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1.  a) State five factors which contributed to the rapid expansion of Islam

during the first hundred years of its existence 610-710 A.D.

i) Through conquests – Islam expanded rapidly due to the jihads which were undertaken by the devout followers of the faith, ii) Arab migration – The Arab colonization – the migration of Arabs over large parts of Africa, Asia and Southern Europe contributed to the rapid spread of Islam/nomadic societies, iii) Development of Islamic learning – The development and spread of Islamic learning contributed to the rapid expansion of


  1. Establishment of Islamic states – The establishment of Islamic states contributed to the conversion of many people to Islam in many parts of Africa, Asia and Europe,
  2. The appeal of Islam – Islam appealed to many because it was accommodative to various cultural practices and values and regarded as a liberating force.
  3. Intermarriage/marriages vii) Religious persecutions viii) Means of transport e.g. camels and horse. ix) Weakness of neighbouring states e.g. Persia

x) Some became Muslims in order to avoid being enslaved.

b) Discuss the impact of Islam on East African societies.

i) Conversion/undermined traditional religion – Islam has become the religion of many people in East Africa, especially along the Coast. Many of these people are converts from traditional and other religions. Islam therefore significantly affected the religious complexion of East African societies, ii) Material culture – Islam had transformed the material culture of many East African communities. This is reflected in architecture, iii) Dressing iv) Social etiquette – Islam etiquette on such areas as eating habits, forms of hospitality and social relations between the sexes has permeated many east African Societies,

v) Language – many East African communities learnt Arabic – the language of Islam. Some East African languages, especially

Kiswahili also borrowed words from Arabic, vi) Education – Islamic learning has affected the forms and content of education among a number of East Africa societies, vii) Politics – Some parts of East

Africa were for along time ruled by

Muslim leaders who established ruling dynasties or families e.g. the shiraz – Islam therefore affected the form and structure of government.

viii) Legal system based on Islam law or sharia. ix) Trade was promoted e.g. slaves trade, ivory and gold.

x) Growth of towns eg Mombasa, Kilwa, Mogadishu etc. city/states. xi)

Intermarriage leading to Kiswahili race people, xii) Islamic music xiii)

Introduction of new crops e.g. coconuts, millet, rice etc

  1. a) Give three reasons why Christian Missionaries came to Africa in 19th


    i)  To spread Christianity/convert the Africans ii) To explore the continent

 iii)  To promote Western civilization iv)

To stop the slave trade

v)  To promote legitimate trade vi)  To spread education/culture

b) Explain six factors which undermined the activities of Christian missionaries in Africa during the 19th Century.

i) Tropical diseases such as Malaria claimed many lives and incapacitated some missionaries, ii) There was communication problem due to lack of a common language, iii) Some African rulers opposed the missionaries because they saw them as threat to their authority, iv) Missionaries lacked sufficient funds to carry out their activities eg.

construction of schools and churches.

  1. Lack of well developed transport network hampered their


  2. Rivalry between different missionary networks hampered


  3. There was opposition from Muslims and traditionalists who felt threatened by the religion.
  4. Tropical climate was unfavourable to the missionaries they found it difficult to carry out their activities, ix) Political instability in some parts of Africa made it difficult to carry out their activities shortage/lack of provisions/supplies e.g. food.
  1. a) State three factors which contributed to the spread of Christianity in

    Europe up to 4th Century.

    1. Missionary work of the apostle/disciples who visited Southern


    2. Early converts who spread Christianity in the region/Europe.
    3. Persecution of Christians within the Roman Empire made some of them to flee to other parts of Europe where they spread


    4. Conversion of emperor Constantine of Christianity.
    5. The declaration of the Christianity as the state religion of the

    European empire by emperor Theodosius.

    1. Christian doctrine of hope appealed to the oppressed in the

      European society/accepted by all.

    2. The hue of common languages (Latin and Greek) facilitated the spread, viii) Improved means of transport/facilitated the movement of preachers.

    b) Explain six factors which led to the emergence of protestant churches in the 16th Century.

    1. Widespread corruption among the clergy led to discontent among Christians who lost confidence in the church/bribery/selling of indulgences.
    2. Possession of absolute power by pope and excessive wealth by the church leaders in the Vatican, the centre of Christianity was seen by many Christians as a deviation from the Christian teaching/ absolute power, iii) Translation of the Bible into different languages in Europe exposed many people to the Bible thus they became critical of the clergy. iv) The development of printing press in the early 16th Century made it possible for the critics of the church to circulate their ideas to the people.

    v)  Conservatism of the church made the clergy to refuse to compromise with the reformists some of whom were excommunicated e.g. King of England and marriage, vi)  Some of the opposition arose as a result of the growth of national consciousness in different parts of Europe. Nationals of different countries of Europe questioned their allegiance to Rome, vii) The activities of Martin Luther and his subsequent excommunication led to the split of the church, viii) Immorality was prevalent in the church and this caused discontent among the high ranking bishops and other Christians.

  2. Give two ways through which Islam had spread in Africa by the 16th


    i) Jihads ii) Missionary activities

    1. Commercial interactions
    2. Intermarriages
    3. Influence of already converted rulers vi) Fear of being enslaved vii) Muslim culture was accommodating
  3. Why did missionary Work along the Coast thrive?
    1. Existence of already existing trade routes which connected the African coastal/trading posts with the interior facilitated the movement of the missionaries/railways and water ways.
    2. Use of guides and porters made the movement of the missionaries and the transportation of their luggage easy. iii)  The learning of local languages by the missionaries facilitated their activities among different communities.
    3. Transportation of the Bible and other church literature made

      Christianity accessible to many African communities.

    4. The discovery of curd of some tropical disease e.g. Quinine for treating Malaria fever reduced the number of death cases among the missionaries.
    5. Support and protection given to missionaries by some African rulers e.g. Lowanika of Bulozi promoted missionary activities.
    6. Support from the church organization in Europe enabled the missionaries to carry out their activities.
    7. Support from colonial government (e.g. protection against some hostile communities) enabled the missionaries to carry out their activities.
    8. The existence of displaced people e.g. the freed slaves, helped the spread of Christianity in Africa as they readily accepted Christianity.
    9. The establishment of mission stations which were used as basis from which they operated as stations also provided other social services e.g. heath care.





  1. Give the main result of the translation of the Bible into different languages during the Sixteenth Century.
    1. People were able to identify some of the weakness/excesses of the pope’s powers and other religious leaders. This led to criticism against them which resulted in the split of the Roman Catholic Church.
    2. Led to the rise of Protestantism
  2. a)  Why were Christian missionary in other parts of the world.
    1. To spread Christianity in other parts of the world.
    2. To help stop the slave trade and slavery.
    3. To support Christian missionaries who were sent to other parts of the world. iv)  To co-ordinate the activities of Christian missionaries in other parts of (he world.
    4. To promote exploration of other parts of the world.
    5. To counter/check the spread of Islam. vii) It was a period of evangelism in Europe. viii) To spread western education and culture/to civilize people in other parts of the world.

    b) Give six factors which affected Christian Missionary activities in

    Africa during the Nineteenth century.

    i) Tropical diseases such as Malaria, which claimed many lives of missionaries and scared other who gave up and returned home, ii) Lack of adequate funds to finance missionary activities.

    1. Poor means of transport forced them to walk long distance/long tire some journeys.
    2. Language barrier hindered effective communication with the people.
    3. Harsh tropical climate coupled with difficult terrain made it difficult for the missionaries to perform their work effectively. vi) Hostility of the African leaders who feared losing their control over the people as a result of conversion of Christianity.
    4. Hostility of slave traders who saw Christianity as a threat to their trading activities.
    5. Opposition from Muslim dominated areas where Christianity posed a threat to the Islamic faith.
    6. Opposition from the Africans who saw Christianity as a threat to their traditional region and cultural values/practices.
    7. The missionaries were few in number and therefore unable to reach many people, xi)  Danger caused by wild animals e.g. snakes, scorpions etc xii)  Shortage of medicine, water and food, xiii) Theft of medicine and other supplies, xiv) Hostility from local communities.

    xv)  Desertion by porters/loneliness/homesick, xvi) Conflicts/between various Christian groups undermined their effectiveness.

  3. State the main reason why the independent church movement started in

    Africa during the nineteenth century.

    To incorporate African values and practices into Christianity


  1. a) What factors led to the development of religious beliefs in societies?

    i) Desire to understand things that were beyond human understanding such as sun, moon, floods and drought, ii) Search for security in the face of uncertainties to human existence.

    For instance death, diseases and war iii) Attempts by the human race to explain their existence on earth, i.e.

    belief in the existence of a force behind creation.

    1. Desire to keep the community together/desire for unity.
    2. Some of the Christian teachings appealed to the oppressed and poor. They were attracted to the religion because of its teaching on equality of all men, love and better life after death, vi) The conversion of powerful roman emperors such as Constantine contributed to the spread of Christianity.

    vii)  Non – Christians were attracted to the faith as a result of the exemplary lives of the Christian leaders and converts/martyrs, viii)  Missionary activities of British, German and Dutch converts led to the spread of Christianity in their respective countries, ix) Christianity spread as a result of the activities of Emperor of Charlemagne, who used force to convert people. He also established a school for training priests and produced better copies of Bible,

    x) Existence of peace and security in the Roman empire encouraged

    Christian activities.

  2. State the result of the translations of the Bible into different European language during the sixteenth century.

    i) Enabled more people to read and understand the Bible, ii) Facilitated the spread of Christianity, iii) Led to the reformation of the church. iv) The Bible became accessible to more people.

    v) Led people to question in teaching of the Catholic Church.

  3. Give two ways in which in which Islam spread to Africa in the 19th Century.
    1. Trading activities.
    2. Migration and settlement of Muslims in Africa.
    3. Jihads/holy wars, especially in West

 Africa iv)  Intermarriages

v)  Establishment of Islamic centers of learning. vi)  Missionaries activities/Muslims scholars.

  1. a)  In what ways are the teachings of Islam similar to those of


    i)  Both religious are monotheistic, i.e. they teach the worship of only one God. ii) Their teachings are contained in the Holy Books, the Bible and the

    Koran, iii)  There is life after death. iv) Communicated their message through message through prophets.

    v)  There are angels. vi) God communicates his through prophets.

 vii)  Faith and good works viii)

There is judgment after death. ix) Existence of heaven and hell.

  1. Both recognize the significance of Abraham.
  2. Both believe in creation theory.

b) Explain why the Christian Church split during the 16th Century.

i) Translation of the Bible to many Europeans languages enabled people to read the word and challenge some of the teachings. ii) Corrupt practices in the church e.g. pluralism (holding more than one office in the church) buying offices in the church. iii) The clergy lived luxurious life’s and many lived for world! v pleasure in the monasteries and nunneries which was not in accordance with the teaching the Bible.

  1. Sale of indulgences to those who had sinned in order to be forgiven.
  2. Practice of the nepotism and appointment of their relatives to high offices.
  3. The clergy ignored the rule of celibacy and kept mistresses.
  4. The faithful were opposed to the heavy taxes imposed on them to sustain the church. viii) Reformist questioned some church practices and ceremonies eg. confession ix) The growth of nationalism throughout Europe made many people to question why they were answerable to Rome.
  5. Excessive secular and religion powers of the pope.
  6. The age of Renaissance (Rebirth) likened traditional beliefs of the church at the time.
  7. Struggled for papacy.
  8. The development of printing press led to production of more religious materials.
  9. The unwillingness of the clergy to compromise with the demands of the reformists especially after the trial and excommunication of

    Martin Luther.

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