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2021 WAEC BIOLOGY PRACTICAL PREPARATION

CERVICAL VERTEBRA

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Number of cervical vertebra in most vertebrates: 7

Location of cervical vertebra: Neck region

Features of cervical vertebra

  1. It has a pair of opening in the neural arch (i.e. vertebraterial canal) through which blood vessels to the neck pass.
  2. It has reduced neural spine
  3. Transverse process are flattened to form cervical ribs.

Functions of cervical vertebra

It allows nodding and turning of the head.

 

THORACIC VERTEBRA

Location in the body: Chest region

Function of thoracic vertebra

  1. It aids the attachment of the ribs.
  2. The neural spine of the thoracic vertebra is attached to the muscle of the back and shoulder.
  3. It assists in breathing alongside the ribs.

Characteristic features of thoracic vertebra

  1. It has a long neural spine that projects upwards and forwards.
  2. Possession of a pair of short transverse process.
  3. Presence of articular surface for attachment of ribs.
  4. It has a large neural canal and neural arch.
  5. Presence of large cylindrical centrum.

     

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DIFFERNCES BETWEEN A CERVICAL AND THORACIC VERTEBRA

CERVICAL VERTEBRA

THORACIC VERTEBRA

Possession of a short neural spine

Possession of a long neural spine

Vertebraterial canal present

Vertebraterial canal absent

Tubercular facet absent

Tubercular facet present

Transverse process is branched

Transverse process not branched

Presence of small centrum

Presence of a large centrum

 

LUMBAR VERTEBRA

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Characteristic features of lumber vertebra

  1. Possession of large flattened transverse process.
  2. It has broad and flat neural spine
  3. Large and thick centrum present.
  4. Possession of well-developed pre and post-zygapophyses.

Function of lumber vertebra

It provides attachment for muscles of the abdomen and bears considerable weight of the body.

Mineral content of thoracic, lumber and cervical vertebra: calcium and phosphorus.

ADULT MOSQUITO

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda. Reason; segmented body, exoskeleton, jointed legs or appendages, 3 body divisions, bilateral symmetry, etc.

Class: Insecta. Reason; 3 pairs of legs, 2 pairs of wings, 3 body divisions, a pair of antenna

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Life cycle of mosquito: complete

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Habitat of mosquito: stagnant water, empty cans or container and forest vegetation.

Feed of mosquito: plant juice (male), blood (female anopheles and culex).

Mode of feeding: fluid feeding.

Mouthpart of mosquito: piercing and sucking

Sickness or diseases associated with mosquito: malaria (female anopheles), elephantiasis and yellow fever (female culex).

Parasite of mosquito: plasmodium (anopheles), filarial worm (culex)

Economic importance of mosquito

  1. It is a vector of disease
  2. Its bite causes irritation
  3. It is a source of food to many predators in water and on land.
  4. Mosquitoes that feed on plant juice helps in pollination.

Control of mosquito

  1. Use of mosquito nets.
  2. Use of chemicals such as kerosene to kill its larva in stagnant water.
  3. Use aquatic organisms like fishes to feed on its larva
  4. Clearing of vegetation around our homes.

Adaptation of mosquito to movement

  1. Possession of wings for flight.
  2. Presence of jointed appendages for walking.

Adaptation of mosquito to feeding

Possession of long sharp proboscis for sucking fluid (blood and plant juice).

Adaptive feature for sensitivity

Possession of antenna for detecting stimulus

 

BUTTERFLY

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda, reason/ features; segmented body, exoskeleton, jointed legs or appendages, 3 body divisions, bilateral symmetry, etc

Class: Insecta. Reason; 3 pairs of legs, 2 pairs of wings, 3 body divisions, a pair of antenna.

EcoleBooks | WAEC BIOLOGY PRACTICAL PREPARATION PAPER
EcoleBooks | WAEC BIOLOGY PRACTICAL PREPARATION PAPER

Life cycle of butterfly: complete

Feed of butterfly: nectar or plant juice.

 

SUGAR ANT

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Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda. Reason; segmented body, exoskeleton, jointed legs or appendages, 3 body divisions, bilateral symmetry, etc.

Class: Insecta. Reason; 3 pairs of legs, 2 pairs of wings, 3 body divisions, a pair of antenna

Habitat of sugar ants
Their habitat varies depending on the species, as many ants live underground, while some build mounds at ground level, and a few live in trees or wood structures.

Feeds of ants: vegetation, decaying fruits

Adaptations of ant to survival

  1. The elbowed antennae or feelers are sensory organs in ants that help them not just to detect vibrations, air currents, and chemicals but also to communicate through touch.
  2. They live in a nest which protects them from environmental effect.

Adaptation of ant to feed

Ants have a pair of mandibles that are strong enough to manipulate objects, carry food, and build nests.

Feeding habit

Ants are omnivorous insects and have a diverse diet that includes meats, seeds, fruits, fungus, and sugary liquids such as nectar. Prey of sugar ants are insects like some termite and ant species.

Mode of feeding

Chewing. Reason: possession of mandibles

Life cycle of ant: Complete metamorphosis

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Adaptive features of ant to feeding to its environment

Large groups of ants travel together, communicate with each other, and swarm their prey together.

Germination Experiment

Aim: To determine the conditions necessary for germination

Materials needed: Soil, water, kerosene, beakers, bean seeds

Procedure: For specimens D, E,
F and G, you are requested to get four 250ml beakers and label them D, E, F and G.

Put dry garden soil into each beaker, up to 100 ml level.

Add 10 ml of water to the soil in each of beakers D, E and F.

Oven dry the garden soil in beaker G and leave dry throughout

the period of the experiment.

For specimen D, put five viable bean seeds into the soil in the

beaker labelled D.

For specimen E, soak five viable bean seeds in water for 2 -3

hours, then remove the testa of the soaked bean seeds. Split

open the cotyledons and remove the embryo of each bean seed.

Place the split cotyledons into the soil in the beaker labelled E.

For specimen F, place five viable bean seeds into the soil in the

beaker labelled F and add some quantity of kerosene enough

to cover the surface of the soil in the beaker.

For specimen G, add five dry and viable bean seeds into the

soil in the beaker labelled G.

Place all the beakers in a place with adequate sunlight for seven

days.

Moisten the soils in each of the beakers labelled D and E with

10ml of water daily for seven days before the date of the examination

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Result: There was germination in specimen D because it contains all the conditions necessary for germination such as moisture, air(oxygen) viable seeds and suitable temperature

E. No germination in Specimen E because it lacks embryo which shows the seeds were not viable

F. No germination in Specimen F because it lacks air/ oxygen for respiration. The kerosene present in the soil hinders the seeds from receiving oxygen

G. No germination in Specimen G Because it lacks water or moisture

Conclusion: In conclusion we have seen that for germination to occur in seeds all the conditions (water/moisture, air/oxygen, suitable temperature and viable seeds) necessary for germination must be present.

Note: the type of germination in this experiment is epigeal germination

Germination is the growth and development of mature seeds into independent seedlings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 




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