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TOPIC 3: COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS

A network:
Is a group of two or more devices or people connected to each other so that they can exchange information, such as e – mail messages or documents or share resources such disk storage or printers.
Computer network:
Refers to collections of computing devices that are connected in various ways in order to communicate and share resources, usually the connections between computers in a network are made using physical wires or cables. However, some connections are wireless using radio waves or infrared signals.Networks are systems that are formed by links.The computers may be linked or connected to each other in the same building or different buildings. In most cases this connection is made via electrical cables that carry the information in the form of electrical signals. The cables transmitting the information are commonly known as transmission Medias or Networking media.Networking media is the means by which signals or data are sent from one computer to another. The transmissions media are unshared Twisted Pair (UTP), coaxial cable and fiber optic cable. Whereas Wireless transmission media include radio waves, in folded and Bluetooth.When a computer is turned on and can be visible by all other computers then the computer is said to be online. If a computer is not turned on and it is not visible by other networked computers, it is then said to be offline.
Advantage of computer networks and communications
  1. Networks are all about sharing three things; Information , resources and applications
4. Reduced cost: Net workable versions of many popular software programs are available at considerable savings when compared to buying
individual licensed copies. Bodies monetary saving, sharing a program on a network allows for easier upgrading of the program.

5. Sending messages such electronic mail (E- mail). The presence of a network provides the hardware necessary to install an E- mail
system. E- Mail aids in personal and professional communication for all school personnel, and it facilitates the dissemination of general
information to the entire school staff. Electronic mail on a LAN can enable students to communicate with teachers and peers at their own
school. If the LAN is connected to the internet, students can communicate with others throughout the world.

6. Flexible access: School network for example: allows students to access their files from computer throughout the school. Students can
begin an assignment in their classroom, save part of it on a public access area of the network, and then go to the media center after school to
finish their work. Students can also work cooperating through the network.

7. Communication : A computer network can provide a powerful communication medium a long widely separated employees or individual (increase communication capabilities)



TOPIC:4 THE INTERNET

User ID: janetjackson
Domain name: yahoo.com
Domain (location): yahoo
User ID: pavinstanley
Domain name: udism.edu.tz
Domain (location): udsm
Root domain (domain type): edu
Country: tz
Advantages of E-mail
(i)Convenience: there are no trips to the post office, no needs to search for stationary and stamps. A message can be formal or informal. It makes very easily to publish and discuss.
(ii)Speed: e-mail is very fast.
(iii)In expensive: Once you are online the cost of sending a message is small
(iv)Printable: the hard copy is easily to obtain you may save on natural resources for your own records
(v)Reliable: although messages occasionally lost, these are rare. Many mail systems will notify the sender if an email message was undelivered.
(vi)Generality: it is not limited to texts; it allows the transfer of of graphics, programs and even sounds.


Electronic Learning (E-Learning)
E- Learning is the effective teaching and learning by using electronic media.
E – Learning can occur in or out of the classroom. E – Learning is suited to distance learning and flexible learning. But it can also be used in conjunction of face to face teaching.
Advantages of e- learning
– Reduce traveling costs and time to and from school
– Learners can study whenever they access computer and internet
– Self – paced learning models allows learners to work on their own paces
– Class work can be schedule around personal and professional work, resulting in flexibility learning.
Disadvantages of e – learning

-Students may feel isolated or miss social interaction.
– Un motivated learners or those with poor study habits many fall behind
-Istruction may not always be available on demand
– Slow or unreliable internet may be frustrating
-Slow or unreliable internet connections
can be frustrating
– Some courses such as traditional hands – on curses can be difficult to stimulate
E – Commerce
The buying and selling of products and services by businessmen and consumers through an electronic medium without using any paper documents.
E – Commerce is widely considered the buying and selling of products over the internet, but any transaction that is completed solely through electronic measures can be consider e – commerce
Advantages of e- commerce
– Faster buying and selling procedures as well as easy to find products
– Buying / selling
– More reach to customers, there is no the retinal geographic limitation
– Lower operational costs and better equality of services
– No need of physical company set ups
– Easy to start and manage a business

– Customers can easily select products from different providers without moving around physically

Disadvantages
-Perishable goods:Goods bought and sold via the internet tend to be durable and non perishable.
-Lack of personal service:Although some human interaction can be facilitated via web e-commerce cannot provide the richness of interaction provided by personal service.
-Security:Security of data moved across some mobile and wireless network participants.

TYPES
-B
usiness-to-Consumer (B2C)
-Consumer-to-Consumer(C2C)
-Business-to-Business (B2B)

Negative effects of internet
Cultural Issues
Information presented in the internet should careful consider the audience and not offended because of the cultural believes.Pornographic materials are offensive to most African cultures and other cultures distaste particular way of dressing which may potrey an image which is not necessarily what the dissemination of information had in mind.

Religious
In some religion rituals and symbols are serious matter to temper with.The information that involve those symbols or rituals must be careful treated to avoid disharmony in the concerned audience. Other religions,their important consideration in disseminating information are dressing code and place of worship.But internet do not take care about the effect of audience.

Political
Politics issues can affect information from the internet is political affiliation can affect proper dissemination of information as the information being biased to favor certain political views.

Social
When information is corrupted from predators (internet),they mislead and bring confusion to the audience e.g. in a children social network,the appropriate information to the particular age is useful.Also other societies have certain agreed code of conduct which have a certain agreed code of conduct which have a particular information expectation so the internet information is advised to be highly important to ensure expected ethical code of conduct by the audience observation.




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EcoleBooks | COMPUTER O LEVEL(FORM TWO) NOTES -TOPIC 3: COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS

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4 Comments

  • EcoleBooks | COMPUTER O LEVEL(FORM TWO) NOTES -TOPIC 3: COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS

    peaceman, April 23, 2024 @ 5:40 am Reply

    i need more

  • EcoleBooks | COMPUTER O LEVEL(FORM TWO) NOTES -TOPIC 3: COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS

    Decide Daurw, November 25, 2023 @ 6:25 am Reply

    very nice work

  • EcoleBooks | COMPUTER O LEVEL(FORM TWO) NOTES -TOPIC 3: COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS

    Decide Daure, November 25, 2023 @ 6:02 am Reply

    very nice work

  • EcoleBooks | COMPUTER O LEVEL(FORM TWO) NOTES -TOPIC 3: COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS

    Lukholele Benard, March 25, 2023 @ 6:58 pm Reply

    Very good work

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