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THEME 1.0: AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
Introduction: In order to do work ENERGY must e used, the rate of expenditure is proportional to the rate of doing work which is known as POWER.
Form of energy
I) Animated Energy: Is the energy of expended by using muscular power of human beings and animals. II) In animated Energy: Is the energy expended through transformation of natural resources e.g. fossil fuel, wind.
Definition: Is the application of engineering principles and techniques in agricultural sector involving utilization of all forms of energy through mechanical assistance in agricultural products.
Components: Tools, Implements, Machines.
Advantages of mechanization
i. Brings more intensive production
ii. Put more land into use
iii. Increases speed of work and capacity
iv. Releasing labour peak
v. Increases labour productivity. POWER
Limitation:
i. Not suitable in steep slopes e.g. mountain
ii. Need technical knowledge
iii. It is expensive.
iv. It is weather sensitive.
Definition: Is a proportional integration of the rate of energy expenditure and the rate of doing work.
TYPES OF POWER
I) Human power: Have the ability to work by using hands, operate machinery using legs and hands in daily agricultural activities.
When he uses hands in small scale and simple tools called hand tools. These include;
a) Hoe: This is a device used for turning the soil (digging), make ridges, uprooting stumps etc. It varies in weight, size and shape depending on the use.
b) Rake: A short spronged tool used in soil leveling, removing stones and weeds, breaking dumps during seed bed preparation.
c) Machete: A device used for lifting, inverting, leveling the soil, digging holes and even is used in transplanting seedlings.
d) Manure fork: A device whose sprongs have been spaced at regular intervals, similar to a spade but it has no plane blade used in spreading manure.
e) Hand craft: A boat shaped short blade tool used in digging hallow holes and in transplanting.
f) Mattock: Used in uprooting, digging and cutting.
g) Shears: Scissor like tool used in trimming hedges.
h) Secateurs: Similar to shears and is also used in pruning.
i) Sickle: A curved iron bladed with a short hand used on areas of grass cutting.

j)Watering can:A container with a perforated spout used for watering.
k) Forked hoe: A strong sponged tool shaped like a fork used for rhizomatous weeds and loosening hard soil.
CARING AND MAINTENANCE
Cleaned and wiped after use.
Greasing of metal tools to prevent rust by using grease or engine oil;
Construction of tool shed or store.
Arrangement of tools in proper order in the shed and store right after use.
b) ANIMAL POWER: Power generated by use of oxen and buffaloes and camels involves pulling of courts and plough under the guidance of human beings. Animals used are drought animal.
LIMITATION
Farmers have to posses the drought animal.
Animal’s disease and parasite.
Vegetation availability for grazing animals.
Land topography i.e. layout of the land should be reasonable plat and with light soil.
An advision service to train and advice farmers on the use of animals and equipment.
QUALITIES OF A DROUGHT ANIMAL
They should be healthy and strong.
They should have short horns.
They should be at the age of 2-3 years.
Selection should be done in pairs.
o Similar size
o Similar strength
o Similar temperate
They should be castrated male animals.
They should have humps for a yoke.
They should be of quite temperate.
NB: Preferably nose ringed to make it easy for people to control.
HARNESSING
Meaning: Is the process of hitching implements to drought animals using a harness.
TYPES OF HARNESS

YOKE HARNESS
Commonly used in Tanzania, It consists of beam, skey, straps and U-bolt.
It is commonly short about I.5m long (Beam Length), when used in ploughing and harrowing while other operations like cultivation i.e. weeding and ridging require long beamed yoke of about I.4m. Physical structure: Is a smooth piece of wood to be rested on the neck of an animal.
Skeys: Piece of wood which are fitted into beam perforation so as to keep animals in position. U-bolt: A device fixed at all the centre of a beam where an implement can be fixed.
Straps: Leather made ropes which are lied skeys below animal neck.
COLLAR HARNESS
Collar harness is a single animal harness consisting of a collar and strips.
Methods of training animals
i. Far Eastern method (Indian type)
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
Requirements: Neck rope, nose rope, through nose ring, rein la rope connecting nose and neck rope used for guide animal during operation, one pair of oxen, and one person implement.
This method involves use of one pair of oxen and one person controls both oxen and implement control of animal is archived by rope passed through a hole and around the neck.
ii. Traditional method
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
Requirements: one or more pairs of oxen, one people, implement and other as above.
This involves two pairs of oxen guided by two people, one in front loading animals and another person at the near controlling implement.
A trained pair is in front, untrained pair is in the near. Procedure; each animal should be given a name.
Retraining an animal by rope to make him accustomed to being tied and controlled by a rope.
Animals should be fixed at a distance of about I.2m apart to make them accustomed to move on pairs.
Tying the pair with a yoke at least daily for 3-4 days to make them familiar with yoke.
Use of suitable commanding words like Go- nenda, Turn right- kata kulia.With the help of reins
Familiarize pulling by pulling a piece right log attached the yoke by means of chain.
Use the oxen for light work as a short and gradually change heavier work.
After about I0 days, harness the animal to a plough.
NB: People training oxen should be calm, patient from and consistent.
Management of oxen: It’s important so as to obtain maximum power output. This involves the followings;
Utilization of animal should be done in cooler position of the day add permitted to eat, drink and rest.
Example:
6:00 am release to graze and water
4:00 pm release to graze and water
7:00 am yoke for work
4:00 pm yoke for work
10:00 am release to graze and water
6: 00 pm release to graze and water, get them to res
Working animals should rest under shed to protect from them from wind, sun and rain
Disease and parasites such as tick borne diseases have to be controlled.
Check injures every day after work and advice possible treatment immediately.
They must be well fed on rich pasture, hay or green fodder and other recommended feeds.
Feed supplement and minerals must be fed on well cared paddock.
Tools and implements used
o -Qualities of tools and implements used: simple, strong, light, durable and inexpensive. Examples are:
i. PLOUGH:(Both donkey and oxen)-One furrow mould board plough are commonly used made on steel and double hands and a depth wheel in front of a beam.
ii. CULTIVATOR: At lined implements used for inter row weeding.
iii. OX-RIDGER: An implement consisting of two mould board back to back for making ridges.
iv. CARTS: A wooden box fixed on top of two wheels connected to an axle used for transportation of inputs and products.
v. TOOLBAR: A light metal/ wooden frame to which different piece of equipment can be attached depending on the job to be done.
vi. Is supported by wheels or skids.
USE OF TRACTOR (TRACTOR POWER)
o Conversion of chemical energy of fuel to chemical power for use in the farm, petrol, diesel, coal etc is vital example of fuel used.
o Liquid fuel engine called internal combustion engines where power production is achieved through a combination of steam engines and a boiler steam generator.
Factors to consider when applying tractor mechanization
i. Farms must be large with plenty of work throughout the year.
ii. Preparation of enough capital for buying and operating a tractor.
iii. Finding skilled people/ personal for operating, repairing and maintaining a tractor
iv. Availability of spares and services at a reasonable price.
v. Justification of a tractor running costs with expected returns.
Limitations of Tractorization
o Tractors and spares (i.e. equipment/implements) are very expensive.
o It needs fuel and lubricants which increase cost.
o Tractor requires highly skilled labour for operating and maintenance.
o Economically not suitable for peasants as require large farms with plenty of work.
Importance
o Transporting for product/ produce, fertilizers, seeds and buildings.
o Opening up new land with subsequent fertilizers.
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS

EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS

EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS

EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
PETROL
DIESEL
1
Light engine block
Heavy engine block
2
Carburetor is used
Fuel i
njector pump is used
3
Efficiency is 25-100
Efficiency is 40%
4
Has spark plug
Has no spark plug
5
Fuel ignited by electric plug
Fuel is ignited by compression
6
Has a low compression
Has a high compression
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS

Avoid cultivation on very steep slopes.


EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS

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1 Comment

  • EcoleBooks | AGRICULTURE O LEVEL(FORM THREE)- AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS

    Junior, September 4, 2023 @ 9:42 am Reply

    I need questions

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