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THEME 3.0: LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Pig farming
Advantages of keeping a pig
i. Pigs can eat a variety of food or products and are fast growers.
ii. Pigs are prolific i.e. give birth to many piglets. The action of giving birth in pigs is called farrowing.
Adult female pigs are called sows while adult male are called boars
iii. Pigs have a short reproductive cycle i.e furrows 2 times a year. Each patch of piglets is called LITTER with 16 or more.
iv. Pigs don’t compete with crops for land.
v. Pigs have a high dressing percentage i.e. meat% is high and nutrition of good quality.
vi. Pigs have high capacity to store fats.
vii. Pigs can withstand tropical temperature.
Factors limiting pig industry in Tanzania
i. Irregular supplies of concentrates.
ii. Pigs compete with man for food (do not eat grass).
iii. Lack of knowledge for pigs husbandry among farmers.
iv. Religious, taboos and social rigidities.
v. Disease and parasite incidences.
vi. Shortage of storage facilities.
vii. Damage of inbreeding: As pigs have high prolific rate there is a damage of inbreeding which result into loss of vigour and other side effects.
PIG BREEDS
1) Land race: -Have high slim white body
Have short legs
Have drooping ears
Highly prolific
Have high food/ feed conservation ratio.
2) York shire/ large white: -Have white body
Have high dressing percentage
Have erect ears
Smooth long bodies
sows have a good mothering ability
3) Saddle back: -Have medium size body
They are black in colour with a white belt around the shoulders, body including front Legs
They have a well curved back and floopy ears.
4) Hampshire: -Have similar characteristics as saddle back however
They have erects ears instead of floopy ears.
MANAGEMENT OF YOUNG PIGS
Provision of colostrums: Piglet has to suck their mother’s milk along the first three days after being born.
When piglets are 1-3 days old, their intestine absorb immune globin. As the piglet becomes older their intestine becomes impermeable to immune globin.
Farmer should help the piglets to find the teats of their mother immediately after birth.
During 1st -6th Week
Dipping the navel into iodine tincture to prevent navel infection.
Removal of mucus from their noses.
Each piglet should be provided with identification by ear notching, ear tattooing, ear notching.
Prevention of piglets against anaemia by supplying iron through
a) Injection of 200mg of iron dextinne into the ham of each piglet 2-3 days after birth and repeated after 3 weeks.
b) Smearing/ spraying ferrow sulphate salts to be the udder the sow of the sow area/ day during the 1st 4-6weeks.
c) Piglets may be given a dose of iron solution through the mouth once per week.
d) Placing clean, red or yellowing sterile soil in the farrowing pen where piglets eat the soil to get iron.
e) Administer iron tablets to each through the mouth.
o Cutting the needle teeth, normally piglets are both with 8teeth known as temporary needle teeth. Those teeth may injure the sow during sucking as well as injuring another. Hence should be cut by plies or nippers after birth.
o Provision of creep area (is a place supplied with artificial source of heat). This can be wooden box of 30temperature.
o
Provision of creep feed with a good weaner ratio.
Castration: Boars which are not castrated have a bad smell and their meat smells bad. Also they have become viscous and become fat slowly. Castration is done 3-6weeks by surgical method.
Weaning: Piglets may be weaned at the age of 3-5 weeks of provided with creep feed. If not weaning should be done and weeks. Remove the sow so that the piglets don’t notice her absence.
REARING PIGLETS AFTER WEANING
o Group the wearers according to weight. Put similar piglet with the same into the same pen, piglets should be washed cleanly. The uniformly of piglets in each pen eliminate bulling at feeding. Each pen should be host 10-30piglets.
o Provision of feeding and water troughs with enough space.
o Feed the piglets twice per day.
NB: When rearing piglets for shaughtering feed then adlibutum i.e. provide enough food and water all the time so that they eat and drink at all the time.
FEEDING SCALE FOR PIGS
MANAGEMENT OF THE BREEDING HERD
o Pig reaches maturity at the age of 6-7 months. Allow BOARS to meet GILTS.
o Don’t over feed breeding pigs to avoid becoming too fat which results to low fertility.
o Feed 2-3kgs of pig finisher meal for each boar per day.
o Boars should be given enough exercise but do not overuse.
o One boar should be grouped with 15-20sows, but mature boars can be grouped with 25-30days.
FlUSHING
This is a process of increasing the amount of food for the sows or gilt before mating.
Sign of heat: -The sow becomes restless
o Frequent urination
o The sow makes occasional land grants
o The valve of the sow becomes large and red
o At late oestrus the pigs stand still for the boars to mount
o White mucus discharges from the vulva Mating
o It is advisable to mate sows with boars of similar size. The oestruscycle of sow is21days. The gestation period is 114days i.e. (3months, 3weeks and 3days).
o The standing heat period lost for 40-60hrs. During mating, supervise the mating. Help the boar to insert the penis in the vagina if necessary
  • steaming up: increase of food ratio to filts or1 sows one month (just before) giving birth.
o Copulation takes 25minutes.
o During gestation period, sows should be given 2-2.5kg of food per day.
PARTURITION (FARROWING)
This is the action of giving birth to pigs
PREPARATION BEFORE FARROWING
Prepare a farrowing pen with the following facilities.
a) Guardrails to protect the piglets from being crushed by sows when it lies down. Alternatively a farrowing crate can be provided where by the sow can’t reach the piglets can reach the sow through the side of the crate.
b) Preparation of an artificial heating device for piglets in crop box prepared and installed.
c) Provision of creep feed to be provided outside the following crate.
The following pen should be treated with disinfectant one week before introducing the pregnant sow.
NB: Place bedding materials into the floor of the pen 4days before the pregnant sow is to farrow. Signs of farrowing
The sow becomes restless
Becomes nervous and unease
Valva becomes enlarged
Mucus discharge from the vulva
Mammary tissues and abdomen protrude
Milk secretion from the tents
Frequent urination
CARE OF SOW AND PIGLETS AT FARROWING
o Remove each piglet once it’s born.
o Provide colostrums by allowing piglets to suckle.
o If sow doesn’t provide enough milk, piglets can be transferred to another sow.
o After birth liquid/ fluid should be collected.
o The sow should be removed from pen and only piglets left.
o Smear the piglets with the liquid of the after birth of the sow.
o Hence the sow will not recognize piglets which are not hers.
NB: If the after1 birth fluid is not available, smear the piglets with a substitute which has a strong smell e.g. engine oil.
Artificial colostrums: If the sow does not provide colostrums within 3 days artificial colostrums should be provided.
CARE OF LACTATING SOWS
During the last 2 days before farrowing the sow should be fed with locative feeds e.g. brans and molasses to prevent constipation.
o One week before farrowing the sows should be dewormed.
o After farrowing sows should be fed with 1/2kg of bran and molasses.
o From the 3rd day awards increase the feed gradually by 1kg per day until 3kg per day.
Feed the sow adlibilum
No. of piglets in the litter
3
6
9
12
15
Amount of feed(day kg)
4
5

6
7
8
NB: The reproductive cycle life of a sow or boar is about 6-8 years depending on proper management. Call all sows, which give small litter and poor fertility and all boars with undersirable characteristics.
PARASITES OF A PIG
The most common external parasites include mites and lice, these can be controlled by scrubbing all pigs regularly with insecticides like texaphene or engine oil.
INTERNAL PARASITES OF A PIG
Include:
round worms
norductar worms
Whip worms
thread worms
kidney worms
Thes
e damage the intestine, liver, kidney lungs which cause the pigs to be easily attacked by diseases such as pneumonia
CONTROL OF WORMS
o Drench regularly
o Clean the pig pen to prevent them from coming in contact with faces.
o The worm all sows and gilts one week before mating, one before farrowing and one week after weaning.
o The worm all boars at 50kgs weight twice per year.
MAJOR DISEASES OF PIGS
1) AFRICAN SWINE FEVER:
Cause: Virus
Symptoms:
Fever, Depression, Anaemia, Diarrhoea, Hdding in a corner of filling up, Paralysis,
Eye and nosal discharge, Death after 7days.
Transmission:
By direct contact with wild pigs
Ticks, blood sucking insects, hippos, hyena and porcupine.
Treatment:
Keep domestic pigs away from wild pigs.
Control ticks and vaccinate animal.
Slaughter infected animals.
2) ANTHRAX:
Cause: Bacteria
Symptoms:
Fever and swelling of lymph glands in throat area.
Difficulty in breathing

Loss of appetite
Death
Transmission:
Through eating (mouth) it is infections to humans.
Treatment and control:
burry dead animals
burn suspected animals
penicilln naccination
3) FOOT MOUTH DISEASE: Cause: Virus
Symptoms:
Fever
Oesicullation in snout, lips, tongue, mouth
Lamenesis
Yescrible rapture
Transmission:
direct through feeding Treatment and control
No treatment but protects pig by avoiding feeding pigs raw garbage or milk from infected.
Vaccination
Slaughtering affected animals
Enforce quarantine.
4) ENZOCTIC PNEUMONIA:
Cause: Virus (Mycoplasma hypneumonia)
Symptoms:
Dry cough
Slow growth
Transmission:
Young pigs get affected from older ones
Treatment:
No treatment
Slaughtering infected animals
Avoid overcrowding, poor ventilation and humid condtion.
Other diseases: Rinderpest, Hog cholera, Diarrhea, Swine dysentery, Brucellosis, Trip ecronomesis, Black quarter.
SHEEP PRODUCTION
The chief products of sheep are meat and wool
SHEEP BREEDS: Description and breed depend on presence or absence of horms and tail characteristics (fat or humped sheep)
EXOTIC BREEDS: These were introduced in East Africa in 1950. They include
i. Merino sheep (wool)
ii. Porper (multon or flesh)
iii. Romney marsh (dual purpose)
iv. Corriadated sheep (dual purpode)
v. Hampshire down(multon of fresh)
SHEEP MANAGEMENT
Selection and ailing are essential steps prepare sheep for mating. The ewe and ram should be down (i.e. tipping) before mating.
Dirty wool around the vulva and anus of the ewe and anus the ram should be dipped to prevent infection during mating.
Overgrown hooves should be trimmed to reduce the incidence of lareness.
Mating should be timed to ensure that lumbing takes place where there is plenty of grass and weather either too wet or too old. The best time is towards the end of the rainy seasons.
MANAGEMENT DURING GESTATION PERIOD
The gestation in ewes lasts for five months.
Management at this time should be aimed at maintaining heayhly ewes as this will guarantee survival of the unborn lamb.
The ewes should be vaccinated and drended to control diseases and internal parasites, dipping to control external parasites.
During the last month of pregnancy the ewe should be put on better food. SEAMING UP: 1-2 months before the ewe should be put on better food
This helps the foetus to grow rapidly and ensure the buildup of body reserve of fasta needed for milk production.
MANAGEMENT OF LAMBING
The ewe should be moved into a lambing padlock which has adequate shelter.
The correct way in which a lamb is born i.e. the head and forelegs first, however when the lamb is not correctly presented a farmer can assist the ewe by approaching quietly and after washing hands, the helper should examine the position of the lamb to determine the cause1 obstraction. When the position is accesed, the helper can gently pull the lamb; As soon as the lamb is born, the mother will lick after birth fluid and will allow her offspring to suck adostrum.
REARING OF LAMBS
During the first 4-6 weeks lamb are nourished by their mother’s milk.
Growth rate depends on the quality of the milk produced by the ewe.
Castaration of young lambs-ram not needed for breeding and docking of tails should be carried out during the 1st 2weeks.
At 6 month, the meat producing lamb are ready for slaughter-vaccination and dipping should continue
Shearing: When sheep are kept for woll,shearing should be done once per year around and is best done during dry seasons
DISEASE CONTOL
Diseases attacking sheep and goats on next page (same as goat).
GOAT PRODUCTION
They are purposely kept for meat and milk.
Breeds of goat: Most breeds are indigenpous and can be divided into two groups;
a) The Somali goats (dual purpose)
b) The small East African goats.
DAIRY GOATS: Jamna pati, Nubians, Saanen, Kamorai, Toggenberg MEAT GOATS: Somali, Turkana, Angola, Kamorai, small East Africa HAIR GOATS: Mohar, Boer, Angola, Kashmir
GOAT MANAGEMENT
In a well managed flock, mating should first take place 15-18months of age. Gestation periods last for 150days, therefore a goat can give birth twice a year
Meat producers: If the goats are kept for meat production, the young ones are left with mother until they are weaned.
Milk producers: The young ones should be removed from their mothers as soon as they are born and bottle/ bucket feed.
The kids should be fed3times during the first 3weeks and reduced to 2times per day until weaned 4-6months. A kid will need ½ litre of milk per day solid feed should be included from 2-3weeks after birth.
POST WEANING
After weaning kids will need good quality feed if they need to be fattened satisfactory, dipping and vaccination.
GOAT FEEDING
i. Goat brouse rather than grazing, during rainy season, they feed on green leaves and young shoots. As drying follows, they feed on fallen leaves, pods and sees, dry flowers, keads of grass and twigs.
ii. In confined conditions, meat producing goats may be fed on cut forages e.g. sweet potatoes, vines, green maize etc.
iii. Crop residues are also used particularly after cereal harvest.
iv. Milk producers are fed on similar way as in dairy cattle but in addition they will feed on roughages e.g. hay and silage.
o Concetrates should be fed on lactating goats to correct any mineral deficiency and roughage. Browsing: Feed on grass, shrubs and leaves.
Gut closure: Is the process whereby the gut becomes impemiable to absorption of immunoglobin especially 3 days.
BEE PRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION:
Species of bees suitable for keeping are:
i. Apis melifera
ii. Apis adonsoni
iii. Both are kept in highlands and in coastal areas.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
They change nectar into honey from which wax is obtained and used in the manufacturing of candles, polishes etc.
Also bees help in pollination.
ORGANISATION OF THE BEE colony
i. The queen: Is a fertile female whose function is to lay eggs.
After the first mating she can lay eggs up to 4 years when she dies whereby one of her daughter takes over.
She produces a substance known as queen substance which the workers lick.
She lays up to 1500eggs per day.
ii. The drones: These are fertile males whose work is to fertile the queen. They are bigger than workers and don’t posses sting.
iii. The workers1: These are sterile females and can’t lay eggs. They do all the work in the hive e.g. collection of pollen and nectar from flowers, cleaning the cell, provision of ventilation by fanning their wings, feeding the larvae in cell, produce wax to build combs, to seal ripe honey and larvae and to guard the hive.
The comb: The workers build the comb in such a way that it consists of hexagonal cells/ chamber of different sizes.
i. The smallest cells are used for storing honey as pollen and rearing workers
ii. The middle sized cells are used for rearing drone and honey storage.
iii. The largest cells are oval in shape used for rearing virgin queens.
COLONY REPRODUCTION
i. All eggs hatch after 3days each larva has a head and 13 segments.

ii. The salivary glands of the “nurse bees” secrets a substance called “broad feed”. The nurse bees feed the entire larva on this broad feed for 3 days.
The queen larvae are fed on a royal jelly till they become pupa.
From the fourth day on wards the workers and drone larvae are fed for 6 days.
Workers and queen larvae are fed for 5days, while the drone larvae are fed for 6days.
Queen takes 16 days to image, workers 21days while drones taken 24 days.
Usually there is in one queen per hive, before the young queen emerge from the cell, the old queen
Leaves the hive with thousands of workers i.e. swarming, the virgin that emerges first which then kills other virgin with her string She goes on mating flight she returns and becomes the new head laying queen on the colony.
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES DONE BY HUMAN BEINGS
Sitting the beehive: The place where bee hives are kept is called APIARY site
Factors affecting selection of a site:
i. For hanging hives: Should be hung on trees near a water source and well protected from wind.
ii. For standing hives: Should be sited at the centre of flowering plants.
Source of water should not be more than 1 1/2km far.
Site should have a natural protection against wind and sun.
Access of apiary should not face the entrance to hive.
Farm and other domestic animals should have no access to the apiary.
HARVESTING AND PROCESSING OF HONEY
TRADITIONAL METHOD
Smoke is blown into the hive through the entrance holes to drive away the bees.
The hive is lowered and turned over; the bottom board is opened to expose all the combs.
The light colored combs are cut while the old dark combs are left undisturbed.
After removing the combs the board is replaced.
The combs are put in boiling water to be melted.
The contents are stained through a cloth.
Any hardened wax from the surface of the honey is removed.
The honey is then slightly reheated in the water pan to make it more fluid then it is bottled.
IMPROVED METHOD
Before opening up the beehive smoke is blown in.
The frames are removed and the top of the cell is cut by knife to uncap the comb.
The honey is extracted with a machine.
The honey is strained to remove impurities then it is bottled.
HOW TO HANDLE BEES
Bees need careful handling considering the following:
Don’t approach the hive from the front.
Use smoke properly.
Don’t crush bees otherwise the whole colony will get excited
Avoid sudden movements.
If stung while handling a frame doesn’t pull out sting but remove them by scraping gently.
The beekeeper should protect him/ herself.
DISEASES AND ENEMIES OF BEES
Large animals e.g. honey badgers enter the hive and cause great damage.
Worm and parasites enter the hive through cracks and cause great damage.
Rain water leads to dampness which causes growth of moulds and fungi.
Ants are the greatest enemies, thus should be protected from ants by standing the legs in tines of water are used oil.
Wax moths cause great damage.
The bee house has parasites which lay eggs in the hive.
DIARY CATTLE
Meaning of
i. Dairying: This is the keeping of livestock in order to produce mainly milk and meat produce
ii. Dairy cattle: These are cattle kept in order to produce milk and milk products.
The role of Dairying in Tanzania
i. Provision of milk to adults and infants: Milk contributes as an important food for babies (infants) especially for mothers who for reasons produce less milk lows milk is rich in protein, fats, sugar and minerals which can also be fed to adult humans.
ii. Supplies milk products: The milk can be processed into many products e.g. butter, cheese, yoghurt and ice cream.
iii. Provision of manure: Cow during is good organic manure which improves soil fertility.
iv. Provides employment: People who keep dairy cattle get employme
nt and on turn they can employ others for management.
v. Provision of foreign exchange: Through exportation of surplus doing dairy products to other countries.
LIMITATIONS OF DAIRY INDUSTRIES IN TANZANIA
1. Low production potential of local breeds: They produce very low amount of milk.
2. Shortage of foreign currency for purchasing exotic breeds: New breeds are needed in our country to improve production but there is a high shortage in foreign currency for the purpose.
3. Presence of diseases and parasites: Cause/effect production. E.g. FMD, Anthrax, Tuberculosis, Rind pest which are common in Tanzania.
4. Poor/ In adequate nutrition for the animals: Most cattle in Tanzania are grazed in natural pastures of which quality and quantity wise are low especially in dry season which affect milk production.
5. Presence of tsetse flies and ticks: Most areas in Tanzania are highly infected by tsetse flies and ticks causing nagana and East Coast fever respectively.
6. In adequate veterinary services: The number of veterinary personnel at present is too low compared to the numbers of livestock keepers.
7. Poor husbandry: Most livestock keepers in the country don’t know good principle of livestock husbandry resulting to low productivity.
8. Poor marketing and in adequate marketing facilities.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD DAIRY COWS
i. Wedge shaped body: A cow with a wedge shaped body is narrow in front and broad at the back.
ii. Well developed udder: A good is one which is firmly attached to the body and is well suspended as well as large with well developed milk veins sagging udders tend to develop mastitis (inflammation of udder) good udder is of medium sized teats well spaced apart.
iii. Ability to secrete a lot of milk: A good dairy cow is of high genetic potential in milk production.
iv. Fertile and calves regularly: Milk production is facilitated by calving hence a fertile cow is able to calve regularly by this ensuring continuous milk production.
v. Docile temperate: A docile cow is ease to manage and easy to handle.
vi. Quick milk let down: This means that once you start milking it lets the milk quite easily and quickly.
vii. Milk with a high content of butter fat and proteins: This is of high quality.
viii. Long lactating period: A standard lactation period lasts for 30days: A good cow secrets milk as many days a possible.
ix. Resistant to diseases and parasites.
x. Tolerant to high atmospheric temperature i.e. able to resist heat stress experienced is tropical atmosphere
xi. Free from venereal and infectious diseases as they may cause infertility and produces milk free milk free from venereal/ infectious.
BREEDS OF DAIRY CATTLE
Terminology
In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions. The terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British-influenced parts of world such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and the United States.
An “intact” (i.e., not castrated) adult male is called a bull. A wild, young, unmarked bull is known as a “micky” in Australia. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a “maverick” in the USA and Canada.
An adult female that has had a calf (or two, depending on regional usage) is a cow.
A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three years of age is called a heifer. A young female that has had only one calf is occasionally called a first-calf heifer.
Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned, then weaners until they are a year old in some areas; in other areas, particularly with male beef cattle, they may be known as feeder calves or simply feeders. After that, they are referred to as yearlings or stirks if between one and two years of age.
A castrated male is called a steer in the United States; older steers are often called bullocks in other parts of the world, but in North America this term refers to a young bull. Pik er bullocks are micky bulls (un castrated young male bulls) that were caught, castrated and then later lost. In Australia, the term “Japanese ox” is used for grain-fed steers in the weight range of 500 to 650 kg that are destined for the Japanese meat trade. In North America, draft cattle under four years old are called working steers. Improper or late castration on a bull results in it becoming a coarse steer known as a stag in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. In some countries, an incompletely castrated male is known also as a rig.
A castrated male (occasionally a female or in some areas a bull) kept for draft purposes is called an ox (plural oxen); “ox” may also be used to refer to some carcass products from any adult cattle, such as ox-hide, ox-blood, oxtail, or ox-liver.
A Springer is a cow or heifer close to calving.
In all cattle species, a female twin of a bull usually becomes an infertile partial inter-sex, and is called a freemartin.
Neat (horned oxen, from which neat’s-foot oil is derived), beef (young ox) and beefing (young animal fit for slaughtering) are obsolete terms, although poll, pollard or polled cattle are still terms in use for naturally hornless animals, or in some areas also for those that have been disbudded or dehorned.
Cattle raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. Within the American beef cattle industry, the older term beef (plural beeves) is still used to refer to an animal of either sex. Some Australian, Canadian, New Zealand and British people use the term beast, especially for single animals when the sex is unknown.
Cattle bred specifically for milk production are called milking or dairy cattle; a cow kept to provide milk for one family may be called a house cow or milker. A “fresh cow” is a dairy term for a cow or first-calf heifer that has recently given birth, or “freshened.”
The adjective applying to cattle in general is usually bovine. The terms “bull”, “cow” and “calf” are also used by extension to denote the sex or age of other large animals, including whales, hippopotamuses, camels, elk and elephants.
Dairy farming in Tanzania is based on European breeds and crosses with indigenous zebu.
a) Friesian (Holland origin)
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE) NOTES - LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

White and black in colour
Average mature weight 550kg
Milk has low butter fat content 3.5-4%
Calves are born large (35-40kg) and heifer under good management calves at the age of 21/2years.
The udder has a very large capacity with milk yield 3500litres/ lactation.
b) Jersey (Origin: Jersey island in the English Channel)
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE) NOTES - LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
The Jersey cow is quite small ranging from only 400–500 kilograms (880–1,100 lb). The main factor contributing to the popularity of the breed has been their greater economy of production, due to:
The ability to carry a larger number of effective milking cows per unit area due to lower body weight, hence lower maintenance requirements, and superior grazing ability.
Calving ease and a relatively lower rate of dystosia leading to their popularity in cros breeding with other dairy and even beef breeds to reduce calving related injuries.
High fertility
High butterfat conditions, 4.84% butterfat and 3.95% protein, and the ability to thrive on locally produced food. Bulls are also small, ranging from 540 to 820 kg (1200 to 1800 pounds), and are notoriously aggressive.
Castrated males can be trained into fine oxen which, due to their small size and gentle nature, make them popular with young teamsters. Jersey oxen are not as strong as larger breeds however and are generally out of favour among competitive teamsters
Light animal and horned
Heat tolerant
Yellow- brown colour
Wedge shaped body with level top
High butter fat content of 5% – yellow
Heifer calves down cut 2-21/2 years of age
Low food requirement hence suitable for small scale.
Calves are light 20-25kg
Produce 2300litres/ lactation.
c) Aryshire
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE) NOTES - LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Medium heavy breed
Mature cow weighs 450-500kg
Drought resistant
Have red and white patches on skin
Average milk yield is yield 3300litres/ lactation with butterfat content of 4%.
Calves born at average weight of 30-35kgs and age 21/2years.
d) Guernsey (Origin: Island –English channel)
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE) NOTES - LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
They are brownish except legs and bottom part whish are white.
Produces over 2500litres/ lactation with 5% butter content.
Calves are born at an average weight of 25-30kgs.
Its horns inwards and forward.
Mature cow weights 450-500kgs.
Heifer calves are at the age of 21/2years.
DUAL PURPOSE BREEDS
i. Sahiwal (Origin: Indian subcontinent)
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE) NOTES - LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Best dairy breed in tropics
Well developed udder and long thick teats
Milk yield varies from 1800-2000l/ lactation
Heavily built with short legs
Difficult milking due to thick teats
Mature cow weighs 400kgs
Heifer calves at the age1 of 3years
Reddish brown colour
Resistant to tropical diseases
ii. Mpwapwa (developed at Mpwapwa livestock breeding station)
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE) NOTES - LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

Have brownish colour
Have big ears which face down wards
Survive well in semi arid areas
Have long face slightly protruding from out side
PLANNING AND DESIGNING A DAIRY FARM
Factors to be considered when planning a dairy farm
1. Consider the site: Include; climatic condition, location (will influence transport), water accessibility, veterinary services availability
2. Topography: This will influence drainage.
3. Flexibility: Space for future expansion.
4. Economic point of view of the enterprise.
5. Legal aspects and public opinion.
6. The system that is to be used in feeding animals.
BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF A WELL DESIGNED ANIMAL HAVE;
Farm accessibility to fresh water
Sufficient light and ventilation for satisfactory inspection
Should allow sufficient freedom of movement of animals
Should have a facility of emergency provision in the event of breakdown of the existing equipment
The floors and walls should not harm the animals.
The internal surface should be easily disinfected and cleaned.
Provide adequate: bedding especially for calves, dry lying areas for animals and facilities for disposal of waste material.
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A DAIRY FARM
A good has the following features: Fences, crushes, water supply, dipping tank and dairy basin.
1. Dairy barn: It is a building which provides animals with protection against wind, sunshine, rain, etc.
Helps to avoid cattle disease infections.
Also it is used to store machinery, feeds and other equipment.
It is composed of -dairy room for milk storing
stores for food and equipments
cattle pen
a cow shed
passage
water trough
2. Dipping tank/ spray place: It is a structure used to apply a caricide to kill ticks and other ecto- parasites.
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE) NOTES - LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
It consists of a collection area and a passage leading to a tank which contains the acaricide solute.
Below the tank there is a foot path (in the passage) which contains a caricide or CuSO4 solution, this will stop them from spoiling the solution.
Drainage race (yard) where it is reduces wastage of acaricides as well as contamination of pastures.
3. Water supply: Water is need for drinking, cleaning and dipping. It is preferably be a water tap.
4. Crushes: This is a passage constructed by use of timber, wood or metal pipes.
Used to hold cattle in several operations e.g. vaccination, hand spraying, drenching and artificial insemination.
5. Assist in controlling grazing hence prevents overgrazing.
Also facilitate mixed farming
Keeps out intruders. FARM LAYOUT
Dairy house crushes/ spray race and water through
Calves paddocks-Near entrance to the farm or behind dairy houses.
Crush and dip found AT THE BACK OF A DAIRY HOUSE: If no slightly sloping land.
Grass grazing for adult grown up heifer and those fodder crops should be separated by farm roads.
MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE ON DAIRY FARM
The herd of cattle which are kept in a dairy farm is composed of:
Calves: these are young cattle at either sex.
Heifers: these are young female cattle 9-18months age.
Cows: these are mature female (heifer become a cow after calving)
Bulls: these are mature male cattle which are not castrated. Kept so as to make with cows and heifers
Steers: these are male cattle which have been castrated.
MANAGEMENT OF THE BREEDING STOCK
This consists of mature heifers, cows and few bulls; which mate with female mature heifers and cows.
When the females conceive they are said to be in calf heifers or calf cows. Gestation period in 280 days
NB:
i. Only fertile cattle should be put in the stock.
ii. Mature heifers / cows can be inseminated artificially.
BREEDING TIME:
Bulls may be kept together with cows and where bulls are allowed to mate the cows throughout the year. This is called continuous breeding: alternatively the bulls may be kept separately from female cattle and allowed to make certain period of the year. This is known as CONTRLLED/ SEASONAL BREEDING.
SUPPLIMENTARY FEEDING: Heifers: When they reach 15-18 months old (maturity) they should1 be fed on concentrates, with at least 19% and protein (CP) at a rate of 1.5-2kg/day.
Suitable breeding time
Heifer/ cows reach seasonal maturity when an ovum is released from one of the ovary.
Sighs of heat
Restlessness
Isolation from other cows: tend to stay away from others.
Mounting other cows
Jelly like fluid discharged from vulva.
Drop in milk yield
Calf management
Immediately after it’s born: Nose and mouth cleaning, placenta removed after birth and colostrums provision within 4days.
Colostrum: First milk from cow within 2-3 days rich in immunoglobin
Functions:
o Laxutive i.e. helps calf to be ejected, the first faces accumulate in alimentary canal of the calf as it grows.
o Digestive system of a calf is able to absorb antibodies or immuneglobin
o Highly digestible and nutritive rich in vitamin A.
HOW TO MAKE ARTIFICIAL COLOSTRUM
Mix the following: 1litre of fresh milk, 250 ml of fresh water,1/2-1teaspoonful of Castrol oil, antibiotics and one fresh of raw eggs. OR: Water 75%, egg 20%, cooking oil 4%, mineral premix 0.5% and oral antibiotics 0.5%
NB: The mixture is fed 3 times a day.
SCHEDULE OF FEEDING WHOLE MILK TO A CALF
AGE OF
CALF(weighs)
1st-4thday
1st-2nd
week
3rd-4th
week
5thweek
6thweek
7thweek
8thweek
QUANTITY OF
MILK(litres)
5(colostrum)
4.5
4.5
4
3
2
2
FREQUENCY
OF FEEDING(days)
3
3
2
2
2
2

2
COMPOSITION OF CONCENTRATES FOR FEEDING DAIRY CATTLE
ALTERNATIVE A-Whole maize meal-75%, sunflower cake-15%, bone meal-7%, mineral mix-3% ALTERNATIVE B-Whole maize meal-78%, cotton seed cake-19%, mineral pre-mix-3%
ALTERNATIVE C-Whole maize meal-40%, whole sorghum meal-35%, green/ black grain meal 15%, coconut cake-7%, mineral mix-3%
FEEDING SYSTEM
i. Bucket feeding
ii. Natural suckling
iii. Multiple suckling i.e. a cow suckles calves in addition to her.
General points to consider in rearing calves
o Avoid over feeding the calves and ensure cleanliness.
o Minerals and clean water should be provided.
o Calf pen must be open on one side for ventilation and light.
o Calves should be realized occasionally for exercises and any feed change should be done easily.
o Sick calves should be isolated and treated.
INTRODUCTION OF PASTURES AND CONCENTRATES
o After 4 months of age it is good to start giving concentrates and grass to calves.
o Pasture must be included gradually at a rate of 0.5kg per day.
o Concentrates feeding start at the age of one month. Other management operation
Dehorning: This is done by removing of horns also called disbudding so as to increase space and to prevent injury to each other and man during handling.
This is done by: Use of dehorning wire, hot iron, and chemical e.g. KCL, Elastrator rubber band. Castration: This is the removal of epididymis of male calves not intended for breeding process so as to control breeding, to make animal docile and to improve the appearance of neck muscles. This is done by: Used of burdizzo to crush the spermatic cord (closed bloodless method)
Surgical (vasectomy) i.e. small portion of the scrotum is out and testicles are pulled out.
Elastrator rubber band or ring (close method) Identification of marks: Is done by
o Branding: This involves making numbers, letters or any mark on the skin by using hot iron, branding iron chemicals.
o Tattooing: By using tattooing machine i.e. lateral or numbering pins are attached and then the skin is punctured especially the inner part of ears and tall base by use of special link.
HEIFER REARING
After wearing heifers should be properly managed for proper growth where silage, hay and good pastures provide in calf heifer
Continue to milk and in calf heifer/ cow for 7 months after conception twice a day.
Feed the cow properly through the gestation period according to the level of milk yield 1.8-2 kgs/day.
Stop milking 2months before calving i.e drying period.
At the dry-off period the udder must be treated with antibiotics to control mastitis. Aims of steaming and drying off
To improve body condition of the in calf animal.
To ensure growth of the fetus.
To let cow accustomed to the milking place and concentrate feed.
CALVING DOWN
2-3days before calving date the animal should be separated from others and given a closed watch
Sign of calving: Lying down, discharge from vulva, and detention of udder with fluids coming out from teats.
When the calf is born then after birth, mucus can be removed from its mouth and nose. Normally membranes of mucus come out 2hours after birth if not a veterinarian officer should be called.
Difficulties may arise due to the following: shoulder and body and hind legs come first, hands come first , front legs are bent inward or head is bent sideways *Normally front line of legs come out first.
MANAGEMENT BURRING LACTATION
THE LACTATION CURVE OF A DAIRY COW
STAGE A: Represent the daily lactation 2months after calving
o The milk yield will increase steadily until a peak is reached. At this stage cow is not in calf.
STAGE B: Represent the mid lactation when the yield is steadily declining.
o The cow is usually in calf for a period of 7 months.
STAGE C: Represent the dry when is not being milked. During this stage the unborn calf is gro
wing rapidly.
NB: The cow should be well fed in stage A and C
MILKING AND MILK PRODUCTION
Milk is made in the udder from the food which animal eat.
o In the upper of the udder there are millions of cells where milk is made known as alveoli.
o The alveoli are drained by a large network of ducts leading to the lower part of the udder.
o The cells take blood sugar, amino acids, fatty acids and manufacture them into lactose (milk sugar), lasem (milk protein) and butter (milk fat)
o Other compound e.g. vitamins and minerals are taken from blood and appear in milk by filtering through the cells.
Milk let down
o This is the process whereby milk is removed from alveoli cavity and a mall duct system to the lower part of the udder.
o This is accomplished by a hormone called OXYTOCIN, which is secreted by the small gland at base of the brain.
o When the udder is washed the nerve cell in the udder send the message to oxytocin to the blood stream.
o When the hormone gets into the udder causes contraction of muscle fiber surrounding the alveolus, this squeezing action forces the milk into the teat system.
External factors influencing the release of oxytocin
o Feeding
o Presence of calf
o Noise associated in milking.
NB: If the cow is frightened adrenalin hormone is secreted, limiting blood supply to the udder preventing oxytocin from reaching the missile fiber around the alveoli.
MILKING: This is the process of removing milk from the gland through teat system either by hand or machine.
1. HAND MILKING
a) Preparation before milking: The following should be in hard : milk buckets, weighing scale for volumetric contain clean towel, strainer (clean sheet and cloth), warm water with disinfectant, tea cups, brooms and brushes for cleaning, ointment (oil applied to udder)
HAND MILKING
MACHINE MILKING
-Low initial cost
-High initial cost especially milking machine
-Can be done even few number of animals
-Not suitable for Small herds of cow
-Can be done even to cows with variable sized
Teats
-Require cow with uniform teat size.
-Does not need skill
-Require skilled personnel in operating the
machinery.
COW MILK
GOAT MILK
SHEEP MILK
HUMAN MILK
%fat
4.0
4.1
8.9
3.4
% protein
3.4
3.7
6.2
1.6
%lactose
4.7
4.6
5.0
6.4
%ash
0.8
0.8
1.0
0.3
%water
87.1
86.8
78.9
88.3
%TOTAL
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0



EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE) NOTES - LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

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