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Gender is the fact of being male or female. That is the social relationship between men and women that deal with the roles and responsibilities of men and women in families’ communities and the country.
Identification of different gender concepts.
The concept of gender involves various concepts that inter relate or differ in the whole process of dealing with gender issues these concepts are:
  1. Gender equality
  2. Gender equities
  3. Gender roles
  4. Gender stereo types
  5. Gender discrimination
  6. Gender analysis
  7. Gender main streaming
  8. Gender blindness
  9. Gender balance
Gender equality.
This is the exercise of fairness and justice to all sexes without discrimination or sex preference male or female. It is based on the belief that all people are equal and should have equal access to
opportunities and resources. It is practiced in giving equal rights and opportunities to men and women.
Gender equity.
It is based on measures to be taken to bridge the gap between men and women .This involve giving priority to women in order to reduce imbalance that already exists.For example empowering more women ,special seat in the parliament or reculute more girls in science studies.
Gender stereotyping
To stereo type is to have a fixed idea about community, group or a person but which is usually not true in reality. Gender stereo typing therefore is the reflection of people’s attitude on practices on gender division of labour for example to believe that boys are capable in science subject than girls.
Gender discrimination
Is a situation where by one sex male or female is treated better or worse than the other. Some traditions and customs discriminate women and favour men. Women and girls are discriminated right from the family level. For example in some societies girls are not allowed to go to school. This leads to difference in social economic and development activities.
Gender analysis
This is systematic effort to identify and understand the roles of women and men in a given society. It involves collection of gender specific information and data from the community. It is the first step towards making gender sensitive planning for promoting gender equality in society.
Gender blindness.
This is the in ability to know that there are different gender role responsibilities and a gender based hierarchy. This leads to the failure to realize that polices programmers and projects can have different impact on men and women.
Gender roles
A role is a duty or importance of a person or a group in a particular activity or area of life. Gender roles therefore are particular duties of a given sex male or female as determined by society.
Categories of gender roles
ere are two categories of gender roles and these are;
  1. Reproductive roles
  2. Productive roles
Reproductive roles.
These are activities that have no economic returns. However these roles are very important for social and family stability. For example a child bearing and domestic traits.
Productive roles
These are activities that men and women engage in to earn a living. They contribute directly to the economy; hence they are valued in many societies.
Gender balance
This is about ensuring that men and women participate equally at their work place.
Gender main streaming.
This is a situation of taking into consideration gender issues in development activities at all levels for example in making laws, policies and programmers. It helps men and women to benefit equally from development projects.
These are topics or issues which arise for discussion because there is inequality among the male and the female in a society. Examples of gender issues are:
  1. Bride price
  2. Wife inheritance
  3. Female genital mutilation
  4. Male dominance in family community and society
  5. Unequal distribution of domestic or economic task between men and women
  6. Sexual harassment
Gender issues occur due to interaction with other societies through education,religion etc.
Negative Social culture practices
Culture refers to the totality of the society’s ways of life. It includes customs acts and beliefs and social organization of a particular group of people. In different societies there are social cultural activities that hinder equal participation between men and women these practices are such as:
  1. Wife inheritance
Is a process of taking over a wife after her husband’s death. Some societies in Tanzania regard women as property that can be inherited. Therefore when a woman’s husband dies another man who is a member of her husband’s family can inherit her.
The effects of wife inheritance.
  1. Violation of human right by treating a woman as a property like a table or chair.
  2. De humanize the women
  3. It contributes to the spread of diseases such as HIV /AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.





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