology- eg Tanzania and Angola capitalism, others capitalism
  5. poor coordination and communication between member states
  6. Some member states exhibit divided loyalties as some belong to other regioner organization such as COMESA
  7. South Africa is seen as domineering over other member states due to her strong economy this causes a lot of anxiety to some countries.
Most of African states gained political independence in the 1960’s long after, most of the global organizations like United Nations had been established, thus never the less played an important role in Global affairs.
Types of international organizations
  1. International Governmental Organizations(IGOs)
These are organizations made up of two or more sovereign state. For example the united Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the World Health Organization
  1. International Non- Governmental Organizations (INGos)
These are organizations made up of individuals or private groups for example organizations like the later nation Red cross, Amnesty International and Transparency international.
Objectives of participating in international affair
The following are some of the objectives of Africa participating in international affairs
i. To show solidarity with other states of the world especially during emergencies
ii. To give the continent a forum through which thus could discuss the continental affairs
iii. Increased participation in the United Nations General Assembly meant that Africans would hence forth receive more international attention than was the case before.
iv. To demonstrate their sovereignty through participation in global affairs
v. To enhance Africa’s development for example the participation in the common wealth of Nations intended to develop Africa though English – speaking states that are more developed.
Similarly, the French community was meant to coordinate cooperation of the francophone and their former colonial masters
vi. African participation in Non- Aligned Movement was to put the continent in a strategic situation in the struggle for between the Eastern and the Western block during the cold War.
Africa and the UN
The UN is an international organizations comprising of independent states from all over the world. It was formed after the second World War to fulfill the following objectives;
  1. To develop friendly relations among states of the world
  2. To maintains international peace and security
  3. To promote respect for human rights and freedom
  4. To promote human welfare by uplifting living standards
  5. To promote international understanding among nations.
It’s structure/ organs of UN
The UN, whose headquarters is in New York, USA, is made up with
(a) The general assembly. This is the most supreme organ of the UN. It meets once year unless during extra ordinary sessions and comprises of all members states of the UN
Functions of the General Assembly
(i) Admit new members
(ii) Consider any matter touching on international peace and security
(iii) To approve the UN budget
(iv) To elect no- permanent members of the security council judges of international court of Justice and appoint the Secretary General with approval of the Security council
Each independent country qualities to be a member of the organization. Most of the African countries joined on the 1960’s soon after independence, each member is entitled to only one rote.
Out of 51 founders of the United Nations, only three were African states. Thus were Liberia, Egypt and Ethiopia. South Africa also participated but under while rule
Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda joined the UN as soon as the respective countries required political independence in 1961,1962 and 1963 respectively. By 1980, 50 states in the continent had become states of the UN it continent had become member states of the UN, it constituted one third of the UN membership
Due to the increase member of membership of African countries enabled Africa to push through African agenda in the General Assembly. Such issues includes:-
(a) The evils of European colonialism in Africa and the need for decolonization.
(b) The evils of the apartheid regime in South Africa
(c) The unfair interference of apartheid South Africa in Namibia
(d) Marginalization of the continent in global economy
(e) The danger of the cold War and the great power’s military intervention in the continent.
b. The Security council
This comprises of 15 members, fire of them permanent they include China, Russia, France, United Kingdom and the U.S.A. The ten Norn – permanent members are appointed for a two- year term by the General Assembly. The five permanent members have veto powers. This means if any one of them votes against a proposal, resolution can not be made
Functions of the security council
  1. To enforce international peace and security. If any state defied the UN, the Security Council can order for sanction against it. For example Libya, apartheid south Africa and Iraq are good example
  2. Investigates situations that pose a threat to international peace
  3. Urges states to conform to peaceful settlements of disputes
  4. To expel countries that violate UN regulations
  5. To recommend procedures to be followed in dispute settlements for countries experiencing squabbles

The international Court of Justice
It based in the Hague, Netherlands and is the highest judicial organ in the UN. It consists of 15 Judges, who serves a term of 9 years with a poss
ibility for re- election.
it handles issues involving diplomatic staff, fishing rights, nuclear tests and international borders and territorial water issues. For example in 2004, the court arbitrated the boundary dispute between Nigeria and Cameroon over Bakazi peninsula, awarding the region to Cameroon.
The secretariat
The secretariat is located in New York, USA and consists of international civil servants, led by the Secretary General. It is the body concerned with the day to–day work of the UN.
Duties/functions of the UN Secretary General
(i) To administer peace keeping operations
(ii) Researches on trends of human rights
(iii) Points out any situation that poses a threat to global peace to the UN general assembly
(iv) Monitors how UN recommendations are executed
(v) Translates documents
(vi) Registers treaties

The Economic and social council ( ECOSOC)
This is made up of 54 UN members states elected by the General Assembly to serve for a term of three years. It serves as the main UN forum for coordination of economic and social issues. This work is supervised by commissions, which include;-
(i) The statistical commission
(ii) The population commission
(iii) The commission for social development
(iv) The commission on the status of women
(v) The commission on narcotic drugs
its work is done through different agencies which include WHO, FAO, UNESCO and UNICEF
Africa and The United Nations International Children’s Fund ( UNICEF)
UNICEF deals with the welfare activities with respect to children all over the world. Ways in which African states worked closely with UNICEF to promote the welfare of children
(i) Assists refugees world wide for example in 1959 UNICEF helped refugees in Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria with blankets and tents
(ii) Collaborates with African states in promoting sanitation in rural areas
(iii) Donating essential drugs to protect the lives of young children and mothers
(iv) To conduct research in collaboration with African countries in the field of agriculture to fight multrutrition and hunger
(v) Promote girl- child education programmes with a view to uplift the quality of life of African children
(vi) Promotion of material health in Africa and in other parts of the world
(vii) UNICEF sponsors programmes in the continent to promote the welfare of infants through breastfeeding campaigns and other forms of nutrition including multritamins.
(viii) Work together with African countries to develop new vaccines and biotic. UNICEF promote vaccination campaigns against some of the pandemic in the continent such as tuberculosis. Polio, measles, yaws, syphilis
Africa and United Nations Educational Scientific and cultural Oraganization( unesco)
UNESCO has provided technical assistance to African countries since independence, when regional office was opened in 1962 in Ghana. It promotes educational, cultural and scientific development globally.
Activities promoted by UNESCO include:-
  1. Assistance towards free and compulsory education
  2. Easing, racial, social and international tension
  3. Appreciation of cultural values of different people
  4. Promotion of scientific research with a view of raising people standard of living
Africa and the Red Cross
The international committee of the Red cross, is one of the International Non – Governmental Organizations that have played a big role in providing assistance to part of the world experiencing distress in different forms. Therefore it works closely with UN and its specialized bodies to assist in humanitarian works
Assistance provided by Red Cross includes;
(i) Provision of shelter in the form of tents for victims of disc esters, for example Tanzanians was experienced floods in 2006
(ii) It provides assistance in form of medial supplies, doctors, nurse in war zones in Africa and world at large
(iii) It mobilizes volunteers who are rained to handle different kinds of emergencies
(iv) It Organizes campaigns for blood donation aimed at assisting the people who requires blood transfusion especially during emergencies such as wars, natural disasters
(v) It provides assistance to refugees and other victims in terms of food and water. For example in Liberia and Sierra Leone in 1990’s as well as Somalia and Sudan.
Africa and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees ( UNHCR)
Most of the refugees in the world live in the African continent. The Organization of African Unity Cooperated with the UNHCR since its formation. By 1979, there were 3.5 million refugees in the continent, 5 million by the 1990’s. Among the support provided by the UNHCR to the continent includes:-


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    loyd ouma, January 16, 2024 @ 2:40 pm Reply


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