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Map and picture

A map is a drawing of an object as seen of seen from above.

A map is a representation of an object as seen from above.



A picture is a drawing of an object as see from sides.

A picture is a representation of an object as seen from the sides.


Picture Maps

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Similarities between maps and pictures

Both are drawings

Both show /represent objects.


Differences between a map and picture

Maps show the top part while the pictures show many parts

Maps are not easy to understand while pictures are easy to understand.




Elements /component/attributes/features of a good map

  1. Title
  2. Key
  3. Compass direction
  4. Scale
  5. Flame




Tells what the map is all about


Explains the meaning of symbols used on a map

Compass direction

Show direction of places


Measure the actual ground distance between places on a map.


Encloses the map


Compass direction

A compass direction is an element that shows direction of places

It can also be called a compass rose

The four main points of a compass are called cardinal points primary points

Image From N  N  –  North

 E  –  East

Image From   W   E W  –  West

 S  –  South



Points that lie in betweenthe cardinal points are called secondary points.

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Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From   NW   NE NE  –  North east

 SE  –  South east

Image From  NW  –  North west

 SW  –  South west



N.B: A compass needle points to the North whenever at rest.

People who use a compass in their daily work

  • Pilots
  • Sailors
  • Mountain climbers
  • Tourists
  • Navigators
  • Soldiers

Other ways of finding direction of places

  • By using the position of the sun.
  • By using the shadows
  • By using landmarks


A key is an element of a map that explains the meaning of symbols used on a map.

What are map symbols?

Map symbols are signs / colours used to represent real objects on a map.


Examples of map symbols

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Rift valley



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Image From EcoleBooks.comdam

Image From EcoleBooks.comWater falls

Image From EcoleBooks.comriver


Mountain peak

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comquarry

Image From EcoleBooks.comCanal

Image From EcoleBooks.comRailway line


Latitudes and longitudes

Latitudes are imaginary lines drawn on a map running from East to west.


Examples of lines of latitudes.

  1. Equator 00
  2. The tropic of cancer 23½0N
  3. Tropic of Capricorn 23½0S
  4. Arctic circle 66½0N
  5. Antarctic circle 66½0S

Latitudes are also called parallels

The major line of latitude is the equator 00

It is marked 00 because all other latitudes are marked after it.

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Image From EcoleBooks.com66½  Arctic circle


Image From EcoleBooks.com23½ Tropic of cancer


00Image From EcoleBooks.comEquator 00


Image From EcoleBooks.com23½ Tropic of Capricorn  


Image From EcoleBooks.com66½ Antarctic circle


Examples of districts crossed by the equator.

Kasese, Mpigi,   Ibanda  Kiruhura,  Sembabule,  Wakiso


Longitudes are imaginary lines drawn on the map running from North to South.

The major line of longitudes is the Greenwich Meridian


Importance of the lines of latitudes and longitudes

1, /they help to locate places

The longitudes help to tell time like the prime meridian.

They help to determine climate.


Locating the Equator on map of Uganda

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Kampala is the capital city of Uganda it is found in the central region and in Buganda kingdom.

Wakiso district sorrounds Kampala city in most of the directions

Kampala city neighbours lake Victoria in the south.

A sketch map of Kampala city

Other districts in the central region.





Island districts in Uganda

What is an island?

An island is an area of land surrounded by water.

In Uganda, there are two island districts namely




Brief history of Kampala city

Kampala was named after an animal called Impala

Kampala was formerly on seven hills namely





Old kampala



Its administrative centre were located on old Kampala hill.

Kampala is managed by an organ called KCCA.

(Kampala Capital City Authority)

The political head of Kampala city is the Lord Mayor.

The head of all civil servants in Kampala city is te Executive Director of Kampala city

Functions / duties of KCCA

  • It collects taxes
  • It constructs and maintains roads
  • It provides employment
  • It collects garbage
  • It improves public markets, schools and hospitals
  • It looks after public parks
  • It promotes street lighting

Divisions in Kampala city

  • Lubaga
  • Kawempe
  • Makindye
  • Central
  • Nakawa

Why was Kampala city divided into divisions

  • For easy services delivery
  • To create more jobs
  • To extend services nearer to the people
  • For easy monitoring of government programmes

Functions of a district

  • It is an administrative centre
  • It creates employment to people
  • It leads to easy services delivery
  • It serves as a commercial centre
  • It serves as a communication centre.

Problems people who live in urban areas face

  • High crime rates
  • Un employment / lack of jobs
  • Traffic jam
  • Floods
  • Poor housing\high cost of living
  • High spread of diseases


The representative of a president in a district is the

RDC  – (Resident District commissioner / Resident City Commissioner)

CAO – Chief Administrative Officer (heads all civil servants in a district.)

Requests of people in our district (Needs)

Basic needs are the things man cannot live without.

Examples of basic needs:



Medical care


Other needs





How people meet their request/needs

The government provides basic needs

People must also work hard in order to earn a living.

Non governmental organization also provide needs to people

Examples of non-governmental organisation that offer needs to people

TASO  –  The Aids Support Organisation

UWESO  –  Uganda Womens Effort to Save Orphans



Ways how NGO’s help people.

They provide education

They provide medical care to people

They provide clothes

They provide startup capital to people.

Problems people face while meeting their needs.

  • Insecurity
  • High taxes
  • Bad weather conditions
  • Fire outbreak
  • Floods
  • Shortage of capital

Important places in our district

  1. District headquarters like city hall in Kampala
  2. Schools like Makerere University
  3. Health centres like Mulago Hospital
  4. Markets like St. Balikudembe, Wandegeya, Kisekka in Kampala, Nakasero market
  5. Cultural and Historical sites like Uganda Museum, Kasubi Tombs etc.
  6. Radio stations like Simba, CBS, K. fm, Kingdom etc.
  7. Places of worship like Namirembe , Lubaga, Gadhafi Mosque
  8. Banks like BOU, Commercial banks like Stannic, KCB, OTB, Centenary bank.

The main bank in Uganda is Bank of Uganda (Central Bank)

Functions of the central bank

  • It controls all other banks
  • It prints money and mints coins.
  • It keeps money for other banks

Importance / uses of commercial banks

  1. They offer loans
  2. They keep money safely
  3. They give financial advice to traders
  4. They keep important documents
  5. They provide jobs.




TOPIC 2:  


What are physical features?


These are natural land forms of an area.


Examples of physical features.

Hills,  mountains,   plateau,  valleys  plains (Relief features),  rivers

Lakes oceans seas(drainage features) physical features in our district. (Kampala,



Land forms are the features(feature) that give land shape.

Examples of land forms include:

hills, mountains, valleys, plateau, plains etc.

Physical features are classified into two i.e.

  • Drainage features
  • Relief features


Relief is the physical appearance of the land’s surface.


Examples of relief features.

Hills,  mountains,  plateau,  valleys and plains



A plateau is a raised flat topped piece of land.

A plateau is also called a tableland

It covers the largest part of our district / Ugnda.

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comMap symbol of a plateau. plateau


It covers the largest land in our district/ Uganda.


Mountains are large raised steep pieces of land.

Mountains form the highest physical features of Uganda.

Examples of mountains in Uganda.

Rwenzori (Highest)  Elgon Moroto,  Mufumbiro,

Hills –These are fairly raised masses of land (hills)



A lake is a large mass of water in a basin.

The major lakes in our district / Kampala

L.Victoria (the biggest fresh water lake)

Kabaka’s lake (man – made) in Rubaga division.

Other lakes in Uganda.

  1. L. Kyoga: the most swampy lake.
  2. L.Albert: has oil wells.
  3. L.Edward
  4. L.Katwe: for salt production.
  5. L.Kwania
  6. L.Wamala
  7. L.Bisina
  8. L. George

Lake Victoria

  1. The former name of lake Victoria was Nyanja Nalubaale
  2. It was called Nalubaale because it was a home for local gods.
  3. Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Uganda
  4. Some inland ports found on lake Victoria are

    Port bell, Jinja and Bukakata in Uganda.

Lake Kyoga

  1. It is the most swampy lake in Uganda
  2. Lake kyoga is swampy because it is shallow.
  3. It is found in central Uganda.

Lake Albert

  1. The former name of lake Albert was Mwitanzigye
  2. It is found in western Uganda
  3. Crude oil (petroleum) has been found in lake Albert.

Lake Edward and George

They are found in western part of Uganda in Queen Elizabeth National park.

  1. Lake George is joined to lake Edward by Kazinga Channel

Lake Katwe

Lake Katwe is found in the Western Rift valley

It is well known for salt production.


A river is a mass of flowing water on the earth’s surface. There are two types of rivers.

  1. Permanent rivers  –  These are rivers which flow throughout the year.
  2. Seasonal rivers  –  These are rivers which flow in rainy season and dry up in a

    dry season.


Majr rivers in Uganda

R.Nile,  – (longest river in Uganda)

River Kafu,  

River Achwa  

River Katonga

River Semliki

Terms related to rivers

Source  –  it is a point where a river starts or originates.

Mouth  –  a point where a river ends

Tributary  –  A small river which joins on a main river

Distributary  –  A small river which branches away from a mainriver.

River confluence  –  A point where two or more rivers meet.


Water falls

Examples of water falls in river Nile

Karuma falls  Itanda falls

Murchison falls


Uses of water falls

They are used to generate hydro electric power

They attract tourists

They are used for recreation


Uses of lakes and rivers

  • They help in rainfall formation.
  • They are used as fishing grounds.
  • They are used for water transport.
  • They attract tourists.
  • They provide fast running water for Hydro electricity generation.
  • They are sources of minerals ( i.e. salt, oil)
  • They are sources of water


Dangers of lakes and rivers

  1. They flood in case of heavy rainfall
  2. People drown in lakes and rivers
  3. They hide dangerous water animals that kill people
  4. They are homes for some living organisms which spread diseases.




Mountains are large raised steep pieces of land.

Mountains form the highest physical feature of Uganda.


Examples of major mountains in Uganda.

Mt. Rwenzori,  Mt. Elgon ,

Mt. Moroto,  Mt. Mufumbiro


Mt. Rwenzori

  1. Mt. Rwenzori is the highest mountain in Ugnda
  2. It is found in western part of Uganda
  3. The highest peak of Mt. Rwenzori is called Margherita..
  4. The peak of mountain Rwenzori is snow capped throughout the year.


Question: Why is the peak of Mt. Rwenzori snow capped?

Answer:  The peak of Mt. Rwenzori crosses the snow line.


Mt. Elgon

  • The former name of Mt. Elgon is Masaba
  • It is found in Eastern part of Uganda.
  • The major tribes that live on the slopes of Mt. Elgon are Bagisu and Sabiny.
  • The slopes of Mt. Elgon are densely (highly) populated because:
    • There is reliable rainfall
    • There are fertile soils for crop growing
    • Cool temperatures for human settlement.
  • The major cash crop grown on the slopes of Mt. Elgon is Arabica coffee
  • The highest peak of Mt. Elgon is called Wagagai.


Note: A peak is a highest point of a mountain.

  • Give the highest peak of each of the following mountains.
    • Mt. Rwenzori  –  Margherita
    • Mt. Elgon –  wagagai
    • Mt. Mufumbiro  –  Muhavura
    • Mt. Moroto  –  –  Summit View



A hill is a fairly high area of land

A map symbol of a hill

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Uses of mountains

  • They help in rain formation.
  • They attract tourists
  • They are sources of minerals (stone mining)
  • They have fertile soils for farming
  • They are sources of some rivers.
  • They are used to make natural boundaries.
  • Mountains receive a lot of rainfall throughout the year.
  • They have fertile soils for farming

Problems faced by people living around mountains

  1. Soil erosion
  2. Land fragmentation
  3. Poor transport
  4. mud slides


Ways of controlling soil erosion in mountainous areas.

  • By terracing the land
  • By practicing contour ploughing
  • By practicing strip cropping.



A valley is a low land between two close hills or mountains


Diagram of a valley

A valley is a low land between two close hills or mountains.

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Valley valley

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Uses of valleys

  • Valleys are used for crop growing
  • They are used for grazing animals
  • They attract tourists.

Dangers of valleys

  1. They flood during heavy rains
  2. They hide disease vectors
  3. They make construction of roads and railway lines difficult.


This is the height of a land above sea level.


Uses of physical features

  1. They help in rain formation.
  2. They attract tourists
  3. They are used for mining
  4. Some physical features are used as fishing grounds
  5. Some are used for settlement


Dangers caused by physical features

  1. Mountains may cause landslides in case of heavy rains
  2. Volcanic mountains erupt and kill people
  3. Some physical features hide dangerous animals
  4. Lakes and rivers flood during heavy rains\
  5. People drown in lakes and rivers.


Define the following: Altitude, plateau, mountains, valleys, highlands, lakes, rivers


Qn. How do physical features influence climate of an area?

Physical features help in rain formation

Influence of mountains on climate

  1. Mountains help in the formation of relief rainfall.
  2. Relief rainfall is majorly experienced in mountainous areas / highland areas
  3. Relief rainfall is also called or ographic rainfall.




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Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From  WIND WARD SIDE  LEE WARD SIDE

Evaporation OR RAIN SHADOW

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Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From . Water body  Dry air descends

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  1. What type of rainfall formation is shown above?
  2. Name the side of a mountain that
    1. Receive much rainfall
    2. Receive little rainfall.
  3. Why does the wind ward side receive much rainfall than the lee ward side?
  4. Why does the leeward side receive little or no rainfall?
  5. \Why do winds that reach the lee ward side dry?

Examples of districts that receive relief rainfall in Uganda

  • Mbale
  • Kapchorwa
  • Kasese
  • Bundibugyo
  • Kisoro
  • Kabale.


    How physical features affect peoples’ activities

  1. Physical features determine the work people in that area.
  2. Physical features such as mountains have fertile soils for crop growing.


How physical features affect animal life

  • They provide water, food and shelter to animals

Caring for physical features

Ways of protecting physical features

  1. Enforcing laws against environmental degradation
  2. Avoiding swamp drainage
  3. Avoiding over cultivation on mountainous areas
  4. Avoiding pollution

Environmental degradation

Environmental degradation

Environmental degradation is the lowering down the quality of the environment.


Anything done to destroy the natural state of the environment

Ways of degrading the environment

  • Polluting the environment
  • Practicing swamp drainage
  • Brick making in wetlands
  • Overgrazing
  • Over cultivating the land


Organizations that help in protecting physical features in Uganda

  1. National Environment Management Authority
  2. National Forestry Authority (NFA)



Write in full

  • NEMA




This is the condition of the atmosphere of a given place at a given time

Or: The atmospheric condition of a place at a given time.


Weather forecasting

This is telling of future weather changes



This is the study of weather

Or: The studying of weather changes and conditions



This is a person(s) that study weather conditions.


A place where weather conditions are studied is called a meteorological station. Uganda’s meteorological station is located at Entebbe in Wakiso District.


Elements of weather (these can also be called makers of rain)

  • Rain
  • Sunshine
  • Wind
  • Clouds
  • Humidity
  • Temperature
  • Air pressure


Rain refers to the droplets of water that fall from the sky. When rain is collected, measured and studied, its total amount is what is called rainfall.

The instrument used to measure the amount of rain (fall) in an area is known as a rain gauge. Below is a diagram to show the rain gauge.


Measuring cylinder Rain gauge




Rain is measured in millimeters. This is because we measure how deep it has gone into the soil (ground)


This is the continuous process through which rain is formed. The cycle is different when it comes to the different types of rain (fall)


Types of rainfall

Convectional rainfall

This is the type of rainfall received in areas with lakes, water bodies and forests. Convectional rains usually fall in afternoons. It’s received in districts like Kampala, Wakiso, Kalangala and others.

Diagram to show convectional rainfall







Cyclonic rainfall

  • This type of rainfall is experienced when warm moist air masses meet cold dry masses rise, condense and form rain. Warm air rises because it is lighter than cold air. It’s mainly received in flat areas like Karamoja and Teso.
  • Image From EcoleBooks.comCyclonic rainfall is also called frontal rainfall



     Condensation to form

    Image From EcoleBooks.comRain   clouds.

    Image From

    Image From EcoleBooks.comWarms moist air rising  front

    Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comrises  cold dry wind

    Flat ground

  • A place where the two wind masses meet is called a front.
  • Hence it being called the frontal rainfall. Its’s received in districts like Abim, Kotido, Kaabong and Bukedea

Reliefrainfall (OROGRAPHIC)

  • This type of rainfall is received in highland areas. These include mountains and hills. A mountain has two sides i.e.
  • The leeward and windward side(s). When evaporation takes place, warm moist wind rises to the top of the highland, condenses from above it and forms rain.
  • The leeward side of a mountain receives very little or no rainfall because it receives dry winds. This is because the winds have lost all the moisture by the time they descend towards this side.








Diagram to show orographic rainfall.

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Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From   rain

Sun rays  CondensationImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From  

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From  WIND WARD SIDE  LEE WARD SIDE

Image From Evaporation OR RAIN SHADOW

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From EcoleBooks.comImage From  Warm air HIGHLAND  



Image From EcoleBooks.comWater body  Dry wind descends




Sunshine is heat and light from the sun. The sun is a natural source of light and heat. Energy from the sun is called solar energy. The sun’s intensity is measured using an instrument known as Campbell’s sunshine recorder.





Uses of sunshine

  1. It helps in the formation of rainfall
  2. It helps to dry farmers’ crop produce
  3. It is a source of solar electricity
  4. It is a source of vitamin D.
  5. It helps plants to make their food.


Dangers of sunshine

  • Prolonged sunshine causes drought.
  • Too much sunshine dries man’s crops
  • Too much sunshine dries up water bodies
  • Too much sunshine hardens the soil for ploughing/ cultivation.


Wind is moving air or Wind is air in motion.

Characteristics of wind

  • It has no smell (scent)
  • It has strength, direction and speed.





Wind sock

Wind vane


Wind sock shows the strength of wind

The wind vane shows the direction of wind

Anemometer is used to measure the speed of wind.

Wind speed is measured in Kilometers per hour (Km/hr)


Uses of wind

  1. Wind helps in winnowing
  2. Wind helps in flower pollination
  3. It dries clothes
  4. It helps in seed dispersal
  5. It drives away bad smell
  6. Helps sailors to move canoes/ boats.

Dangers of wind

  1. It spreads air borne diseases.
  2. Strong wind destroys property (houses, crops, animals)
  3. Strong wind leads to soil erosion.


Clouds are a collection of dust, moisture and smoke that float in the sky.

Types of clouds

  1. Nimbus clouds:

    These are very dark and low. These are the ones that provide man with rainfall.

  2. Stratus clouds

    These bring about drizzling. This is after darkening and lowering.

  3. Cumulus clouds:

    They are white in colour. They appear like cotton wool in the sky. They show fine weather. They are in the sky in the afternoon.

  4. Cirrus clouds:

    These are very large. They move in the sky brining about storms.

  5. Cumulus – Nimbus:

    They are very large. They move in the sky bringing about storms.

Air pressure

It is also called atmospheric pressure. Air pressure is measured in Mill bars (mb)areas with high airpressure experience dry conditions while those with low pressure with rainfall.

The instrument used to measure air pressure is called a barometer.


This refers to the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere.





This is the degree of hotness or coldness of an area or object. Temperature is measured in degrees. It is measured using an instrument called a thermometer.

Types of thermometers

Clinical thermometer

It is also called the doctor’s thermometer. It is used in clinics and hospitals.


Six’s thermometer

It was invented by Tame six, hence its name. It’s also called the minimum and maximum thermometer.

The minimum scale measures the lowest while the maximum scale measures the highest temperature



Mercury and alcohol are the liquids used in the thermometer but mercury is more commonly used.


Why mercury is used

  1. It doesn’t stick on the thermometer walls
  2. It is clear due to its colour
  3. It is more sensitive to heat than alcohol.


Scales used on the thermometer

  1. Celsius scale (centigrade) (0C)
  2. Fahrenheit scale (0F)


A weather station

This is where weather conditions are studied ad recorded.


Stevenson screen

This is a wooden box in which delicate weather instruments at a weather station are kept.

  • It is painted to reflect sun heat.
  • It is lowered to allow air circulation within it.

Its importance is to protect delicate weather instruments from damage.


Instruments found in a Stevenson screen

  • Thermometer (S)
  • Barometer
  • Hygrometer


How weather affects human activities

  • People who live in areas that receive reliable rains grow crops nd rear animals unlike those in dry areas.
  • People who live in dry areas wear light clothes while those in cold wear heavy clothes.
  • Weather determines the types of crops to gro.









  1. Wind vane- Shows the direction of wind
  2. Anemometer – Measures the speed of wind.
  3. Wind sock – Measures the strength / wind direction

A wind vane is placed in an open place or on top of the buildings to prevent wind obstruction.


  1. Draw and name the following wind instruments. State the uses of each.
    1. Anemometer
    2. Wind vane
    3. Wind sock
    4. Hygrometer
    5. Barometer
    6. Sunshine recorder
  2. Why is the wind vane placed in an open place?

    Lesson evaluation










  • Rain fall is measured in units called millimeters.
  • We use the instrument called a rain gauge to measure rain fall.
  • A rain gauge consists of the following
  1. Funnel
  2. Measuring cylinder
  3. Metal can
  • It is always placed about 30cm above the ground to prevent running water from entering the cylinder.
  • It should be placed away from trees and water sheds to trap the correct amount of water.


  1. What is the use of a rain gauge at a weather station?
  2. Why is a rain gauge placed about 30cm above the ground
  3. Why is it placed in an open place?
  4. Draw and name parts of a rain gauge.

Lesson evaluation



These are also called weather makers

  • Temperature
  • Rainfall
  • Humidity
  • Sun shine
  • Cloud cover
  • Wind movement
  • Air pressure / Atmospheric pressure.

Meteorologists: Are people who study and tell us about the weather conditions of particular places.

Meteorology: is the study of weather conditions / elements.

The weather experts can tell what the weather condition of a particular place will be. This is called weather forecasting.

In Uganda the main meteorological centre is found in Entebbe, Wakiso district.

  1. Explain what weather is
  2. State the elements of weather.
  3. What is weather forecasting?




What is temperature?

This is coldness or hotness of a place or an object.

How is temperature measured?

  • Temperature is measured in units called degrees.
  • An instrument called a thermometer is used to measure temperature.

Types of thermometers.

  1. Minimum and maximum thermometer.
  • It was also called six’s thermometer.
  • It was invented by a man called James six.
  • The minimum and maximum thermometer is kept at the weather station in the Stevenson screen.
  1. Clinical thermometer.
  • It is also called the doctors thermometer.
  • It is used in clinics and hospitals.
  • Liquids used in thermometers are mercury and alcohol.


  1. What is temperature?
  2. Draw and name.
    1. Minimum and maximum thermometer
    2. Clinical thermometer





Sunshine refers to the sun’s heat energy received on the earth’s surface.

Measuring sunshine.

It is measured using an instrument called the sunshine recorder/ Campbell stokes.

  • It records the length of time it has shined on a particular day in a given place (intensity of sunshine)
  • State any four uses of sunshine
  • Give any four dangers of sunshine
  • Draw and name the sunshine recorder.











  • What are clouds?

    Clouds are droplets of water vapour which keep floating in the atmosphere.

  • The height and movement of clouds can indicate the type of weather that is likely to occur.


  1. Mention five types of clouds you have observed
  2. Which type of clouds is most liked by farmers?
  3. Mention the highest clouds in the sky.

Lesson evaluation





  • Weather can influence people’s activities in various ways such as farming.Too much sunshine / rainfall can destroy people’s crops.
  • Dressing can also be affected by weather for example, people in hot areas like Karamoja put on light clothes while those in cold areas put on heavy areas
  • People carry umbrellas on sunny and rainy days.
  • People who work in open areas are affected by sunshine and rainfall.


  1. State three ways in which weather affects us.

    N.B: Some information about the Stevenson screen.

  • Drawing a diagram and instruments kept in it.

Qn: Why should a Stevenson have louvers?

  • Why is it painted white?
  • Why is it built with metallic stands?




  • Seasons are periods of time in a year when the same weather conditions are experienced.
  • Seasons usually last for 3-4 months.
  • There are only two seasons experienced in our district .These are:
  1. Dry season
  2. Wet season
  • Some countries have more than two seasons e.g.
  1. Autum
  2. Spring
  3. Summer
  4. Winter

Farmers do different activities in the different seasons.

Dry season

  • Harvesting ready crops.
  • Drying yields
  • Preparing / ploughing the land
  • Seed storing
  • Repairing machines

Wet season

  • Planting of crops
  • Weeding / pruning / spraying


  1. State the activities done by farmers during
    1. Wet season
    2. Dry season
  2. Why is it necessary to harvest crops during the dry seasons?
  3. Why is there need to have proper storage of harvests?
  4. What is the use of a granary to the farmer?

Lesson evaluation










Vegetation is the plant cover of an area.

Examples (components of vegetation) forests, swamps, crops, grass, shrubs, (food crops and cash crops)


  • Natural vegetation
  • Plantation vegetation

Natural vegetation:

Natural vegetation is the plant cover of an area that grows on its own





natural forests

semi arid areas


A swamp is a water logged area with vegetation.

Swamp reclamation /drainage is the clearing away of swamps.

The plant covers of an area that is grown by man.

Uses of swamps

  • Swamps help in the formation of rainfall.
  • Swamps are sources of water.
  • Swamps are sources of raw materials e.g. papyrus and clay.
  • Swamps are home for aquatic animals
  • Crops like yams and rice are grown in swamps.

Caring for swamps

  1. Avoid swamp drainage
  2. Avoid building in swamps


Planted vegetation

This the plant cover that is planted by man

Examples of planted vegetation

  • Trees (some forests)
  • Crops


A forest is a group of trees growing together in an area.


Types of forests

  1. Natural forests
  2. Planted forests

Natural forests

These are forests that grow on their own.


Characteristics of natural forests

  1. Natural forests have hard wood trees.
  2. Trees in natural forests are very large ad tall.
  3. Natural forests have very little or grass under them
  4. Trees in natural forests have buttress roots.
  5. Natural forests are very think.


Examples of soft wood trees

  1. Eucalyptus
  2. Pines
  3. Spruce
  4. Conifers

Things made out of soft wood

  • Match boxes
  • Papers
  • Ply wood
  • Pencils

Importance of forests to people

  • Forests help in the formation of rainfall.
  • Forests are sources of herbal medicines
  • Forests provide wood for furniture.
  • Trees are used for fuel.
  • Forests are used for tourism.
  • Forests are homes for wild animals.
  • Forests are used for study purpose.

Termsrelated to forests

  1. Deforestation:

Is the cutting down of trees on a large scale.


  1. Afforestation:

Is the planting of trees where they have never been.


  1. Re-afforestation:

Is the planting of tees where they have ever been.


  1. Agro-forestry

Is the planting of trees alongside crops.

Examples of natural forests in Uganda

  1. Budongo forest (the biggest natural forest in Uganda )
  2. Mabira forest ( the biggest in central Uganda)
  3. Bugoma forest
  4. Bwindi impenetrable forest
  5. Maramagambo forest


Planted forests

These are forests planted by man.


Characteristics of planted forests

  1. Trees are planted in lines.
  2. These are spaced
  3. Trees are of one type
  4. Planted forests provide soft wood

Examples of planted forests in Uganda

Lendu (the biggest planted forest in Uganda)

Mafuga forest

Magamaga forest

Nyabyeya forest


Grass land (savanna)

These are large pieces of land with tall grass.


Types of savanna

  • Dry savanna (receives much rainfall)
  • Wet savanna (receives little rainfall)


Savanna is the example of natural vegetation that covers the largest part of Uganda.

Most games parts in Uganda are located in areas with Savanna vegetation because there is a complete food chain for animals.


Uses of grasslands to m an

  • They provide pasture for animals
  • They provide grass for thatching houses
  • They are homes of wild animals
  • They help to control soil erosion.

Semi arid vegetation

  • These are areas which are hot and dry.
  • Nomadic pastoralism is the major economic activity in semi-arid areas.
  • Pastoralism is the keeping of animals as a way of life.
  • Nomadic pastoralism is the movement of people and their animals from one place to another looking for water and pasture for their animals.
  • Karimojong and Bahima are some of the pastoral communities in Uganda.


Uses of vegetation

  • Sources of herbs e.g. (alovera, garlic)
  • Sources of firewood
  • Source of food
  • Helps in rain formation
  • Improves soil fertility.
  • For decoration.



  1. By swamp drainage
  2. By deforestation
  3. By building in swamps
  4. By over stocking
  5. By over cultivation.

Environmental Degradation Is the act of misusing the environment.



How to care for vegetation

  1. By watering
  2. Ensuring proper disposal of rubbish
  3. Not building in swamps
  4. Fencing
  5. Through agro-forestry
  6. Watering vegetation
  7. Trimming them, mulching, pruning


Organizations that protect environment

  1. National environment management Authority (NEMA)
  2. National Forestry Authority (N F A)


Roles / activities of NEMA

  1. Educates people the dangers of encroaching wetlands and forests.
  2. To educate people the dangers of environmental degradation
  3. To educate the public on the values of the environment
  4. To educate the public on the proper ways of using the environment.
  5. To protect wetlands, swamps and forests.


Factors that affect vegetation

  • Afforestation
  • Rood construction
  • Swamp drainage
  • Deforestation
  • Over cultivation
  • Over stocking
  • Agro-forestry
  • Charcoal burning
  • Re-afforestation
  • Brick making


Natural factors

  1. Altitude
  2. Rainfall distribution
  3. Nearness to water bodies
  4. Soil fertility





  • Bush burning
  • Over cultivation
  • Over grazing
  • Making bricks
  • Deforestation
  • Constructing roads
  • Re-afforestation
  • Agro-forestry
  • Crop rotation
  • Adding manure
  • Watering vegetation
  • Agro-forestry
  • Slashing



Types of crops:

Food crops: Are crops grown for food

Cash crops: Are crops grown mainly for selling


Examples of crops

Food crops

Cash crops

  • Bananas
  • Maize
  • Cassava
  • Millet
  • Sorghum
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Beans
  • Tobacco
  • Coffee
  • Tea
  • Sugar
  • Vanilla
  • cotton


Types of cash crops

Traditional cash crops

Are crops that were originally grown for selling? E.g. Tobacco, cotton, coffee, tea.


Non-traditional cash crops

These are crops that were originally grown for food but are now sold for money. E.g. maize, beans, sugarcane, vanilla, millet, etc.


Crops and their products.

Crop  product

Coffee –  coffee powder, gun powder

Tea –  tea leaves

Tobacco –  cigarettes

Cotton –  clothes, cotton wool, threads

Coca –  cocoa beverage, biscuits, sweets

Pyrethrum –  insecticides, perfumes

Sim sim –  cooking oil

Palm oil (kalangala)-  cooking oil

Sugar cane –  sugar, sweets

Maize –  posho

Vanilla –  spices




The stone aged period

Before the coming of the ethnic group, the people who lived in Uganda were called the bush men / early man.

They lived during the Stone Age Period.


What was the Stone Age period?

The stone age period was the period when early man used tools made out of stones.

Stone Age is the period when early man used stone tools and weapons


Places where early man lived

  • Caves
  • Under big trees


Early man’s food

  • Raw meat
  • Roots
  • Fruits
  • Insects
  • Fish
  • Honey

Ways how early man got food





Problems early man faced

  • Attacks from wild animals
  • Bad/harsh weather
  • Lack of proper food
  • Lack of proper shelter


Early man’s discoveries

Iron smelting




Stages of the Stone Age period

Old/early Stone Age period

Needs of man during this period

  • Shelter
  • Food
  • Protection


  • They lived under big trees and caves
  • Near lakes and rivers.


They ate raw meat, fruits and honey


Early man tools






Hand axe


Thumb nail scrapper




Bone needle





Use of each tool / weapon


  • Bolas – for trapping fast running animals
  • Image From EcoleBooks.comHand axe
  • Thumb nail scrapper  skinning animals


  • Bone needle – joining skins to make clothes for earlyman.
  • Club – for hitting trapped animals to death
  • Cleaver – for splitting
  • Pick – for digging holes


The early / Old Stone Age period ended with the discovery of fire.

Therefore the discovery of fire marked the end of the Old Stone Age period and beginning of the Middle Stone Age Period.


Importance of fires to early man

  • Scare away wild animals
  • To light in the cave
  • To roast meat.
  • For warmth
  • Boiling roots, berries and plants for poison to use on spear and arrow tips.

The middle Stone Age period the middle Stone Age period, early man, tamed the dog by giving the dog a bone.


How useful was a dog to earlyman

  • For scaring away wild animal
  • For hunting
  • For company


Other important discoveries during the middle Stone Age period

  • Manused skin and leaves as clothes
  • Making pots for domestic use
  • New ways of trapping and hunting animals
  • Buried their dead
  • Hunting tools were made better

NB: Early man tamed other animals like the goat, sheep and cattle during the middle

Stone Age period.

The most important discovery of earlyman during the middle Stone Age period

was farming.

Therefore, farming marked the end of Middle Stone Age period and the beginning of the new/late Stone Age period.



  • Having discovered farming in the middle stone early man started living a settled life in the late Stone Age period in order to look after his animals and crops.
  • The most important discovery of early man during this period was iron smelting
  • New tools like knives, hoes and baskets were made to help dig the land, saw and harvest crops.
  • Drawing and painting s on walls of rocks
  • Rock painting in Uganda can be found in Nyero in Kumi district.
  • Iron smelting marked the end of the Stone Age period.




Archeology is the study of the remains of early man / early life.

Archeological work is done by digging the remains of early man

Early man remains are called fossils

Digging deep in the soil to find the remains of early man is called excavation.




Archeologists are the people who study the remains of earlyman.


Sources of history

  • Oral tradition (legends, fairytales, myth)
  • Written records
  • Archeology
  • Linguistics

Dr. L. Leakey

  • He is the most famous archaeologist in east Africa
  • He discovered the oldest skull of early man in East Africa
  • The skull was found at Old vai George in Tanzania.


What do Archaeologists study?

  • Remains of plants and animals
  • Stone Age tools
  • Rock paintings
  • Weapon
  • Remains of food
  • Building materials
  • Iron remains


The Bachwezi introduced the idea of iron work in Uganda.


Stone Age sites

These are places where early man is believed to have lived.


Examples of Stone Age sites

  1. Luzira Stone Age site in Kampala
  2. Nsongezi Stone Age site (largest Stone Age site in Uganda)
  3. Nyero Stone Age site in Kumi district (known for rock painting)
  4. Magosi in Karamoja region
  5. ParaaStone Age site


A sketch map of Uganda showing Stone Age sites




Importance of Stone Age sites

  1. They are a source of tourist attraction
  2. They help us to know or to learn about the life of early man.
  3. They help us to study things used by early people
  4. We discover the origin of early man.


A Museum

A museum is a building where things of long ago are kept.


Importance of a museum

  • For study purpose
  • For tourist attraction
  • Provides jobs to people



Define an ethnic group

An ethnic group is a group of people with the same origin and speaks related languages.


A tribe

A tribe is a group of people with the same origin and speaks the same language.


A clan

A clan is an organized group of people under one fore father.


A lineage

This is a small group of people within a clan


A throne is a special seat for the King.



Migration is the movement of people from one place to another for settlement.


Examples of ethnic groups in Uganda

  • Bantu
  • Nilotics (river – lake nilotes)
  • Hamates
  • Nilo – hamates


A sketch map of Uganda showing ethnic migration into Uganda




Causes of ethnic migration

  • Famine in their homeland
  • Outbreak of epidemic disease
  • Drought in their homeland
  • Search for fertile soil
  • Civil wars in their homeland
  • Search for water and pasture for their animals



  1. The Bantu is the largest ethnic group in Uganda
  2. They were the first group to enter into Uganda.
  3. Their cradle land is Cameroon highlands.
  4. They entered Uganda from western direction.
  5. The Bantu are called so because they have a common word “ntu” which means people or person.
  6. The Bantu were originally farmers.


    Examples of tribes under the Bantu.

  • Baganda
  • Banyankore
  • Bagisu
  • Basoga
  • Bakiga
  • Batooro – known for male circumcision.
  • Bakonjo


  1. The Nilotics are also called River – lake nilotes
  2. They are Luo speakers
  3. They entered Uganda from the northern direction following river Nile.
  4. Their original homeland in Bahel-el-Ghazel present day South Sudan
  5. The nilotics are related to the legend of the spear and the bead.


Examples of Nilotics in Uganda

  • Acholi
  • Japadhola
  • Alur


The Nilo-hamites are divided into plain-nilotes and highland nilotes

  • They were cattle keepers
  • They came from Ethiopia highland
  • They entered Uganda from the north eastern direction

Plain nilotes

  • Iteso
  • Karimojong
  • Langi
  • Kumam
  • Jie


Highland Nilotes

  • Sabiny



  • They came from Ethiopian highlands
  • They entered Uganda from south west
  • They were cattle keepers

Examples of hamates




Note: The Bahima and the Karimojongo are cattle keeps


Results of early ethnic migration

  1. It led to over population
  2. New crops were introduced
  3. New languages
  4. They introduced kingdoms
  5. New culture was introduced

Languages spoken by different tribes

Baganda  –  Luganda

Basoga  –  Lusoga

Iteso –  Ateso

Bagisu  –  Lugisu / Lumasaba

Banyoro  –  Lunyoro

Bakiga  –  Lukiga

Sabiny  –  Kup-sbiny

Karimojong  –  Akarimojong

Acholi  –  Acholi


Traditional leaders

Kingdom title of the cultural leader

Buganda  –  Kabaka

Busoga  –  Kyabazinga

Bunyoro  –  Omukama

Tooro  –  Omukama

Iteso –  Emori mori

Alur /Acholi  –  Rwoth


NB: A clan is a group of people under one forefather


Symbols of a clan

  • Clan name
  • Totem
  • Drumming



  1. The spear and the bead
  2. Kintu and Nambi
  3. Mundu and Seera

The spear and the bead

  • Gipri and Labongo were sons of Olum
  • The elephant ran away with the spear
  • Ruhanga (the spirit) helped Gipir to look for Labong’s spear.
  • The descendants of Labong are the Langi and Gipir are the Langi and Alur respectively.

Lesson learnt from the legend of the spear and the bead

  • To be kind
  • To ask for permission
  • Revenge is bad and can lead to death




  1. From which ethnic group is the legend of Kintu and Nambi?
  2. Name the brother of Nambi who was;
  • Cruel
  • Kind
  1. Why did Nambi and Kintu hate Walumbe?
  2. How was Kintu related to Nambi?

Lesson we learn from the legend of Kintu and Nambi

  1. Forgetfulness is bad
  2. Poverty does not stop success
  3. We learn to be kind to others,

The three sons of Kintu

  1. What was the general name Kintu’s children
  2. How many sons had Kintu?
  3. Give the name which mean
    1. Servant
    2. Herdsman
    3. Ruler/ leader
  4. How was Ruhanga helpful to Kintu?
  5. Name the youngest son of Kintu.

The legend of King Isaza and king Nyamiyonga

  1. What was the most precious thing at Isaza’s palace?
  2. Who were the following people;
    1. Ndahura
    2. Bukuku
    3. Nyamiyonga
    4. Nyamwiru
    5. Isimbwa
    6. Namala
    7. Mugizi
  3. How did Bukuku become the king?
  4. Name the
    1. First king of Bachwezi
    2. Last king of the Bachwezi
  5. Which tribe tells the legend of king Isaza and king Nyamiyonga.

Migration today

What is migration?

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another for settlement

People move from one place to another in search for places with better services


Rural – Urban migration

Rural –urban migration is the movement of people from villages to town for settlement.

Another name for rural areas is village areas and another name for urban areas is town.


Causes of rural-urban migration

  1. Looking for better schools in town
  2. Cultural practices in villages like forced marriage and circumcision
  3. Due to insecurity in villages
  4. Looking for better medical services in town
  5. Looking for markets for their products
  6. Epidemic diseases in villages
  7. Better social amenities like electricity and piped water.


Problems faced by people living in town

  1. Traffic jam
  2. Noise pollution
  3. Congestion / over crowding
  4. High crime rate
  5. High cost of living
  6. Unemployment
  7. Poor sanitation


Note: As a result of rural –urban migration, there has been creation of slum in urban centres.



A slum is an area with poor housing and sanitation facilities.

A slum is an area within the city with poorly built houses congested with poor sanitation.

Dangers of slums

  • Easy spread of diseases
  • High crime rate
  • Congestion
  • Bad morals
  • Pollution

How do people in towns benefit from villages

  • They get food
  • They get herbal medicines
  • Cheap labour is got from villages
  • They provide them with land

Urban – rural migration

Urban-rural migration is the movement of people from town to village for settlement.


What can government do to encourage rural-urban migration?

  • Setting up good schools in villages
  • Extending piped water to villages
  • Extending electricity to village
  • Building and equipping hospitals in villages.
  • Extending banking services to villages
  • Constructing good roads in villages.


Social setup of people in our districts.

People in our district are organized under tribes, clans, lineage and families.


  1. A tribe is a group of people with the same culture and speaks the same language.
  2. A clan is a group of people under one forefather.

Each clan has three major symbols of identification namely

  1. Totem
  2. Clan name
  3. Drumming

Each clan has a clan head who perform the following duties


Duties of a clan head

  1. Registering clan members
  2. Keeping clan records
  3. Organizing clan ceremonies and functions
  4. Setting disputes among clan members
  5. Looking after clan property

A lineage is a small group of people in a clan.


A family

  1. A family is a group of people living together related by blood, marriage and adoption.
  2. The husband and wife are related by marriage
  3. Their children (off springs)are related by blood
  4. Families that are related make up a clan.


Types of families

  1. Nuclear family
  2. Extended family
  3. Foster family


A nuclear family

A nuclear family is a family made up of father, mother and their own children.

The smallest nuclear family is made up of a couple; husband and wife.


Advantages of a nuclear family

  1. Paying school fees is easy.
  2. Promoting discipline is easy
  3. It is easy to provide shelter
  4. It is cheap to provide clothes
  5. It is easy to provide medical care

Disadvantages of a nuclear family

  1. This is lack of enough labour force
  2. Family children may not know their relatives
  3. In case both parents die, children may be left alone
  4. Since the family members are few, there is limited social security.


Advantages of an extended family

  1. There is good social security
  2. Children may know their relatives
  3. Incase both parents die, children can remain with their relatives.
  4. Work can be easily done
  5. There is enough social security


Foster family

A foster family is a type of family where children are brought up in a foster home.

Orphans and abandoned children are provided with basic needs in foster homes.


A family head

A family head is a person who heads the family. In most cases the father heads a family. However some families are headed by mothers.


Duties of a family head

  1. Paying school fees
  2. Providing security
  3. Providing shelter
  4. Bringing up children with good morals
  5. Providing clothes to family members
  6. Providing medical care.

Duties of children at home

  • Respecting parents
  • Doing house work
  • Assisting the elderly.



Population is the number of people living in an area


Terms related to population

  1. Population distribution:

    Is the way people are spread in an area.


  2. Population density

    Is the number of people living in an area per square kilometer


  3. Over population

    Is when the number of people living in an area is more than the available resources.


  4. Under population

    Is when the number of people is less than the available resources.


  5. Population structure:

    Is the number of people living in an area according to age and sex.


  6. Population census: is the general counting of people living in an area.


  7. Census night

    Is the night before census


  8. Enumerators:

    Are people trained to count others during population census


  9. Population growth:

    Is the gradual increase of people living in an area.


  10. Sparse population:

    Is when the number of people living in an area is less than the land available


Factors that determine population distribution

  1. Climate
  2. Industrialisation
  3. Fertility of soils
  4. Security
  5. Market
  6. Transport and communication
  7. Employment
  8. Drainage
  9. Relief
  10. Vegetation


Over population

This is when the number of people is higher than the available resources


Causes of high population

  • Good climate
  • Good communication
  • Good security
  • Availability of goods in an area
  • Industrialization of an area


Problems caused by high population

  • There is easy spread of diseases because of poor santitation
  • Insecurity
  • Lack of enough clean water
  • Slums\lack of enough social services
  • Destruction of natural land forms


Advantages of high population

  • Ready market
  • Cheap labour
  • Wide tax base
  • Promotes investment


Under population

Is when the number of people living in an area is less than the available resources.


Causes of low population

  • Insecurity in an area
  • Lack of market for people produce
  • Poor medical facilities
  • Soil infertility
  • Diseases.

Disadvantages of low population

  • Lack of enough market
  • Lack of enough labour
  • Low investment

Advantages of low population

  • Easy provision of social services
  • Availability of enough resources
  • Low government expenditure
  • Low crime rates.


Population census

Population census is the general counting of people living in an area.


Terms related to population censes.

  1. Census night

    Is the night before census


  2. Enumerators:

    Are people trained to count others during population census

  3. National population census:

    Is the general counting of people living in a country


  • Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development is the ministry that organizes population census in Uganda.
  • Hon Maria Kiwanuka is the current minister.


Reasons why the government carries out population census

  • To know the number of people living in an area.
  • To plan forth country
  • To know the birth rate
  • To know the death rate
  • To know the population growth rate.


Information collected during population census

  • Death
  • Birth
  • Marriage status
  • Number of people in each family
  • Education level
  • Occupation
  • Religion
  • Tribe


How can population be controlled?

  1. Promoting girl child education
  2. Through family planning\teaching people the danger of a high population
  3. Setting up a child policy.




Economic activities are activities people do to get money.


Types of economic activities

  1. Traditional economic activities
  2. Modern economic activities


Traditional economic activities

These are activities that were done by people of long ago to get money.


Examples of traditional economic activities

  1. Pottery is the making of things out clay.
  2. Black smiting is the making of things out of iron
  3. Back cloth making
  4. Basket making
  5. Weaving
  6. Hunting


Modern economic activities

These are activities of modern economic activities

  1. Farming
  2. Banking
  3. Fishing
  4. Mining
  5. Transport
  6. Industry
  7. Trade
  8. Tourism



Farming is the growing of crops and raring of animals.

Farming is the major economic activity in Uganda that is why it is called the back bone of the Uganda’s economy.


Needs of a farmer

  • Seeds
  • Fertilizers
  • Garden tools
  • Fertile soils
  • Market
  • Labour


Types of crops

  1. Food crops
  2. Cash crops

Food crops

Are crops grown mainly for food


Examples of food crops

Maize banana cassava millet

Beans sweet potatoes simsim etc.  



  1. Food crops like cassava, sorghum and simsim are commonly grown in dry areas.
  2. Rice and yams are commonly grown in swampy areas.

Cash crops

Cash crops are originally grown for selling.


Examples of cash crops

  • Coffee
  • Cotton
  • Tea
  • Sugar cane
  • Tobacco


Newly introduced cash crops

  1. Cocoa
  2. Oil palm
  3. Pyrethrum
  4. Sun flower


Types of farming

  1. Subsistence farming
  2. Mixed farming
  3. Floriculture
  4. Horticulture
  5. Plantation farming


  1. Subsistence farming:

Subsistence farming is the growing of crops and rearing of animals for home use and the surplus is sold.


Advantages of subsistence forming

Subsistence farming is the growing of crops and rearing of animals for homeuse and the surplus is sold.


Advantages of subsistence farming

  1. Does not need skilled labour
  2. Simple tools are used
  3. It does not need much capital
  4. It is easy to manage


Disadvantages of subsistence farming

Does not promote development



Subsistence farming is the commonest type of farming in Uganda because it is cheap.



This is the growing of crops and rearing of animals on the same piece of land under one management.


Advantages of mixed farming

  1. A farmer gets a balanced diet
  2. A farmer gets double income
  3. Crops are used to feed animals and animal dung used as manure.
  4. A farmer can depend on animals in case of drought
  5. It helps to diversify /change the economy


Disadvantages of mixed farming

  1. It is expensive to manage
  2. It needs a lot of skills
  3. It requires a large piece of land
  4. Animals can easily damage the crops.



This is the growing of fruits and vegetables on a large scale



This is the growing of flowers on a large scale.



This is the growing of one perennial crop on a large scale.


Perennial crops

Are crops that mature in more than one year.


Examples of perennial crops

  • Sisal
  • Coffee
  • Cocoa
  • Tea
  • Rubber



This is the keeping of domestic animals and birds.


Types of nomadic farming

  • Dairy farming
  • Ranching
  • Nomadic pastoralism
  • Poultry farming

Dairy farming

Is the rearing of animals on a large scale for milk and milk products.


Products from a ranch

  • Beef
  • Hooves
  • Animal skin
  • Horns

Nomadic pastoralism

This is the movement of people and their animals from one place to another looking for pasture and water.


Poultry farming

Is the keeping of domestic birds


Why do people carry out farming?

  • To earn money
  • To get food
  • For employment
  • To provide row materials to industries



  1. This is the catching of fish from water bodies
  2. Fishermen are people who catch fish
  3. Fish mongers are people who sell fish


Types of fish

  1. Tilapia (commonest fish in Uganda)
  2. Nile perch (the biggest fish caught in Uganda)
  3. Mud fish (caught in swamps)
  4. Silver fish (the smallest fish in Uganda)
  5. Lung fish
  6. Star fish

Uses of fish

  1. Fish is used as food.
  2. Fish is a source of income
  3. Fish scales are used for decoration
  4. Fish is used as medicine
  5. Fish bones are used to make animal feeds
  6. Fish skin is used to make belts, bags and shoes


Methods of farming:

  • Traditional methods:
    • Spears
    • Hooks
    • Baskets


  • Modern methods
    • Hooks
    • Fish nets
    • Fishing rods


Methods of preserving fish

Fish is preservation means keeping fish without going bad for a long time.


  1. Local methods
    1. Smoking is the commonest method of preserving fish in Uganda
    2. Sun drying
    3. Salting


  2. Modern methods
    1. Freezing
    2. Tinning / canning


Problems facing fishing industry in Uganda.

  • Pollution of water bodies
  • Drought
  • Over fishing
  • Water weed
  • Poor roads
  • Poor preservation methods
  • Lack of enough capital to buy good / better fishing facilities
  • Dangerous marine animals


Solutions to problems facing the fishing industry

  • Educating people better fishing methods
  • Providing loans to fisher men
  • Constructing good roads to connect fishing points.
  • Proper disposal of wastes


Poor fishing methods.

  • Using undersized nets
  • Using poison to fish


Some fishing grounds in Uganda

  • Lake Victoria
  • Lake Albert
  • Lake Kyoga etc.




  • A factory is a place where raw materials are turned into finished products
  • Raw materials are things that can be turned into finished products.
  • Technology is the practical way of solving a problem.


Importance of industries

  1. People get jobs
  2. Industries act as market for farmers produce
  3. Industries lead to development of infra-structure
  4. People get their needs
  5. For study purpose
  6. For tourism


Disadvantages of industries

  • Industries pollute the environment
  • Industries lead to over population in areas where they are found
  • They lead to development of slums



This is the extraction of minerals from under ground


Examples of minerals mined in Uganda

  • Crude oil ( from around L. Albert)
  • Phosphates
  • Tine
  • Zinc
  • Gold
  • Copper
  • Limestone

Importance of minerals

  • Minerals are used as raw materials in industries
  • Source of income
  • For duty purpose
  • Minerals encourage foreign investment


Problems facing the Mining industry

  1. Low technology
  2. Lack of skilled labour
  3. Lack of enough market
  4. Competition from other mining countries.



Banking is the system f keeping money safely in a bank.


Importance of banking

  1. People keep money safely
  2. People get loans
  3. People get interest on their money


Types of banks

  1. Central bank:(Bank of Uganda)

    This is the bank that controls all other banks in Ugnda.


Roles of the central bank

  • Printing and minting money
  • Controlling all commercial banks
  • Lends money to commercial banks and the government.


  1. Commercial banks


Examples of commercial banks

  • Bank of Baroda
  • Cairo bank
  • Centenary bank
  • Stanbic bank
  • Post bank
  • Equity bank etc.


Roles of commercial banks

Keeping people’s money safely

Lend money to people to develop their business

They keep important documents to people

They provide jobs to people

They teach people how to run their business




  1. Trade is the buying and selling of goods.
  2. Batter trade is the exchange of goods for goods and services.
  3. Commercial centers are busy business areas e.g. markets, shops, banks, industries.
  4. Uganda shillings are the currency of Uganda used in trade.


Importance of trade

  • Trade is source of income
  • People get what they want
  • It is a source of employment



Tourism is the act f visiting different places for leisure and study purpose.


Examples of tourist attractions in Uganda

  • Industries
  • Lakes and rives
  • Historical sites (museums, Stone Age sites)
  • Cultural sites (Kasubi tombs)
  • Mountains
  • Game parks and game reserves.









What is leadership?

Leadership is the way of guiding and directing other people


Who is a leader?

A leader is a person who guides and directs others.


Qualities of a good leader

  • Knowledgeable – responsible –  God fearing
  • Tolerant  – obedient –  faithful
  • Approachable – exemplary
  • Cooperative – confident
  • Hardworking – kind etc.


Types of leaders in our district

  1. Political leaders
  2. Civic leaders
  3. Religious leaders
  4. Culture leaders
  5. Voluntary leaders


How leaders are chosen in our district

  1. Through elections
  2. Through appointment
  3. Through inheritance
  4. Through volunteering


Political leaders

Political leaders are people who are elected or appointed to promote good governance.


Examples of political leaders in our district.

  • Resident district commissioner (RDC)
  • The District Internal Security Officer (DISO)
  • Gombolola Internal Security Officer (GISO)
  • Local Council Committee members

Local council

  1. Write LC in full  – Local Council
  2. Local council in Uganda are under the ministry of local government
  3. The current minister of local government in Uganda (2015) Hon. Adolf Mwesige
  4. Local councils begin from LC I to LC V.
  5. This is the lowest unit of local councils
  6. Local council I is made up of 10 members.


Members of local council I and their duties

  1. Chairperson
  • Heads local council I executive committee
  • Chairs all committee and council meetings
  • Signs official documents and gives recommendations
  • Supervises and implements all government programmes at village level


  1. Vice chairperson
  • Assist the chairperson in all his/her duties
  • In charge of children welfare (affairs)


  1. General secretary
    1. Records all the minutes of council meetings
    2. Keeps official records
    3. Calls the executive and council meetings


  1. Secretary for finance
  • He /she is a treasurer of the council.


  1. Secretary for defence
  • Maintain peace and security in the area


  1. Secretary for information, education and mobilization
  • Passes on all the information needed by the people.


  1. Secretary for youth
  • Mobilizes youth to take part in development.
  1. Secretary for women
  • In charge of women affairs.
  1. Secretary of production and environmental protection
  • Mibilises people to produce enough food incharge of environmental conservation.

10. Secretary for people with disabilities (PWDs)

–  Mobilises people with disabilities for development.


Local council III (sub – county)

  • The political head of a sub-county is called chairperson L.C II
  • In urban set up local council III is called a division.


Duties of LC III chairperson

  1. Supervises Local government services at the sub-county level.
  2. Plans for the sub-county’s or divisions development
  3. .implements central government policies at the sub-county or division level.


Local council IV

  • The local council is all the level of a country or municipality.
  • It also has 10 members
  • The political head of local council IV (county) is the chairperson LC IV.

Municipal councils

  • A municipal is the level of local council IV
  • The political head of a municipality is the Mayor or Mayoress
  • Other political leaders in a municipality are municipal councilors.


Examples of municipalities in Uganda

  1. Mbarara municipality
  2. Masaka municipality
  3. Mukono municipality
  4. Jinja municipality
  5. Gulu municipality
  6. Soroti municipality
  7. Mbale municipality
  8. Fort Portal municipality
  9. Entebbe municipality
  10. Kabala municipality


Duties of municipal council

  • Constructs and maintains roads in a municipality
  • Responsible for street lighting in a municipality.
  • Responsible for collecting garbage
  • To plan for the municipality.


District leadership (local council V)

  • The head of a district is called Chairperson Local Council V.


Member that makes up the district local council

  • The district councils made up of the following.
  • Chairperson LC IV
  • Sub-county councilors
  • Two youth councilors
  • Two councilors representing people with disabilities.



  • The district council is chaired by the district speaker and is assisted by district deputy speaker.
  • They are elected from the councilors


Duties of the LC V chairperson

  • Monitors the general administration in a district.
  • Supervises the work of all other officials in the district.
  • Co-ordinates local government activities in a district.
  • Chairs district executive committee meetings
  • Monitors development in a district.


Functions of local councils

Why do we need local council in our communities?

  • They help to keep law and order in our communities
  • They settle disputes (misunderstandings) among people.
  • They speak on behalf of the people.
  • They make by-laws


Ways local councils keep law and order.

  1. They arrest law breakers
  2. They solve some simple civil cases
  3. They punish some kinds of law breakers



Problems facing local council

  1. Different political interests
  2. Wide spread poverty
  3. Corruption among some local council committee members
  4. Ignorance of the citizens
  5. Embezzlement of some government funds



Examples of political leaders in a school

  1. Head prefect
  2. Head girl
  3. Head boy
  4. Class prefects
  5. Sanitation prefect etc.


Importance of prefects in a school

  1. They help to promote moral and discipline
  2. They keep law and order in a school
  3. They help teachers in controlling pupils


How is democracy practiced (exercised)

By allowing children to elect leaders of their choice.


Rules and regulations in a school

Importance of school rules and regulations

  • The promote good morals in school
  • They promote law and order
  • They promote harmony
  • They promote smooth running of school programmes



By-laws are laws made and passed by the local government.


Importance of by-laws

  • They promote peace in the area.
  • They promote good security
  • By-laws promote good morals
  • They promote smooth running of both district and government programmes.


Decentralization is the transfer of powers from the central government to the local governments.


Advantages of decentralization

  • It brings services nearer to the people.
  • It creates job opportunities
  • It develops remote areas
  • It leads to easy monitoring of government of their areas.


Disadvantages of decentralization

  • It may lead to nepotism and tribalism in job allocation in job allocation.
  • Grants are delayed
  • It leads to high expenditure by the government


Resident district commissioner (RDC)

  • RDC is the presidents’ representation in an district.
  • The RDC is appointed bythe president to each district.
  • The RDC is assisted by the Deputy District Resident Commissioner.


Roles of resident district commissioner (RDC)

  • Represents the president in a district.
  • Ensures that the central government policies are carried out in the district.
  • Ensures law and order in a district.
  • Encourages good relationship between the people and the central government.
  • Monitors security in the district


Duties of the district internal security officer (DISO)

  • Advises security organs in a district
  • Collects security information in a district.




Civil leaders are people who provide social services to other on behalf of the government.


Civil leaders can also be called civil servants.


Examples of civic leaders in the district

  1. Chief Administrative Officer (CAO)
  2. District Education officer (DEO)
  3. District Director of Education (DDE)
  4. District Police Commander (DPC)
  5. District Director of Veterinary Services (DDVS)
  6. District Probation Officer (DPO)
  7. District Director of Forestry (DDF)
  8. District Director of Fisheries (DDF)
  9. District director of Agriculture (DDA)
  10. District Planner (DP)


Roles of civic leaders in our district

Chief Administrative Officer

  1. Is the highest civil servant in a district.
  2. CAO is the chief accounting officer in a district
  3. Officiate legal marriages on behalf of the government
  4. Responsible for payment of salaries for civil servants in a district.
  5. Heads all civil servants in a district.


  • Civil servants are people who work for the government et. Teachers, doctors nurses, police.
  • Civil servants in a district are appointed by the district services commission.


District Director of Education (DDE)

This was formerly known as District Education Officer (DEO)


  • Heads all the education departments in a district
  • Monitors education progress in a district
  • Ensures better education standards
  • Controls education institutions in a district.


District Directors of Health Services (DDHS)

  • DDVs was formerly known as District Veterinary Officer (DVO)


  • Advises farers on how to look after their livestock.
  • Controls animal disease outbreak
  • Teaches people on how to improve the quality of their animals
  • Supervises all veterinary workers in a district.

District police Commander (DPC)

DPC s also called District Director of police (DDP)


  • Controls the police force in a district.
  • Grants permission for public rallies
  • Ensures that law and order is kept in a district.


District Director of Agriculture (DDA)

DDA was formerly known as District Agriculture Officer


  • Supervises agricultural officials in a district.
  • Promotes crop growing and food security.
  • Advises farmers on better methods of farming


District Director of Forestry (DDF)

DDE was formerly known as District Forestry Officers (DFO)


Ensures forest conservation

Encourages tree planting


District Director of Fisheries (DDF)

  • Controls over fishing
  • Advises people on fish farming
  • Encourages people to use modern methods of fishing


District Probation Officer

  • He/she is in charge of children’s affairs in a district.
  • Settles family disputes in a district
  • Helps people with special needs like people affected by disasters.


The District Planner (DP)

  • Plans for the development in a district
  • Discourages the building in the district that are not planned.






  1. The body in charge of all activities carried out in Kampala City is called Capital City Authority (KCCA)
  2. The title given to the political head of Kampala city is the Lord Mayor.
  3. The current Lord Mayor is Erias Lukwago
  4. The title given to the head of all Civil Servant Administrative head9 of Kampala is the Executive Director
  5. The current Executive Director of Kampala City is called Jenipher Musisi Ssemakula.
  6. The title given to a person that represents a president in Kamapala City is the Resident City Commissioner RCC)
  7. The current RCC of Kampala City (2015) is called Madam Aisha Kabanda
  8. The current minister in charge f KCCA (2015) is called Hon Frank Tumwebaze.



  • One becomes a cultural leader through inheritance
  • A cultural leader is only chosen from one selected clan or family.


Examples of cultural leaders in Uganda


Chiefdom / kingdom

Title of the cultural leader



















Give the names of the current cultural leaders for each kingdom / chiefdom in Uganda.


Importance of cultural leaders in our community

  • Cultural leaders promote culture
  • They promote good morals
  • They promote peace and unity
  • They promote development


The ministry in charge of all cultural institutions in Uganda is the ministry of Gender, labor and social Development

Give the current minister of Gender, labour and Social Development in Uganda.


Religious leaders

Some religious leaders are appointed by their superiors while others are elected by the members of synod


Examples of religious leaders in our Community

  • Reverends
  • Bishops
  • Archbishops
  • Priets
  • Pastors
  • Khadis
  • Catechist
  • Sheikhs
  • Mufti
  • Le-leaders


Title and current religious leaders in Uganda



Current religious leader

Protestant (Anglicans)


His Grace Stanley Ntagali



Dr. Cyrpian Kizito Lwanga



Sheik Shaban Ramathan Mubajje


Importance of religious leaders in our community

  • They promote good morals
  • They shape people’s faith
  • They give spiritual advice
  • They promote religious teachings
  • They preside over weddings and funerals


Voluntary leaders

  • Voluntary leaders are people who offer free services to other people.
  • They are also called volunteers


Examples of voluntary leaders

  • Scouts
  • Guides
  • Leaders of voluntary organizations


Voluntary organizations

  • Voluntary organizations are groups of people who provide free services to people.
  • Voluntary Organisations (NGO’s)


Examples of voluntary organizations in Uganda

  • Uganda women’s effort to save orphans (UWESO)
  • The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO)
  • World Vision
  • Compassion International
  • The Red Cross Society
  • Carry American Relief Everywhere (CARE)
  • Adventist Development Relief Agency (ADRA)


Roles of voluntary organisations

  • Pays school fees for the orphans
  • Builds orphanages



  • Offers services to AIDS patients like counseling and medical care.


The Red Cross Society

  • Treats wounded people in wars
  • It sensitizes people to donate blood
  • To provide basic needs to affected people


World vision

Constructs schools and bore holes in communities



Builds and facilitates schools



Provides relief to people hit by wars

Compassion International

  • Pays school fees for needy children
  • Provides needs to the needy children


Rights and responsibilities of people in our district

Human rights

Human rights are freedoms that people (citizens) are entitled to.


Examples of people’s rights

  • Right to education
  • Right to medical care
  • Right to association
  • Right to work
  • Right to privacy
  • Right to fair judgment
  • Right to worship
  • Freedom of speech
  • Right to public information
  • Right to security


The body which is responsible for protecting people’s rights in Uganda is called the Uganda Human Rights Commission (UHRC)



A citizen is a person who has full rights to live in a particular country.


Ways f becoming a citizen of Uganda

  • By birth
  • By registration
  • By descent
  • By adoption


Dual citizenship

This is when a person acquires citizenship of two countries


Responsibilities of people in our district

Duties of a food citizen

  • Obeying laws
  • Keeping law and order by reporting wrong doers
  • Paying taxes promptly
  • Participating in community work
  • Respecting the national symbols
  • Maintaining proper sanitation

The main duty of a good citizen is keeping law and order by reporting wrong doers.


Children’s rights

  • Children rights are freedoms or benefits enjoyed by a child.
  • A child is a person below eighteen years of age.

Examples of children’s rights

  • Right to food
  • Right to education
  • Right to medical care
  • Right to have a name
  • Right to security
  • Right to shelter
  • Right to parental care

Duties of a child in a home

  • Respecting parents, elders and other children
  • Fetching water
  • Moping the house
  • Washing utensils
  • Sweeping the compound
  • Collecting firewood


Child abuse

Child abuse is the denial of children’s rights.


Examples of people who abuse children’s rights

  • Parents
  • Relatives
  • Teachers
  • Strangers


Causes of child abuse

  • Death of parents
  • Poverty
  • Divorce (broken marriages / families)
  • Alcoholism
  • Ignorance


Ways through which children’s (rights are abused or violated (forms of child abuse)

  • Child sacrifice
  • Defilement
  • Child labour
  • Kidnapping
  • Child labour
  • Child neglect
  • Child trafficking
  • Denial of basic needs like food, shelter, clothes and medical care.


Results of child abuse

  • Death
  • Pregnancies
  • Diseases
  • Early marriages
  • Dropping out of school
  • Permanent disability
  • A problem of street children


How the government can control child abuse in Uganda

  • Enforcing laws against child abuse
  • Teaching children about their rights
  • Punishing heavily those who abuse children’s rights


Ways children can control (avoid) being abused

  • Children should walk in groups
  • Children should refuse gifts and lifts from strangers
  • Children should scream when attacked
  • Children should avoid lonely places.



Groups of people who enforce law and order in our district are called security organs


Examples of security organs in our district


  • The Uganda Police Force
  • Prisons
  • Army
  • Private security Guards


Uganda Police Force

The main duty of police is to enforce law and order.


Ways the Uganda police enforces law and order

  • By arresting law breakers
  • By investigating crimes
  • By putting out fires
  • Controlling traffic flow on roads
  • Protecting people and their property
  • By stopping riots
  • Educating people on ways of preventing crimes.


Police stations (posts)

It is where people report law breakers


Activities done at a police post

  • Reporting wrong doers / criminals
  • Investigating crimes
  • Settling disputes
  • Issuing arrest warrants


Examples of police stations (pots) in Kampala

  • Central police station (CPS)
  • Wandegeya police station
  • old Kampala police station
  • kiira road police station
  • Jinja road police station
  • Kabalagala police station


More facts about police

  • The headquarters of Uganda police are found at Naguru in Kampala.
  • The title given to the head of Uganda police force is the Inspector General of Police (IGP)
  • The current Inspector General of Uganda Police (2015) s called General Kale Kayihura
  • The Uganda police is under the ministry of Internal Affairs.
  • The current minister of internal Affairs in Uganda (2015) is Hon: Rose Akulo


Department (section) of police and their roles

  1. Criminal Investigation and Intelligence Director (CIID)
  • For investigating crimes
  1. Traffic Police Section
  • For controlling traffic flow on roads
  1. Anti-riot Police
  • For controlling riots
  1. Fire Brigade
  • For putting our fires
  1. Police Air Wing
  • Handles emergency cases especially on plane crashes
  1. Signal and Communication Department
  • It is in charge of receiving and delivering information within the police force.
  1. Community Policing
  • It is in charge of the relationship between the general public and the police.
  1. Dog Section
  • For training police dogs
  1. Mobile police patrol Unit (MPPU)
  • For moving around the area to detect criminals.


Problems facing the Uganda Police Force

  • Corruption among police officials
  • Shortage of police vehicles
  • Poor relationship with general public
  • Shortage of police officials in some areas





The Uganda Prisons

  1. The main duty of the Uganda prisons is to transform law breakers into good law abiding transformation law breakers into good law abiding citizens.
  2. The Uganda Prisons is under the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
  3. The Commissioner General of Prisons.
  4. The commissioner General of Prisons in Uganda is called Mr. Johnson Byabashaija
  5. The biggest prison in Uganda is Luzira Prison in Kampala.
  6. Kampiringisa is a prison responsible for children in Uganda.


Functions of Uganda Prisons

  • To transform prisoners into good law abiding citizens.
  • To look after prisoners
  • To take suspects to courts for trial
  • To take prisoners vocational skills such as carpentry


The army

  • The name given to Uganda’s National Army is Uganda People’s Defence Forces (UPDF)
  • The main duty of UPDF is to defend the country against its enemies.
  • The Uganda’s national army (UPDF) is under the ministry of Defence
  • The current minister of Defence in Uganda (2015) is called Hon. Crispus Kiyonga.
  • The commander in chief of Uganda’s Army is the President (His Excellency Yoweri Kaguta Museveni)
  • The commander of Uganda’s army is called General Katumba Wamala
  • The headquarters of Uganda people’s Defence Forces (UPDF) are at Mbuya Military barracks in Kampala
  • A barracks is a place where the army stays.




Social services in our districts

  • Social services are benefits provided bythe government for people t live a better life.


  • Social services are services provided bythe government for people to live a better life


Examples of social services in our district

  • Transport services
  • Communication services
  • Medical services
  • Security services
  • Education


Social amenities

These are facilities which make people’s life easy and better.


These are services or facilities which make life easy and better e.g. electricity



Transport is the movement of people and good from one place to another.


Types of transport / forms of transport

  • Water
  • Air transport
  • Road transport
  • Railway transport

Importance of transport

Promote easy movements of goods and services

Promotes development

Promotes development

Promotes trade

Makes communication


Road transport

This is the commonest type of transport in our district

People move on roads using different means


Means of road transport

  • Cars
  • bicycles
  • motocycles
  • donkeys

NB: Lorries, buses, taxis, are all cars


Types of roads in our district

  1. Tarmac roads
  • These are roads mostly found in urban areas and major roads called highways
  • They are made using stones and tar.
  • They are good in all seasons
  1. Murram roads
  • These area mainly found in villages
  • They are made using mixture of soil and stones known as murram
  • Murram roads become muddy and slippery during the wet season and dusty during the dry season.
  1. Feeder roads
  • These are small roads from deep villages that connect the main roads.

 Qn. How are feeder roads helpful to farmers?

  • Feeder roads connect farmers to the main roads to sell their produce.


Advantages of road transport

  • It is cheap over short distances
  • Road transport is common or available
  • Road transport is flexible
  • Road transport offers door to door services


Disadvantages of road transport

  • Murram roads become muddy and slippery in wet seasons
  • It has high risks of accidents
  • Affected by traffic jam
  • Affected by highway robbers

Note: Animal transport is commonly used by people in highland areas.

Examples of animals used for transport are

Donkey  –  in hilly areas or mountainous areas

Camels  –  in desert areas


Causes of road transport

  • Over taking in sharp corners
  • Driving vehicles in poor conditions i.e. dangerous mechanical condition
  • Roads with pot holes
  • Careless driving
  • Driving under the influence of alcohol
  • Playing near roads
  • Driving while talking on phone
  • Driving at a high speed
  • Failure to follow road signs


How to control road accidents

  • Following road signs
  • Servicing cars regularly
  • Repairing bad roads
  • Avoiding playing near roads
  • Arresting careless drivers and punishing them.



This is the type of transport where people move by using air. It is most expensive of all.


Means of air transport

  • Aeroplane
  • Helicopter
  • Gliders
  • Air balloons
  • Rockets


Air strips / air fields

These are places where small aeroplanes land and take off.


Examples of air strips / fields in Uganda

  • Soroti air strip
  • Gulu air strip
  • Arua air strip
  • Mbarara air strip
  • Kitgum air strip
  • Jinja air strip



This is a place where big aircrafts land and takeoff.

  • The biggest airport is Entebbe International Airport
  • It is found at Entebbe town in Wakiso district.
  • It is a tourist used for study purpose and tourist attraction.


Advantages of air transport

  • Air transport is the quickest or fastest type of transport
  • Air transport is very comfortable for passengers
  • Air transport is not affected by traffic jam
  • Accidents are not very common with air transport
  • .it can be used to carry perishable goods where the distance is long.


Disadvantages of air transport

  • It is very expensive
  • It is easily affected by bad weather
  • It follows a fixed time table
  • It is not common
  • It follows a fixed time table.
  • In case of accidents, most people die and property destroyed



This is where people use water bodies for transport


Means of water transport

  • Boats
  • Ferries
  • Canoes
  • Ships

A port is a point on water bodies where ships shelter. Goods are loaded and off loaded on a port.

The man inland port in Uganda is Port Bell on Lake Victoria.


How is Port Bell important to the people of Uganda?

  • Port bell handles the imports and exports of Uganda.
  • Sources of tourists attraction which earn incomes
  • For study purposes
  • Port Butiaba s found on Lake Albert.



Let children list other ports on Lake Victoria



Exports are goods which are sold out of a country

e.g.: –

– Flowers

– Fish

  • Coffee
  • Vanillas
  • Cotton
  • Electricity
  • Tourism



Imports are good sold inside a country.


  • aeroplanes
  • cars
  • bicycles
  • apples
  • clothes
  • electrical
  • phones


Water transport

Water transport is the slowest type of transport.


Advantages of water transport

  • It is the cheapest type of transport
  • It is good for carrying heavy goods
  • Not affected by traffic jam


Disadvantages of water transport

  • It is the slowest type of transport
  • It is affected by storms
  • Water falls can capsize boats
  • It is good for carrying tangible good e.g. glasses

Why are some rivers in Uganda not used for transport?

  • They have water falls which capsize boats
  • Some rivers are seasonal.




  • Trains carry bulky goods
  • Rail is cheap to maintain
  • Trains are not affected by bad weather
  • Not affected by traffic jam


Disadvantages of railway transport

  • It is fixed routes
  • Rail station are not located in towns
  • Railway construction is very expensive


  • Define transport.
  • List down any two means of animal transport
  • Which type of road is not affected by bad weather?
  • Give one advantage of air transport
  • In which district do we find the biggest national airport in Uganda?
  • Name means of transport good for
    • Carrying perishable goods
    • Carrying tangible goods
  • Name the slowest type of transport
  • How is port Bell important to the people of Uganda.



Communication is the way of sending and receiving messages

Types of communication

  • Modern communication
  • Traditional communication

Modern communication

This refers to the process of sending and receiving messages by people today


Examples of modern methods of communication

  • Telephoning
  • Faxing
  • Mailing
  • Using radios
  • Writing letters / sending letters



Modern means of communication

  • Television
  • Mobile phones
  • Magazines
  • Computers
  • Post office
  • Fax
  • Letters
  • Radios
  • News papers



  • Televisions transmit sounds and pictures on television sets.
  • They ate used and good for advertising
  • They are used for communication and entertainment.


Examples of television stations in Uganda

  • Light house TV (LTV)
  • Top television
  • Nations television (NTV)
  • Nile broadcasting services (NBS)
  • Channel Television
  • Record TV
  • Wavah Broadcasting Services (WBS)


Mobile phones

MTN, Airtel, Warid, Orange, K Z, Smile



Advantages of using telephones

  • It gives information with feedback
  • It is portable
  • You can communicate from everywhere


Disadvantages of using telephones

  • Some places are affected by network
  • Phones are expensive to buy
  • It is difficult to maintain and buy air time


Uses of telephones

  • for communication / sending messages / making phone calls
  • For entertainment
  • For researching information
  • Study purposes
  • They are sold for income



Newspapers are also used today for communication


Examples of newspapers / modern

  • New vision
  • Daily monitor
  • Red pper
  • The independent
  • Weekly observer
  • Kamunye
  • Bukedde


Traditional news papers

Rupiny, Orumuli, Eddoboozi



Advantages of using news papers

  1. Newspapers can store information for a long time
  2. Communication is published in different languages
  3. Provides detailed information


Disadvantages of using newspapers

  • newspapers are expensive to buy daily
  • newspapers d not reach some remote places
  • exposes children to bad pictures
  • some give wrong information (facts)


Give a reason why some people do not use newspapers for communication

Newspapers are expensive to buy daily.


Radio station

  • Radio is the widest means of communication in Uganda.
  • It covers almost all parts of Uganda


Examples of radio stations in Uganda

  • Capital radio 91.3
  • KFM  –   93.3
  • CBS  –  88.8
  • Star FM  –  100
  • Sanyu FM  88.2
  • Peace FM
  • Radio Ugnda
  • Radio samba
  • Power FM  –  104.1
  • Kingdom FM  –  93.0


Advantages of using radios

  • Covers the widest areas
  • Communication can reach many people at ago
  • It favours the illiterate and literate people
  • Can be used in areas without electricity
  • They are affordable


Disadvantages of using radios

  • Dos not cater for the deaf
  • They may not reach places with poor signals.




Post office is a place where people drop and receive their letters from.

A postman / woman is a person who works in a post office


Functions / importance of a post office

  • Prost offices are used for communication
  • Provides jobs / employment to people
  • People buy stamps from post offices
  • Post offices provide banking services
  • Provide transport services to people
  • People buy parcels (big envelopes)


  • How is a post office different from a police post?
  • State the importance of post offices to people in your district.


Traditional / local methods of communication

This was the way of sending and receiving information by people long ago.


Methods of communication y people of long ago

  • Drumming
  • blowing horns
  • whistling
  • using smoke signals
  • clapping hands
  • using sign languages


Means of communication used long ago


List down any means of local communication

  • drums, blow horns
  • smoke
  • whistle

Draw and name any four means of local communication


Advantages of using local communication

  • it is easy to use
  • it is cheap to sue
  • it does not need electricity


Disadvantages f using local communication

  • it might not reach many people at the same time
  • the message may change as it keeps moving from one person to another
  • it wastes time.



This refers to mode of communicating to many people at ago.


Examples of mass media

  • computers
  • radio
  • magazines
  • televisions


Social amenities

Amenities are facilities which make peoples’ life easy and better.


Examples of social amenities

Water supply

Petrol stations

Work shops



Electricity is distributed by UMEME in Uganda

Electricity simplifies life


Type of electricity

  1. Thermal electricity

This is the type of electricity from burning fuel such as petrol and diesel e.g. using generators.



This is the type of electricity generated using fast flowing water.

Most electricity is generated from Nalubale and Bujagali power stations in Jinja.

It is transported to homes using electric poles and wires.



This is electricity generates using rotting things like waste materials from animals (dung)



This is electricity generated using heat from the sun.



This is generated from hot springs under rocks.


  1. Complete the table below



  1. Hydro electricity
  2. Biogas
  3. _________________
  4. _________________



Geo thermal




  1. Namethe features where the dams are built on rivers
  2. On which river in Ugnda is electricity generated?
  3. Name the lake that provides water to the river mentioned above.


Uses of electricity at home

  • Electricity is used for cooking food
  • Electricity is used for ironing clothes
  • Electricity is used for charging phones
  • Electricity is used for running machines
  • Electricity is used for lighting or provides light on roads and streets.


Dangers of electricity

  • It can cause death
  • It can spark of fire that can destroy life and property in homes markets and shops
  • It can blow electric appliances like television sets, radio sets, bulbsetc.



There are various sources of water in our district like:

  • Bore holes
  • Springs
  • Wells
  • Lakes
  • Rivers
  • Piped water

Water is provided by the government through National water and sewerage corporation (NWSC)

Organizations that provide piped water in Uganda

  • NWSC
  • Rural water and sanitation (RUWASA) etc.




Markets are places where people buy and sell goods.


Importance of markets in our district

  • Theft
  • Bad weather like rain, floods
  • Poor sanitation and smell
  • High prices of some goods
  • Competition among people dealing in trade i.e.struggling for buyers


Name some of the markets in your district.



  • People who sell goods in markets are called market vendors
  • They sell food stuff and clothes

How are markets important to the government?



These are places where vehicles fuel from

Examples of petrol stations

  • Shell
  • Gapco
  • Total
  • Caltex
  • Agip
  • City oil
  • Hass etc.

Importance of petrol stations

  • They sell paraffin and gas used at home
  • They provide diesel and petrol to run vehicles
  • They provide jobs to people
  • They provide greases and oil to prevent rusting of machines


Problems facing people when providing social services


What are the problems which affect the provision of social services?

  • Lack of enough funds to construct good rounds
  • People lack jobs to get money to pay taxes / poverty
  • Corrupt officials who eat money meant for providing social services
  • Remoteness of some places some places are very far to reach.
  • Ignorance about the importance of those facilities.
  • Over loading on roads and water leads to accidents
  • Over population causes over straining of resources
  • Wars destroy social services.



Social service centres are places where social services can be got from


Examples of social service centres in our district

  • Schools
  • Hospitals
  • Bus parks taxi parts etc.
  • An air pot
  • Ports
  • Markets
  • Banks
  • Post offices
  • Police stations


Social workers are people who provide social services.



Policemen / woman

Doctors / nurse / mid wives







Post man / woman


Activity: Complete the table below

Social services centre


Work / service



Teaching / education




Police station



Bus parks



Post offices





How to care for social services centres

  • Repairing spoilt structures
  • Cleaning water sources and other facilities
  • Employing more people to protect some social services centres
  • Respecting social services provides
  • Arresting corrupt social officials



Education is the process of getting knowledge and skills


Types of education

  1. Informal education
  2. Formal education


Informal education

This is the type of education which does not involve in reading and writing

Children are taught at home by elders and parents

This teaching was based on these skills

  • Peeling
  • Hunting
  • Cooking
  • Discipline / morals
  • Black smithing
  • Fishing
  • Taking care of children by girls


Education was taught in form of stories, songs and riddles around fire places.

  • How were fire places important to people of long ago?
  • State two ways how children were taught long ago
  • List down any three skills people of long ago learnt from elders.
  • State two characteristics of informal education


Formal education

This is the type of education that involve reading and writing

It was introduced in Uganda by the European missionaries


Examples of schools that provide formal education in Uganda are:

  • Nursery schools
  • Primary schools
  • Secondary schools
  • Colleges
  • Universities


  • How the government of Uganda promotes education programmes– through Universal primary education UPE
  • Through universal secondary education offers free education to people


State one importance of UPE & UCE

  • They have reduced illiteracy and provides education at all


How the government contribute to UPE / USE programmes

  • Paying teachers
  • Construct classes
  • Provides scholastic materials e.g. chalk, text books etc.

All schools aided by the government are government schools


Importance of education

  • Education provides knowledge and skills
  • Unites people
  • Promotes development
  • Promote different cultures



These are places where communication can be got from


Examples of communication centres

  • Post offices
  • Radio stations
  • Television stations
  • Internet cafes


Questions / evaluation exercises

  1. What are social services
  2. Why is corruption a bad practice in our district?
  3. Name two products get from a petrol station
  4. Write the following abbreviations I full.
    1. UPE  c. NWSC
    2. USE  d. HEP
  5. Why is education very important to people in our district.
  6. What type of education was introduced by missionaries in Uganda?
  7. Which type of road is the best for all seasons
  8. In which district is Entebbe international airport?
  9. Name two examples of mass media.
  10. Give one reason why newspapers are not the best means of communication.
  11. Write short notes about
    1. Surgeons
    2. Midwives
    3. Opticians



What are social activities?

Social activities are activities that bring people together


Examples of social activities

  • Circumcision ceremony
  • Wedding ceremonies
  • Graduation ceremonies
  • Clan meetings
  • Birth day parties
  • Naming of twins
  • Coronation of kings
  • Games and sports
  • Music, dance and drama


Importance of social activities

  • They promote unity
  • They promote friendship
  • They promote culture
  • They bring happiness.

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