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I.T AND ENVIRONMENT

WHAT IS ICT?

Information and Communication Technology (ICT), as the term suggests, includes both information processing technology and information communication technology. Information processing technology includes prediction, simulation, and databases, among many others, while information communication technology encompasses the Internet, cell phone systems, and sensor networks, to name just a few.

ICT can be defined as the generic term used to express the convergence of information technology, broadcasting and communications
ICT may be considered one of mankind’s greatest inventions of the 20th century comparable to nuclear energy. One notable feature of ICT compared with other energy-intensive system technologies is that it involves many persons: inventors, designers, developers and above all, users. ICT requires extensive support from many people and also has a great impact on many people. This characteristic is conspicuous in the ICT fields of ubiquitous computing, pervasive computing, or even ambient intelligence.

2. ICT FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

ICT has already been used to address environmental problems. For example, sensing technology has been used to monitor environmental conditions; simulation and prediction to support decision-making on environmental issues; eg weather forecasting and database technology to support the accumulation of monitored data sets.
There is still much scope for ICT to be applied to environmental problems, for ubiquitous computing is expanding the real-world applications of ICT. Further, there are many intelligent information processing techniques involving adaptive and learning capabilities that would provide flexibility for decision making.

3. ICT BY THE ENVIRONMENT

Some ICT, on the other hand, has been motivated and guided by environmental concerns. Concerns about global warming have led to the development of not only sophisticated combustion control with low emission engines but also hybrid cars and electric cars that involve the extensive use of ICT in their development.
Environmental concerns have also motivated the development of smart grids for supplying electric power, while concerns about saving energy have led to the development of intelligent homes, buildings, and factories that allow energy to be managed flexibly.
Since ICT itself involves much energy consumption and load on the environment, green ICT (or “green computing”), which means ICT that considers the environment, has attracted growing attention.

4. ICT WITH THE ENVIRONMENT

ICT is particularly important when considering interface technology between humans and the environment: it may support and enhance the symbiotic relationship between humans and the natural environment. Although technologies have mostly focused on exploiting the earth’s natural resources, the power and scale of exploitation could lead to irreversible damage to the environment. Metaphorically, I consider that ICT could serve as global eyes that monitor the environment and humans, and feed back enough information about the global state of the environment to enable humans to avoid causing irreparable damage.

I.T CAREER OPPORTUNITIES
INTRODUCTION
The progress and actions taken by a person throughout a lifetime, especially those related to that person’s occupations. A career is often composed of the jobs held, titles earned and work accomplished over a long period of time, rather than just referring to one position.
While employees in some cultures and economies stay with one job during their career, there is an increasing trend to employees changing jobs more frequently. For example, an individual’s career could involve being a Programmer, though the individual could work for several different firms and in several different areas of IT over a lifetime.
Effect of ICT on P
atterns of Employment
The personal computer (PC) was developed in the early 1980s. Before this date, computers were huge, expensive machines that only a few, large businesses owned. Now PCs are found on almost every desk in every office, all over the world.

Because companies now have access to so much cheap, reliable computing power, they have changed the way they are organized and the way they operate. As a result, many people’s jobs have changed.
Areas of Increased Unemployment
Some jobs have been lost as a result of computers being used to do the same work that people used to do.
Some examples of areas have suffered job losses:
Manufacturing
Many factories now have fully automated production lines. Instead of using people to build things, computer-controlled robots are used.
EcoleBooks | COMPUTER A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - I.T AND ENVIRONMENT EcoleBooks | COMPUTER A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - I.T AND ENVIRONMENT
fig1- people working in manufacturing industry.

Robots can run day and night, never needing a break, and don’t need to be paid! (Although the robots cost a lot to purchase, in the long-term the factory saves money.)
Secretarial Work
Offices used to employee many secretaries to produce the documents required for the business to run.
EcoleBooks | COMPUTER A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - I.T AND ENVIRONMENT EcoleBooks | COMPUTER A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - I.T AND ENVIRONMENT
fig 2. secretaries working using typewriter machine.

Now people have personal computers, they tend to type and print their own documents.
Accounting Clerks
Companies once had large departments full of people whose job it was to do calculations (e.g. profit, loss, billing, etc.)
A personal computer running a spreadsheet can now do the same work.
Newspaper Printing
It used to take a team of highly skilled printers to typeset (layout) a newspaper page and to then print thousands of newspapers.

The same task can now be performed far more quickly using computers with DTP software and computer-controlled printing presses.
Areas Of Increased Employment
Although many employment areas have suffered job losses, other areas have grown and jobs have been created.

Sometimes people who have lost their old job have been able to re-train and get a new job in one of these growth areas.

Some examples of areas where jobs have been created:
IT Technicians
All of the computers in a business need to be maintained: hardware fixed, software installed, etc.
EcoleBooks | COMPUTER A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - I.T AND ENVIRONMENT
fig 3 .show a pc- technician fixing a computer
IT technicians do this work.
Computer Programmers
All of the software that is now used by businesses has to be created by computer programmers.
Hundreds of thousands of people are now employed in the ‘software industry
Web Designers
Much of modern business is conducted on-line, and company websites are very important.

Company websites need to be designed and built which is the role of web designers.
Help-Desk Staff

People often need help using computers, and software applications.

Computer and Software Company have help-desks staffed by trained operators who can give advice.




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EcoleBooks | COMPUTER A LEVEL(FORM SIX) NOTES - I.T AND ENVIRONMENT

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