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Week 1 and 2 Introduction to Beverages (Alcoholic)

Week 3  Introduction to Beverages (Non-alcoholic)

Week 4  Beverages in Relation to Still Room

Week 5  Cocktails (Alcoholic and Non-alcoholic)

Week 6  Meaning of Costing in Catering Establishments

Week 7  Bill Preparation and Presentation

Week 8  Control System in Catering Establishments

Week 9  Portion Control

Week 10  Common words Used in Catering and Hospitality Industries and their Meanings

WEEK 11  French Terms Used for Staff in catering Establishments

WEEK 12  Revisions and Examination

Reference books: Catering Craft Practice for senior secondary schools by Aminu Barikis.

Food and Beverage Management by SUDHIR ANDREWS.



WEEK 1 and 2


Beverages are simply fluids apart from water consumed to stimulate, nourish, refresh the body and can also quench taste. They are alcoholic and non alcoholic.

Types of beverages

1. Alcoholic beverages

2. Non alcoholic beverages


These are simply beverages that contain some percentage of ethyl alcohol between 1% -75%. It is either obtained by fermentation of sugar based foods or the distillation of fermented products e.g. spirits, liqueur, beer, cider and wine, local or traditional African beer (burukutu). Alcohol is the liquid made by the fermentation or distillation of ethanol (the sugar present in intoxicating drinks). It is also used as fuel and in thermometer. Alcohol is obtained in two forms name:

1. Fermentation: The sugar in fruit or grain is converted into alcohol by the action of bacteria. Carbon dioxide a bi-product is retained for fizzy drinks like beer and champagne.

2. Distillation: The fermented mash of fruit or grain is heated. Alcohol which is evaporates at a lower temperatures then water is trapped and condensed to a liquid by cooling. Pure distilled alcohol has no colour, taste or smell and it is used in fortifying other beverages such as liqueurs

Alcoholic Beverages Includes:

  • Spirits
  • Liqueurs
  • Beer
  • Cider and wine
  • Local traditional beer e.g. pito, burukuku.

1. SPIRITS: It’s any liquid containing a significant amount of distilled ethanol. They contain drinkable alcohol such as esters, volatile acids or organic compounds obtained from distillation. Its classification is based on the source from where they get the sugar to convert into alcohol such as grains (barley, maize, rye, corn) for making whisky and liqueurs, vegetables (potatoes) vodka, fruit (sugar cane, grape, apricot, juniper berries (rum, brandy, liqueurs, gin, bitters, etc.).

i. Brandy: They are spirits distilled from fermented juice of grape or other fruits

ii. Gin: It is produced from cereal like maize or rye. It is also from barley and flavoured with jumper berries and coriander seeds.

iii. Vodka: It is a very pure still spirit which is purified by passing it through charcoal to remove aroma and flavor. It is colourless and flavourless. e.g. Smirnoff red, blue, black, silver, citrus, raspberry.

iv. Whisky: It is a spirit made from the fermented mash of cereals such as maize, malted barley and rye and is aged in wood.

v. Rum: It is made from fermented by product of sugar cane. It is popular in countries where sugar canes are many. It is classified into white and dark rum. White rum is made without adding any colour eg Bacardi rum while dark rum is the same as white rum except that a highly refined sugarcane syrup or caramel is added to it to give it colour and flavor e.g Bacardi dark rum, etc.

vi. Schnapps: It is a spirit distilled from fermented potato base and flavoured with caraway seed, mostly produced in Germany and Holland.


2 CIDERS: This is an alcoholic beverages obtained through the fermentation of apple juice or mixture of apple juice and 25% pear juice respectively. e.g. Liqueurs, draught, etc.

3. BEER: Beer is a potable alcoholic beverage fermented from barley malt and flavoured with hops which is a dried ripe flower of the mulberry or nettle family. The alcoholic content in a beer ranges from 3% to 5%. e.g. Lager beer, Ale, Draft beer, Stout, etc.

4. LIQUEURS: They are sweetened and flavoured spirit. It is flavoured with black currants, caraway, citrus nutmeg, cinnamon, kernels of almond, etc.


Heat/Infusion method: This is when herbs, peels, roots are being used as heat can extract their oil, flavours and aromas.

Cold/Maceration method: This is best obtained when soft fruits are to provide flavours and aromas.


i. Bailey’s Irish cream: This is a popular liqueur with coffee and honey or chocolate and cream colour.

ii. Comtreau: It is a clear liqueur produced by using orange/brandy as flavour and spirit based.

iii. Malibu: It is a clear liqueur in which coconut/rum is used for flavor.

iv. Maraschino: This is a clear liqueur which is produced by using maraschino cherry for flavor and spirit based made in Italy.

v.Tia Maria: This is brown in colour. Coffee/rum is used as flavor.


4. WINE: Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of freshly gathered grapes. It has been in existence since over 6000 years and is produced in most p[arts of the world.


1. State two major ways of producing liqueurs and explain any of them.

2. Mention five types of liqueur and explain any two.

3. Classify beverages.


1. TABLE /STILL/LIGHT WINE: This is the largest category and its alcoholic strength is between 7% to 14%. e.g. red wine, white wine and rose wine.

i. White wine: It is produced from white grape juice. It is usually fermented away from the skin.

ii. Red wine: It is produces from fermented grapes in which the skin is sed. It is a dry wine and it’s served at room temperature.

iii. Rose wine: It can be produced from three ways such as through black grape fermentation with the skin for 48 hours, by mixing red and white wine together or by pressing the grapes so that the colour is extracted.


2. SPARKLING WINE: They are given sparkling effect treatment. These are wines with carbon dioxide to make it fizzy. It is achieved by pressure or re-fermentation when the carbon dioxide is captured in the bottle. They are referred to as effervescent as a result of its second fermentation in the bottle. e.g. Champagne.


3. FORTIFIED WINE: They are strengthened by the addition of alcohol either during or after fermentation. This increases its alcoholic content from 14% to 24%. e.g. Sherry, Marsala, Malaga, Madeira etc.


4. AROMATIZED WINE: They are produced by flavouring a simple basic wine with a blend of ingredient e.g., vermouth of different types, dubonnet. They are popular in aperitifs.



i. Climate and micro climate.

ii. Nature of the soil and sub soil.

iii. Vine family and grape species.

iv. Method of cultivation and viticulture.

v. Composition of the grapes.

vi. Yeast and fermentation.

vii. Methods of wine making (vinification).

viii. Lack of the year (vintage).

ix. Ageing and maturing process.

x. Method of shipping and transportation.

xi. Storage temperature.








1. PICKING/ HARVESTING: The matured and ripe grapes are harvested for the production of the wine.


2. SORTING/WEIGHING/REMOVAL OF STALKS: The harvest grape are gathered and sorted our according to colour and quality. Damaged or poorly grown ones are discarded.


3. PRESSING/CRUSHING: After sorting, the grapes are weighed accordingly and crushed to extract the juice. To make white wines, the skin is not included during crushing and fermentation. While for red wine, the skin is included when crushing. This process is either done manually by the feet or mechanically.


4. SULPHURING: Sulphur dioxide is added fairly early in fermentation process to prevent air from oxidizing the juice and converting the alcohol into vinegar.


5. FERMENTATION: This is the conversion of the natural sugar in the grape into alcohol and carbon-dioxide. This takes place with the action of yeast. In hot climate, fermentation can be over in just one week while in cold weather it takes longer time. Fermentation is done in a stainless still vat by adding wine yeast known as (Saccharomyces Ellipsoideus) to fresh grape juice to convert the natural sugar in the grape to ethyl alcohol.


6. MATURATION: The wine is allowed to mature in a cask or other container for several months to improve its flavor. This is called MATURATION/AGEING. As the wine matures, it evaporates so the cask must be topped with the same wine to avoid air from getting into it. Wine can also be matured in bottles.


1. Corked wine: This is caused by diseased corks by the action of bacteria or excessively bottle age.

2. Secondary fermentation: This happens when traces of sugar and yeast are left in the bottle giving the wine an unpleasant prickly taste.

3. Cloudiness: It’s caused by suspended matter in wine.

4. Foreign contamination: Its splintered or powered glass caused by bottling machinery or re-used bottle.

5. Maderization or oxidation: It is caused by bad storage leading to too much exposure to air.

6. Acetification: Occurs when the wine is over exposed to air thereby giving it a sour taste.

7. Excess sulphur-dioxide (SO2): Sulphur-dioxide is used as preservative, however excess of it can spoils the wine.



1. Classify wines according to types.

2. List and explain any four fault in wine production.

3. List and explain four factors that influence the quality and taste of wine.


When serving wine by a sommelier or wine butler at a table, he/ she must have a good knowledge of the wine contained in the wine list and must be able to identify examples of wine that will pair well with the menu dishes.


1. The wine waiter should be able to describe the wine and their characteristics and avoid bluffing.

2. Always serve the wine before the food and avoid delay in serving the food.

3. Serve wine at the right temperature.

4, Treat wine with respect and demonstrate a high level of technical skill.

5. When pouring the wine, the neck of the bottle should be over the glass but not resting on the rim in case of an accident thus, care should be taken to avoid splashing the wine.

6. Do not overfill the glass.

7. Avoid unnecessary topping up as this irritates customers and drive them away.

8. Serve white and sparkling wine chilled.

9. White wine goes with sea foods, red wines with red meat and games and rose wine with any food.

10. Do serve white wine with sweet foods or any food that have a sweet sauce.


1. The wine list should be presented to the host immediately the food is ordered.

2. Obtain the wine list and check that the order is correct.

3. Take to the table in an ice-bucket and place the ice-bucket in a stand.

4. Present the bottle to the host with the labeling showing.

5. Ensure a clean napkin is tied to the handle of the ice-bucket to wipe away condensation of water from the outside of the bottle before pouring the wine.

6. Use a wine knife to cut the foil away round, below the bottle rim.

7. Place the cork in the ice-bucket; if the wine is a high quality vintage wine, then the cork would generally be placed on a side plate at the head of the host cover.

8. Wipe the inside of the neck of the bottle with a clean napkin.

9. Wipe the bottle dry.

10. Hold the bottle for pouring so that the label is seen.

11. Give a taste of the wine to the host.

12. Serve the ladies first, the gentlemen and the host last; always commencing from the host right.

13. Fill the glass to two third.

14. On finishing pouring into a wine glass, twist the neck of the bottle and raise it at the same time to prevent drops from falling on the table cloth.

15. Return the remaining wine in the wine bucket and re-fill the glasses when necessary.


1. Explain five factors to consider in serving wine.

2. Itemize five steps involved in serving wine.

3. Mention five examples of commercial catering establishments.

4. List five types of non commercial catering establishments and explain any two.

5. List five examples of wine glasses and state their uses.


1. Reading assignment: Read more on alcoholic beverages. Ref book: catering craft practice for seniors secondary schools by Aminu Barikis (pages 30-43)

2. Catering craft practice for seniors secondary schools (Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council Pages 174-177).



1. What are those things that one should be in the lookout in a wine label? A. vintage B. region C. name o f wine D. colour of the wine.

2. Which of the following is not a step in making wine? A. pressing B. folding C. maturation D. sorting.

3. Vinification means A. processing B. method of wine making C. vintage D. serving of wine.

4. Another word for oxidation is A. acetification B. tar-tare flake C. maderization D.fermentation.

5. What method of liqueur production involves the use of hers, peels and roots in its production? A. infusion B. diffusion C. maceration D. cold method.


1. Explain the steps in wine production.

2. Mention the information obtained from a wine label.




These are beverages that do not contain alcohol. e.g, tea, coffee, juices, squashes, syrup, aerated water, natural spring water or mineral water, zobo, ginger drinks, lemonade drink, orange drinks, pineapple drinks, etc.


1. Water is essential to human survival. It must be potable and served hygienically.

2. Refreshing drinks: It includes coke, squashes, syrup, soda, tonic water, etc.

3. Stimulants are tea and coffee.

4. Nourishing drinks: It includes Ovaltine, Bournvita, Horlicks, etc.

TEA: it is an evergreen plant of the camellia family containing caffeine, volatile oil and tannin. It is prepared by infusion for a shot time and taken as a stimulant drink or beverages e.g. there are three main types of tea which are: Black tea, Green tea and Oolong tea.

Preparation of Tea

Pre-heat a clean tea pot by pouring boiling water into it and allowing it to stand for ten minutes.

Empty the tea pot.

Put the tea bag or loosen tea leaves or sachet into the hot teapot.

Use freshly boiled water, pour boiling water over it.

Pour out the tea after infusion.

COFFEE: Coffee is produced from the coffee tree and it’s grown and exported from regions such as South America, India, Middle East.

Types of Coffee

1. Instant Coffee: It is either powder or freeze-dried and it’s the most popular because it can be made by just adding hot water.

2. Turkish Coffee: It’s made by the common method of making coffee, i.e., boiling water and adding a teaspoon of coffee powder and drinking it with or without milk or sugar.

3. Espresso Coffee: It is made by infusing steam, milk and water in an espresso machine that gives a frothy texture to the coffee when served. Sugar is added to taste.

4. Cappuccino: It’s the same espresso coffee with a sprinkle of cinnamon powder on top.

Characteristics of a Good Coffee

1. It should have good flavor.

2. Good aroma.

3. Good colour when milk is added.

4. Good taste.

Reasons for Bad Coffee

A. Weak Coffee

1. Water hasn’t reached boiling point.

2. Insufficient coffee used.

3. Infusion time too short.

4. Stale or old coffee.

B. Bitter Coffee

1. Too much coffee used.

2. Infusion time too short.

3. Coffee not roasted correctly

4. Infusion at a high temperature.

C. Stale or Lifeless Coffee

1. Coffee reheated.

2. Water not fresh.

3. Dirty equipment.

4. Coffee left too long before use.





1. Dissolving method

2. Percolation method.

3. Filtration methods.

4. Vacuum infusion.

5. Jug method.

6. Espresso method.

7. Still set method.



1. Mention four non alcoholic beverages.

2. State two characteristics of a good coffee.

3. Mention five methods of making coffee and explain any two.


SQUASHES: Squashes are concentrated fruit essences sweetened with sugar syrup. They are not carbonated. It may be served on its own or diluted with water, soda water or lemonade. Squashes are also used to mix spirits in cocktails e.g., orange squash, lemon squash, grape fruit squash, etc. squashes can either be served in the bar or in the lounge.


JUICES: Juices are non- alcoholic drinks taking for refreshing the body. They are made from fruits e.g. orange juice, pineapple juice, grape juice, etc.


CEREAL DRINKS: Kunu is a local drink made from:-

  • Millet (gero) =2 cups
  • Fresh ginger or dry cloves
  • African black pepper
  • Chilly pepper
  • Sugar to taste
  • Enough water



1. Soak the millet overnight

2. Grind it together with the ginger, chilly pepper and African black pepper.

3. Sieve with a fine sieve

4. Allow to settle

5. Divide into equal parts, put three parts together and add little cold water

6. Boil water and pour on the three parts and allow to cool completely

7. Add the uncooked part kept; mix well with the three parts cooked and add water to form a drink to your taste, add sugar and mix thoroughly.




1. Differentiate between a squash and a juice.

2. Explain how to prepare zobo drink.


SYRUPS: Syrups concentrated, sweets and fruit flavouring used as a base for cocktail. They are also used to flavor cold milk drinks like milk shakes. Examples of syrups includes:-

Black currant syrup (cassis)

Cherry syrup (cerise)

Lemon syrup (citronelle)

Raspberry syrups (framboise)

White sugar syrup (gomme)

Pomegranate syrup (grenadine)

Almond syrup (orgeat)


AERATED WATERS: These beverages are charged or regenerated with carbonic gas. Artificial aerated waters are by far the most commonly used. The flavouring found in aerated water is obtained from various essences and are either bottled or canned. Examples are:-

(i) Tonic water: This a colourless sweetened water with an injection of quinine taken alone or mixed with alcoholic spirits..

(ii) Dry ginger: This is golden stew coloured with ginger flavour.

(iii) Bitter lemon: This is pale, cloudy yellow coloured with a sharp lemon flavour.

(iv) Coca-Cola: This is dark in colour and sugary.

(v) Soda water: It a purified carbonated water.


Aerated water can be served on their own or as an accompaniment.


NATURAL SPRING WATER: This is obtained from natural springs in the ground or from the rock. The water is sparkling. e.g. Malvern, Buxton, Table waters, Alkaline waters, etc.

Spring water can be served chilled as drinking water or can be mixed with alcohol to form an appetizing drink.


BITTERS: They are used as aperitif or flavoured drinks. e.g. orange bitters, peach bitter, campari, etc.

i. Campari: This is a pink bittersweet Italian aperitif that has a slight flavour of orange peels and quinine. It is usually served in an 18.93cl Paris goblet or high ball glass.

ii. Angostura bitters: This is brownish red in colour; it is used in the preparation of pink gin and cocktails.

BYRD: It has a base of red wine and it is flavoured with quinine and herbs and fortified with brandy.

iii. Underberg: It’s a German bitters that look and almost taste like iodine; it may be sold as a pick me up with soda.



1. Define beverages

2. Classify beverages and give an example each

3. State five personnel in the food and beverage sector and state two major function each,

4. Define vending service

5. Explain two ways meat can be tenderized.


1. Reading assignment: Read more on alcoholic beverages. Ref book; catering craft practice for senior secondary schools by Aminu Barikis (pages 30-43)

2. (Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council Pages 174-177).



1. The simplest and cheapest drink is A. soft drink B. water C. soda water D. wine.

2. Beverages are classified into A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8.

3. Ciders, beers, gins are examples of —– drinks A. fruit B. cocktail C. liqueur D. alcoholic

4. Sherry, Malaga, Masala are example of ——- wine A. fortified B. spirits C. beers D. cocktails’

5. Coffee is produced from the—- of a coffee tree A. fruit B. flower C. beans D. root.


1. Mention the faults in wine production.

2a. Explain any two non alcoholic drinks

2b. Mention the steps in wine production and explain.




The still room provides food items and beverages required for the service of meals that are not catered for by the major department in the food service operation, such as the kitchen, larder and pastry etc. the duties performed in this area will vary according to the type of meals offered and the size of the establishment concerned. Equipment in the still room is similar to that of the kitchen. A wide range of food items are offered so as to ensure their proper storage, preparation and presentation. A considerable amount of equipment is used.

The following are items that might be needed in a still room:

1. Refrigerator for storage of milk, cream, butter, juice, etc.

2. Hot and cold beverages making facilities.

3. Large double sink and draining board for washing up processes.

4. Dish washer of a size suitable for the still room but large enough to ensure efficient turnover of equipment.

5. Salamander or toaster.

6. Bread slicing machine.

7. Worktop and cutting board.

8. Storage space for small equipment such as crockery, glassware, cutlery, table wares, etc.

9. Storage cupboard for all dry goods held in the stock such as kitchen paper, napkins, etc.

10. Coffee grinding machine to ensure the correct grind of coffee for the brewing method.

11. Ice maker.



– As a basic guide, the following food items are normally dispensed from the still room, all beverages such as coffee, tea, chocolate, oval tine, tisanes, bovril and other drinks.

– Assorted fruit juices, oranges, tomatoes, pineapple and grape fruits, milk cream and alternatives, sugar loose, pre-wrapped portions, brown crystals, etc.



Marmalade, cherry, plum, raspberry, strawberry, apricot, honey for the purpose of control and to reduce wastage. Many establishments now offer pre-portioned jars or pots of jam or preserve at breakfast and for afternoon tea rather than a preserve dish.

Either passed through a butter pat machine, curled or pre-wrapped portions and also butter alternatives.



Gluten free, Rye, Rice crackers, etc.

Dry crackers, digestive and wafers for service with cheese, sweet biscuits for service with early morning and afternoon teas and coffees, assorted breakfast cereals, cornflakes, Weetabix, muesli, etc.



There are two main ways of controlling goods to be issued from the still room. This includes:

1. If a food service area requires items such as butter, sugar, preserves, etc. in bulk, a requisition signed by a supervisor is required before the still room will be issued.

2. Upon receipt of a waiter’s check, tea, coffee or any other beverage required in the necessary portion will be prepared.



1. Explain two main ways of controlling goods to be issued from the still room.

2. What is a still room?


1. State a major function of a still room.

2. List ten equipment that is used in a still room.

3. What is a stillroom?

4. State four characteristics each of a table d’hôte and an A’ la carte menu.

5. What is a menu?



READING ASSIGNMENT: reference book; food and beverage service 8th edition by Dennis Lillicap and john cousins (pages 215-225).



1. —– provides beverages not catered for by the kitchen, lader and pastry section. A, bar B. still room C. restaurant D. kitchen.

2. —- is used in storing milk, cream and butter. A. hot and cold beverages B. dish washer C. refrigerator D. shelves.

3. Which among the following is not a preserve served in the still room. A. chocolate B. tomato juice C. margarine D. cream.

4. Dry cracker, digestive and wafer biscuits are best served—- A. early morning B. for brunch C. at night D. supper.

5. The following are items found in the still room except A. refrigerator B. salamander C. large sink D. insecticide.


1. What is a still room?

2. State a major function of a still room.

2. List ten items required in a still room.




Cocktails are normally drinks of about 10cl which is made from a mixture of different ingredients so blended that no single component dominates the other. They can be served before meal to the appetite or after meal to provide a sweet testing finis to the meal.



1. Shaking method: Cocktail shaker or Boston shaker with hawthorn strainer and blender for mixing are used as the equipment to make the cocktail. All the ingredients are shaken very well and blended that no ingredient predominate the other.

2. Stirring method: bar mixing glass, bar spoon with muddler and hawthorn strainer are used as equipment when the ingredient are wine base and clear the cocktail should be stirred.



1. The ice to be used should be clear and clean.

2. Do not overfill the cocktail shaker.

3. Effervescent drinks should never be shaken.

4. To stir, be short and snappy.

5. Never use the same ice twice.

6. Do not overfill glass to the brim to avoid spillage.



1. Cocktails should be served chilled in an appropriate size of glass and the correct garnishing, stew and umbrella.

2. Many cocktails are served in the traditional V-shaped cocktail glass, but if the cocktail is a long drink, a larger glass such as slim-Jim will be suitable.



1. Pina colada cocktail

White rum – 3.0cl

Coconut cream- 3.0cl

Pineapple juice- 9.0cl

PROCEDURE: shake or blend all ingredients vigorously on ice until smooth, strain into a chilled high ball glass, garnish with fresh pineapple wedge and a maraschino cherry as well as adding straws.


2. Salty dog

Vodka – 5.0cl

Grapefruit juice – 10.0cl

PROCEDURE: Shake vodka and grape fruit in cocktail shaker, then strain into a salt and rimmed high ball glass filled with lime.


3. Champagne cocktail

Sugar cube ½

Angostura bitters – 2 dash

Champagne – 5.0cl

Brandy – 5.0cl

PEOCEDURE: Place the sugar cube soaked in Angostura into a flute or tulip-shaped champagne glass, then pour over the well chilled champagne and float the brandy on the surface by pouring over the back of a teaspoon, garnished with a slice of orange and maraschino cherry.



1. Decorate and set a table for two guests who would be having a cocktail meeting, use a suitable napkin fold.

2. List any other three alcoholic cocktails.



These are cocktails that do not contain alcohol


Orange juice – 3.0cl

Grape fruit juice – 3.0cl

Apple juice – 3.0cl

Lemonade/soda water


Pour all ingredients with the exception of the lemonade/soda onto ice in a glass jug, then stir well to blend and chill, add sliced fruit garnish and top up with lemonade or soda water. Serve well chilled in a high ball or Worthington glass.



Pineapple juice – 4.5cl

Orange juice -4.5cl


Mix the well chilled ingredients on crushed ice in a slim Jim glass and serve with strew.



Blackcurrant -1/2

Orange squash – 1 cup

Angostura bitters – 1 dessert spoon

Spirit or 7 up – 1 bottle

Cucumber – 1 slice

Lemon – 1 slice

Ice cubes – 10 cubes.


Place ice cubes in a glass, then pour in all the ingredients and stir with strew.

READING ASSIGNMENT: Catering Craft Practice for Seniors Secondary Schools by Aminu Bariki SS3 (Pgs 56-60).



1. List two recipes and steps involved in the preparation of a non alcoholic cocktail.

2. List the recipe and procedure in the preparation of any alcoholic cocktail.

3. Explain the following: (i) stock (ii) sauces (iii) soup.

4. State five precautions to take to prevent falls in the kitchen.

5. Define the term mince.



1. The following are examples of a non alcoholic cocktail except A. fruit cup B. Tropicana C. chapman D. champagne cocktail.

2. The following are the recipes needed for making Americano cocktail except —– A. campari B. red vermouth C. grape juice D. soda water.

3. Orange squash, angostura bitters, 7 up, cucumber, lemon, ice cube and blackcurrant are recipes used for making A. tropicana B. chapman C. salty dog D. pina colada.

4. salty dog, champagne cocktail, Americano cocktail, pina colada cocktail are examples of ——- A. juice cocktails B. local cocktails C. alcoholic cocktails D. non alcoholic cocktails.

5. Juice, tea, chapman and water are—- drink A. local B. alcoholic C. non alcoholic D. all of the above.


1. Explain how to prepare any alcoholic and non alcoholic cocktail.

2. Mention the points to consider in preparing cocktail drinks.




Costing is ascertaining the amount suitable for an item or thing. It can also be defined as the analysis and allocation of expenditure for the purpose of determining the cost of each service.



1. It gives a glance of the net profit made by each section of the establishment.

2. It shows the cost of each meal produced.

3. The source of the economy will be revealed.

4. Costing provides information which is necessary for the formation or adoption of a sound pricing policy.

5. It enables the caterer or hotel to keep to a budget.

6. It helps show the analysis of income and expenditure.

7. It provides quotation for special functions like parties, weddings, reception,banquet.



1. Define costing in terms of control in catering.

2. List and explain 5 advantages of an efficient costing in catering.



1. MATERIAL COST: – This is the cost of materials used in producing the food sold, consumed by workers or wasted. Basically, it is not all the foods produced in the hotels and restaurant that are sold; some are consumed by workers, some wasted and some sold, the material or food cost includes the cost of raw materials used in producing the food.

2. LABOUR COST: – As a matter of fact big hotels and restaurants employ staffs and pay salaries, while some small restaurant hire workers to work for hours or days and pay them. Labour cost includes all the money used in paying wages and salaries to the staff within the catering establishment.

3. EXPENSES/OVERHEAD COST: – Under expenses the following as to be considered. Such as fixed cost, variable cost, semi variable cost, total cost.

i. Fixed cost: – is a constant within a range of production of goods and services, e.g. rentage, depreciation, salaries, insurance and rates. Fixed cost are expenses incurred depending on the level of production.

ii. Variable cost: – These are cost that varies directly with the level of production. The higher the level of production, the more the cost will be. Example of variable cost includes food cost, labour cost etc. The higher the demand for food, the higher there is any increase in the quantity bought, the higher the money involved in its purchase.

iii. Semi-variable cost:-These are cost that neither falls into fixed cost nor variables cost but they do have the element of both

iv. Total cost: – This consists of all the cost incurred in the catering establishment that is, the cost incurred in the kitchen, restaurants, room, bar, lounge, etc. It includes food cost, beverage cost, labour cost, and over head cost.

Total cost = total fixed cost + total variable cost + total semi variable cost.



1. List three elements of costing.

2. Write short notes on fixed cost, variable cost, semi-variable cost, total cost.


DISH COSTING: The hotelier produces dishes for sale, and in order to know how to charge the customers, the cost of the material most be ascertained. The food cost must be marked up by the hotelier so as to know what the customer will eventually pay.


1. There should be a manual consisting of dishes and their recipes showing the ingredients and quantity.


2. The yield or the number of portions that can be obtained from a dish should be specified in a recipe.


3. The unit prices vary from time to time depending on the season of the year.


4. Once the recipe for the product and the price of the ingredient is known, the cost of each ingredient used should be calculated by multiplying the unit price by the quantity used; In order to calculate the total cost of the ingredient used, the cost of all the ingredients are summed up accordingly.


5. It is necessary to know the cost of the portion of the dish produced, this is done by dividing the hotel cost with the number of portion yield.


6. In order to know the charge on the portion of the dish, the dish per portion is marked up

by the amount (gross profit) that will cover the labour and overhead and still provide a reasonable amount for net profit. For instance, if the cost per portion is X, and the margin is 60% .It simply implies that cost percentage will be;

100 – 60 = 40

X x 100

40 x 1

Costing sheet is used for costing dishes.






































PER 100 









To calculate the selling price, exclusive of the value added tax, if the required gross profit is to be 60%.

Selling price = food cost x100

S.P = 3.60 X 100 = 9.00

40 1



Gross profit: – the production of sale added to food cost so as to cover the labour cost, overhead cost and the profit. Another name for gross profit is kitchen profit.

The gross profit = labour cost + overhead cost + net profit.

Gross profit = sales – food cost.



Mark: – this is a term used when gross profit Is expressed as a percentage of the sales; margin may vary at times, where food cost may be cheap enough that it can be heavily marked up.

EXAMPLE: The sale of a dish is #2000.00; the food cost is #800.00.What is the margin?


Gross profit = sales – food cost

Gross profit= #2000.00 – #800.00 = #1200.00

Margin = gross profit X 100

Sales 1


= 1200 X 100

2000 1

= 60%


Mark up: This is the amount added to food cost to get the selling price. This amount is the gross profit, when the amount is expressed as a percentage of food cost, it is known as the mark up.

Mark up = gross profit X 100

Food cost 1



Give the formular for the following parameters.

(1) Gross profit (2) margin (c) mark up.



1. What is costing?

2. Explain dish costing.

3. Describe the service of champagne.

4. List 5 items that can be used to garnish cocktail drinks.

5. Mention 5 napkin folds.


READING ASSIGNMENT: Catering Craft for SS3 by S.N Bariki page 61-70.



1. _____Is used to ascertain the amount suitable for an item /thing. A. food cost B expenses C. labour D. costing.

2. An advantage of costing is? A. it shows the analysis of data B. it shows the analysis of income and expenditure C. it shows the analysis of report D. all of the above.

3. The cost of material used in producing the food is called___. A. food cost B. labour C. wages D. all of the above

4. There are ___ elements of costing. A. 8 B. 4 C. 3 D. 2

5. Food cost, labour cost, cost of fuel are examples of____ type of cost. A fixed cost B. variable cost C. total cost D. none of the above.



1. What is costing? (b) Give two examples of costing.

2. Write short notes on the following (a) fixed cost (b) variable.




Bill is a paper containing the amount of the good or services render. It is to customers/guest after services are rendered in a restaurant, hotel, etc. When a bill is being requested for by a guest, the waiter collects it from the cashier and check if the items entered are well calculated before giving it to the guest using a side plate or a bill folder.


1. Bill as check

2. Separate Bill method

3. Prepaid

4. No charge

5. Deferred/Account billing

6. Voucher

7. Bill with order



1. Explain billing

2. Mention 7 billing methods  


1. BILL AS CHECK: This method is used in some restaurants small hotels and cafeteria; when a customer request for the bill, the waiter or cashier checks to know if everything has been entered on the duplicate copy of the food and drink check and the bill is being totaled and presented to the customer. The customer may pay at the cash desk on his/her way out or possibly may pay directly to the waiter who will den gives change if need be. The cashier usually keeps a copy of the bill on payment and the customer gets a receipt and a copy of the bill if requested.


2. SEPARATE BILL METHOD: This billing method is often done in conjunction with the duplicate or triplicate checking system. When the customer request for the bill, the waiter collects it from the cashier who first checked that all items are entered and priced correctly and it is summed up! It is then made on a second copy paper; the top copy of the bill is presented to the customer on a side plate or bill folder. After payment by the customer, the waiter returns the bill and cash paid to the cashier who will stamp paid on the bill and den returns the top copy plus any change to the customer; the second copy of the bill is retained with the cashier to submit along with sale summary to the Food and Beverage Control Department.


3. PREPAID: In this method, ticket is purchased in advanced either for specific meals or event e.g., when there is a festival or show in which ticket is bought at a fixed price and meals will also be served alongside.

4. NO CHARGE: In this billing method, the customer or guest is not charged for receiving the goods or services bought/rendered. The guest is asked to sign the bill as acceptance of services received and the bill is sent to the firm, house or company supplying the hospitality.


5. DEFFERRED/ACCOUNT BILLING: The payment for the services rendered is paid after the function or event has taken place. The bill for the total service provided is then sent after the event to the organizing person or company for payment.


6. VOUCHER: This method involves issuing of a credit card by a third party which is then exchanged for food and beverages. If the individual consumes below the amount in the credit card, the balance is returned to the customer but if he/she consumes above the money in the credit card issued, the customer is expected to pay up the balance.


7. BILL AS CHECK: The bill acts as the order and as the bill; thus, receipt or itemized bill can be printed out for the customer if requested.


1. Explain briefly the billing method

2. Define costing

3. Mention the element of costing

4. Mention four specialty menus

5. Mention and explain housekeeping personnel.

Reading Assignment: Read more on billing (catering craft practice for ss3 pages 71-73 by Aminu Bariki).



1. The following are example of method except A. bill a check B. voucher C. no charge D. over head cost.

2. The billing method that involves the customer being issued credit by a third party is called A. no charge B. voucher C. separate bill D. prepaid.

3. _______ acts as a bill and also as an order A. Prepaid B. bill a check C. prepaid D. bill with order.

4. Deferred billing is also called A. voucher B. prepaid C. non charge D. account

5. __________ bill I usually run in conjunction with the duplicate or triplicate checking system. a) bill as check B. prepaid C. separate bill D. none of the above.


1. Explain the various billing method

2. Explain billing.






Control in catering establishment is used to enable the management and staff to know what is happening to the food and beverage service and other related incomes. Therefore, control system in any catering establishment covers the sales of all food and beverages sold which in turn helps to attain a maximum return.


1. The control system monitors the area where food and beverage sales take place.

2. It helps to reduce the rate of fraud and wastage to the nearest minimum.

3. It ensures all credit sales are paid for.

4. It gives a breakdown of sales and incomes received as well as initiate any kind of adjustment and Improvement required.

5. It ensures efficient control of all items issued from the various departments.



The following are the four basic methods of control system in catering establishment:-

1. Order taking methods

2. Operational system

3. Sales summary sheet  

4. Billing methods.


1. Define control.

2. Mention five function of control in catering establishments



There are five types of order taking methods which are:-

i. Triplicate

ii. Duplicate

iii. Single order sheet

iv. Service with order

v. Pre-order

i. Triplicate Checking Methods: This control method is used largely in a medium or large first class catering establishment. The food check consists of three copies; each copy has the same serial number on them and the copies are of different colours for easy identification. The following are written at the four corners of the check by the waiter or waitress.


i. The table number

ii. Number of cover

iii. Date

iv. Signature of the waiter/ waitress.

After order is recorded on the triplicate booklet, the first copy goes to the kitchen or dispense bar on the basis of which the order is prepared. The waiter picks up the order, the booklet copy is dropped into the control box, and the control box is maintained by the food and beverage control department to prevent any f6rm of fraud. The second copy is used by the cashier to prepare the bill (two copies of receipt is made, a copy is given to the guest while the other copy is retained by the cashier which is submitted along side with the sale summary of the day) while the third copy is held by the waiter for reference purpose.


ii. Duplicate Checking Method

This kind is used in a small hotel, cafeteria and restaurants. It is used where table d’hote menu is in operation and sometimes a very limited alacarte menu. Two copies are made, the first is sent to the kitchen in which the order is prepared after which the waiter drops the copy into the control box for auditing by the control department. The second copy is retained by the waiter as a means of reference during the service. When the guest asks of the bill, the waiter or cahier sum up everything bought on the same check and presents it to the guest.


iii. Pre-order: This is where the order is taken few days before the actual service is being rendered. Most time the quantity or type or for required is clearly stated.


2. Operational Statistics: This is also referred to as operational statistic measure. It helps in providing information on food and drink ale in detailed manner. The information helps to reconcile sales of item with the gross profit. It also helps in showing the profit and lost made by the hotel establishment.


Sale Summary Sheet: These are also known as bill summary or record of the restaurant sales. The sheet is prepared by the control department by bringing together all bills and food checks from the food and beverage sectors within the hotel in which the omissions or errors are verified.

4. Billing Method: This is also a method of control system in catering establishment. It is the various methods of preparing bills for guests such as bill as check, voucher, no charge and deferred, prepaid, etc


1. Menu with a large number of dishes

2. Dishes with large number of ingredients

3. Problems assessing customers’ demand

4. Frequent fluctuation of food prices because of inflation and fall in demand and supply

5. Regular changing in menu

6. Raw materials purchased incorrectly.



1. Menu is constant

2. If the standardized recipes and purchasing are used

3. If the menu has limited number of dishes

4. Avoiding spoilage as a result of improper storage

5. Control portion carefully

6. Take advantage to use foods in season.



1. Explain the following: (i) Operational statistic (ii) Sales summary (iii) Billing method (iv) Order taking method.

2. Mention five factors affecting menu planning

3. List the factors that assist menu planning.

4. Mention and explain five bar equipment.

5. Define food commodities and give three examples of it.

READING ASSINGMENT: Read more on cost control(Catering and craft practice SS3 by Aminu Barikis Page 74-78).



1. The following are examples of method of control in catering establishments except a) Order taking method b) Sales summary c) Billing method d) Pre-paid.

2. The following are written at the four corners of the check by the waiter or waitress except a) Date b) Amount c) Signature d) Number of cover.

3. Triplicate, duplicate, single order sheet, pre-order and service with order are example of————— a) Order taking methods b) Billing system c) Sales summary d) Operational statistics.

4. Control in catering establishments does the following except a) Minimize wastage b) reduces fraud c) Bills are made correctly d) Reduce the cash flow with the organization.

5. The sales summary sheets are also know as? a) Restaurant analysis sheet b) Check sheet c) Billing sheet d) Recipe sheet.


1. Mention the importance of control system in a catering establishment.

2. Explain billing method, ale summary sheet, operational system and order taking method.




Portion control is referred to as the means of controlling the quantity or size of food or drinks to be sold to each guest. It helps in maximizing profit and cutting of excess loss in catering establishment.




1. Cost of the ingredient

2. Price charged on menu

3. Types of customers catered for

4. Customer’s turnover

5. Competition

6. Customer purchasing /bargaining power

7. Types of menu and variety in the menu.



1. Define portion control.

2. Mention the factors that determine portion control.



1. Standard recipe: the standard recipe prepared should be used be used regularly so as to bring about consistency in the weight and quantity of the portion prepared.

2. Portion chart: the portion chart showing the standard portion of the dishes should be displayed to help in controlling size of the dishes.

3. Comparing expected portion: this is done to ascertain if the portion served is adequate or not.

4. Regular spot check: this is done by the supervisors or managers in other to ensure that the staff responsible for portioning the dishes does it with care since there are aware such checks will come up.

5. Instructing staff on the correct use of portion control equipment: the members of staff concerned with the portioning should be trained and well educated on how it is correctly using the portioning equipment.



1. Ladles for soups and sauces

2. Scales for measuring the weight of items

3. Standard recipe chart

4. Measuring jugs

5. Slicing machine

6. Soup plates

7. Fruit juice glass

8. Scoops for ice-cream or mashed potatoes

9. Individual pie dishes, pudding basins.



1. Explain portion control.

2. Mention five factors affecting menu planning

3. List the factors influence meal planning.

4. Mention and explain the parts of a bar

5. List five reasons people eat out side.


Read more on cost control (Catering and craft practice SS3 by Aminu Barikis Page 78-80).



1. The following are examples of method of portion control in catering establishments except (a) Order taking method (b) Standard recipe (c) Portion charts (d) Comparing expected portion.

2. The following are portion control equipment except (a) Ladle (b) Scale (c) Measuring jug (d) Menu card.

3. —— shows the standard portion of the dishes which is be displayed to help in controlling size of the dishes. (a) Standard recipe (b) portion chart (c) Regular sport check (d) Operational statistics.

4. Control in catering establishments does the following except (a) Minimize wastage (b) reduces fraud (c) Bills are made correctly (d) Reduce the cash flow with the organization.

5. Portion control cocktails——- (a) Wastage (b) Customers (c) Patronage (d) Sales.



1. Mention three importance of portion control.

2. Explain (a) portion chart (b) regular spot check (c) comparing expected portion..




1. Advanced deposit: A deposit paid by a guest prior to guarantee a room reservation.

2. Allotment: The number of room set aide for a particular purpose, such as group sales on tour wholesale.

3. Back office: The department of the hotel that I responsible for accounting, data processing and manage0ent report.

Bed and break fat plan: A room tariff that include a breakfast.

4. Booking: To sell a reservation

5. Check in: This is the process of greeting and registering a guest, verifying tne method of payment and dispending room keys

6. Check out: This is the process of facilitating guest departure.

7. Deluxe: The highest level of elegance and service.

8. Double/Double: A room occupied by two beds.

9. Double occupancy: A rate based on two adults occupying a room

10. Folio: A guest record



1. Write out the meaning of the following words in English language:

i. Check out ii. Folio iii. Double/double iv. Double occupancy.



1. Give the meaning of the followings:-

i. Folio ii. Double occupancy iii. Deluxe iv. Check in

2. Define catering and hospitality.

3. Explain the method of portion control

4. Mention safety measures in catering establishments.


READING ASSINGMENT: Read more on common words used in catering establishment. (Catering and craft practice by Aminu Bariki Pages 81-86)



1. Berdmuida plan means? (a) An elegance service (b) The process of facilitating guest departure (c) Sales of reservation (d) Same as bed and breakfast plan.

2. Brunch means? (a) A room with double bed (b) combination of breakfast and lunch often accompanied by champagne (c) A bed rate on two adults (d) A lodging establishment that ha food and beverage service.

3. The process of facilitating the guest departure and settling the guest account I called? (a) Check in (b) Check out (c) Downgrade (d) Folio.

4. The department of the hotel that is responsible for accounting and management is called? a) Front office b) Housekeeping c) Back office d) Block.

5. Check in means————- a) The process of welcoming and greeting a guest b) The process of laying off the staff c) The process of collecting the key from the guest d) All of the above.


Write down ten other words used in catering establishments and their meanings







Head waiter/captain/supervisor 

Maitre d’ hotel 

Station waiter 

Chef De Rang 

Kitchen porter 

Le Garcon De Cuisine 

Head chef 

Le Chef De Cuisine 


Commis de rang/ Garcon 


Garcon de Comotor 

Room Service/ Assistance flour waiter

Commis d’etage 

Still room maid 

La Fille d’ Office 

Still room man 

Le Garcon d’ office 


Cleaning waiter/Bus boys/bus person 

Commis De Barrasseur 



Give the French word used for the following:-

1. Still room man

2. Cleaning waiter

3. Bar man

4. Station waiter

5. Kitchen porter.

4. Head chef

READING ASSINMGNENT: Read more on the FRENCH TERMS used in catering establishments (Catering and craft practice SS3 by Aminu Bariki Pages 87-88)



















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