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THIRD TERM E-LEARNING NOTE

SUBJECT: HOME ECONOMICS CLASS: JSS3

SCHEME OF WORK

WEEKS TOPICS

  1. FAMILY LIVING
  2. PREGNANCY/CHILD BIRTH
  3. CHILD DEVELOPMENT
  4. CHILD CARE IMMUNIZATION
  5. FOOD PRESERVATION AND STORAGE
  6. KITCHEN EQUIPMENT/UTENSILS
  7. REVISION
  8. EXAMINATION

REF BOOKS

Home Economics for JSS 1 – 3 by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha pg 341-358.

 

WEEK 1 Date:………………………….

TOPIC:- FAMILY LIVING/MARRIAGE

The family is the basic unit of any society. It is made up of group of persons related by ties of marriage, blood or adoption and who live together. A family starts with a young man and a young woman who establishes a relationship become married and produces children.

Adolescence is the period of growing up. It is a stage in every person’s life that lies between the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood. As boys and girls pass through adolescence they relate to each other. They tend to have friends of the opposite sex.

A boy /girl relationship should be as wholesome and healthy as possible. Unwholesome and unhealthy boy/girl relationship can result into the following problems :

 1  lack of self-discipline and respect.

2  teenage pregnancy

3  sexually transmitted diseases

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 4  drop out from school and termination of education.

Healthy boy/ girl relationship can be long lasting. The following guidelines are important for a healthy boy girl relationship;

  1. Adolescents should choose friends who have good characters.
  2. They should seek their parents approval of their friends.
  3. They should bring their friends home and introduce them to their parents and guardians.
  4. Friends should be free to visit each others home.
  5. Friends should learn about each others family.
  6. Parents should discuss freely with their children at all times.

COURTSHIP

Courtship is a process of relationship which leads to marriage. Courtship period is the time during which the young man and woman intending to marry each other move about more closely to know each other. At this period they get to know each other better.

CHARACTERISTICS FEATURES OF COURTSHIP

  1. The intending couples find out more about each other.
  2. They determine how suited they could go into a lasting union.
  3. They learn about each others family customs and tradition.
  4. They find out the extent to which they really love and care for each other.
  5. They discuss their future plan.

MARRIAGE

Is the union of a man and a woman as husband and wife.

 

FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSING A MARRIAGE PARTNER

  1. AGE:-the partner should be old enough for marriage.
  2. BACKGROUND:-it is wise to choose partner from the same background(religion, social, educational etc)with him or her.
  3. ECONOMIC SECURITY:-they should ensure that they are economically ready to do so.
  4. CHARACTER:-on should choose a partner with a reputable character .
  5. HEALTH:-one should go for check up to determine genotype, HIV/AIDS status ,fertility test etc.
  6. LOVE:-persons intending to get married should love each other.
  7. COMPARTIBILITY:-partners should share similar interests, likes ,dislikes etc.
  8. PARENTAL CONSENT:-partners should seek parental consent before marriage.

MARRIAGE SYSTEM IN NIGERIA

Nigeria is made up of two ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has its own marriage system and acceptable procedure, the common system of marriage in Nigeria include;

  1. Traditional or customary marriage.

This type of marriage is entered into according to native laws and customs. It differs from one area to another in Nigeria, traditional marriage can either be

a)monogamous: where one man marries one wife.

b) polygamous: where one man marries many wives.

  1. Marriage under ordinance:-This is also called court marriage because it is contracted in the court before a court registry. Features /characteristics of this marriage include:

i it is a monogamous form of marriage,

ii it does not allow the couple to enter into a second marriage unless at the death or official divorce of one.

iii a certificate is given

iv it is provided by government and open to all religious sects and tribe.

  1. Church marriage:-This is a type of marriage contracted in the church.
  2. Moslem marriage :- contracted in the way stipulated by Islam, Moslem men are allowed to more than one wife. It is a polygamous form of marriage.

EARLY MARRIAGE

The government approved age for marriage is 18yrs.At this age, however, many young people are still in school. Some people even get married before the age of 18.

EVALUATION

1  list any4 problem of unhealthy boy/girl relationship

2  state 5 factors to consider before choosing a life partner.

3  describe the 4 marriage systems in Nigeria.

 

 

WEEK 2 Date:………………………

PREGNANCY AND CHILD BIRTH

Pregnancy is the result of the fertilization of the female ovum or egg by the male sperm or cells .It is necessary that you understand some of the male and female reproductive organs.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

  1. Two testes enclosed by the scrotum.
  2. Sperm cells is the male sex cells, sperms are produced in the testes.
  3. The sperm ducts also known as vas deference are tubes that carry sperms from the testes to the seminal vesicles.
  4. Seminal vesicles are where the sperms are stored until they are ejaculated.
  5. Prostrate glands secretes a liquid in which the sperm cells are suspended.
  6. Urethra is the ducts through which sperms flow to the outside. It is embedded in the penis.

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

  1. Two ovaries each produces one egg every month.
  2. Ovum or egg is the female sex cells.
  3. Oviducts or fallopian tubes each leading from each ovary to the uterus.
  4. Uterus or womb is the place where the baby develops.
  5. Vagina is connected to the uterus and leads to the vulva.

HOW PREGNANCY OCCURS

Each of the ovary produces ovum every month, the process of producing ovum is called ovulation. If there is a sexual relationship or intercourse between a man and a woman at this period when the ovum is produced the sperm will fertilize the ovum. The result is pregnancy. If there is no sexual relationship, the released ovum will die off in a day or two, then menstruation will occur.

SIGNS OF PREGNANCY

  1. menstruation stops.
  2. Breast becomes tender, fuller, nipples becomes darker.
  3. Nausea and vomiting especially in the morning.
  4. There may be frequent urination.
  5. The abdomen enlarges from about 3 months.
  6. As the pregnancy advances, the mother feels the baby’s movements.

Ante-natal care is the care required by a pregnant woman before birth of her child.

Ante-natal care include the following;

  1. Regular visit to ante-natal clinic

a ) urine test

b )blood test

c) blood pressure

d) weight check

e) abdominal examination.

  1. Good nutrition.
  2. Proper clothing
  3. Good personal hygiene.
  4. Avoidance of strenuous work.
  5. Avoidance of drug abuse
  6. Avoidance of smoking and alcohol.
  7. Regular mild exercise and enough rest.

POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF POOR NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY

  1. Low birth weight.
  2. Different forms of malformation in the child.
  3. Mother’s health might be affected too.

PREPARATION FOR CHILD BIRTH

  1. it is very important that a pregnant or expectant mother prepares for the delivery well in advance. The following are important things required;-

For mother

a) Sanitary pads

b) Personal clothing e.g. night gown, nursing brassiers, pants.

c) Toiletries-soap, cream, powder e.t.c.

d) Bed linen

e) Disinfectant.

For the baby

a) Clothes for baby

b) Pampers/nappies

c) Towels

d) Toiletries-baby soaps, lotion, oil, powder e.t.c.

e) Baby comb.

f) Blanket.

POST-NATAL CARE

Is the care required by a mother after child birth.

BABY’S LAYETTE

Is a complete set of clothes required by a new born baby.

USES OF BABY’S LAYETTS

  1. to protect the baby
  2. to keep baby warm.
  3. to make baby comfortable

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. One of the following is not an anti-natal test

a)  complexion test b) blood test c) urine test

2  The care required by a pregnant woman before child birth is_________care.

a)  post natal b)  birth rate c)  ante-natal

3_______ occurs when the ovum is fertilized.

  1. Menstruation (b) pregnancy (c) ovulation
    1. A female sex cell is called___________

a)  sperm b)ovum c)ovary

5  The male sex cells is called

a) testis b)ovum c)ova

THEORY

1. a Define baby’s layette

b. state 4 uese of baby’s layette.

c what is ante natal care.

2. a.   list 5 signs of pregnancy

b.   differenciate ovulation from menstruation

 

WEEK 3 Date:……………………..

CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Every normal child grows and develops .The child passes through different stages of development.

GROWTH:-Is an increase in the physical size of the whole body or any of its parts. A child grows in size, height and weight. Growth is measured in metres and kilograms. DEVELOPMENT:-Is an increase in skill and complexity of function. A child is developing when he or she is making progress in what he or she does with his or her mind and body such as holding up the head, holding a toy, gaining understanding etc.

THE PRINCIPLE OF A CHILD DEVELOPMENT

1  Development in children is predictable.

2  Follows a definite pattern

3  It should be steady.

AREAS OF DEVELOPMENT

1  Physical development

2  Emotional development

3  Social and moral development  

 

1  Physical development:-This is the development of the physical structures and functions eg brain, muscles, nerves, bones and their functions.

2  Mental development:- This is the development of intellectual abilities, It involves ability to think, understand and solve problems. They learn from parents, experience and play.

3  Social development:-This involves the development of bevavioural patterns approved by the society, development of social attitudes.

4  Emotional development :- involves how people expresses feeling like smiling, crying, frowning.

STAGES IN A CHILD DEVELOPMENT

AGES

DEVELOPMENT

FIRST MONTH

1.HEAD SAGS AND NEEDS SUPPORT.

2.HANDS TIGHTLY FISTED OR CURLED.

3 SLEEPS MOST OF THE TIME,FEEDS AND CRY.

4 STARES INDEFINITELY AT SURROUNDING,CAN HEAR SOUND.

SECOND MONTH

1 WAVES ARMS ABOUT WHEN LYING ON BACK.

2 CAN TURN HEAD TOWARDS DIRECTION OF SOUND

3 MAY HAVE REGULAR ROUTINE,SUCH AS SLEEPING ALL NIGHT. 

THIRD MONTH

1 LOOKS AT PEOPLE AND FOLLOWS THEIR MOVEMENT.

2 SMILES AND ENJOYS COLOURS AND LIGHT.

3 CAN HOLD HEAD UP SLIGHTLY.

4 CAN HOLD AN OBJECT PLACED IN HIS HAND EG RATTLE. 

FOURTH MONTH

1 HOLDS HEAD ERCT.

2 CAN SMILE AND SHOW EXCITEMENT.

3 EYES CAN FOLLOW MOVING OBJECTS SLOWLY.

4 CAN REACH FOR TOES. 

FIFTH MONTH

1 CAN REACH FOR AN OBJECT

2 PUT EVERY THING WITHIN REACH INTO THE MOUTH.

3 CAN PULL DRESS OVER FACE

4 SIT WITH SLIGHT SUPPORT.

5 BIRTH WEIGHT MAY BE DOUBLED

1 BIRTH WEIGHT DOUBLED

RECOGNIZES CONSTANT MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY.

3 SITS WITHOUT SUPPORT

4HANDS AND EYES WORK MORE TOGETHER.

5 MAY START TEETHING

 

1 SITS CONFIDENTLY AND CRAWL

2 USES TOYS FREELY

3 MAY BEGIN TO ASSOCIATE WORDS WITH PEOPLE,IDEAS OR OBJECTS. 

 

1 CRAWLS VERY WELL,STANDS HOLDING ON TO OBJECTS

2 GRADUALLY STANDS UNAIDED

3 TAKES FIRST STEPS

4 CUTS MORE TEETH

5 BIRTH WEIGHT TRIPPLES

6 UNDERSTANDS SOME WORDS AND CAN SAY VERY FEW.

  

 

CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR CHILDS DEVELOPMENT

1  Love and care from family.

2  Good nutrition

3  Clothing

4  Exercise

5  Rest

6  Medical care

7  Conducive environment

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1  Development in children follows a definite pattern

 a)movement b) style c)  pattern d)  form e)  way

 

2 ___________ is measured in metres and kilograms.

 a) development b) health c) life d) strength e) growth

3 _________ is an increase in the physical size of the whole body or any of its parts.

 a) life b) development c) growth d) health e) energy

4 Child develops at ______

 a)high rates b) different rates c) a time d) different time e) similar rates

5 Development starts from the____________ and spreads over the body.

 a) legs b) hands c) eyes d) mouth e) heads

 

THEORY

1  List 2 factors that influences development

2  Enumerate the 5 areas of development

 

WEEK 4 Date:…………………………

CHILD CARE IMMUNIZATION

TIME 

IMMUNIZATION 

1.At birth 

B.C.G 

2.At 2 month

I first dose of D.T.P

II first dose of polio vaccine 

3. At 3 month

I second dose of D.T.P

II second dose of polio vaccine 

4 At 4 month

I third dose of D.T.P

II third dose of polio vaccine

5 At 9 month 

Measles vaccine 

  

 

COMMON AILMENTS IN CHILDREN

COLIC

Is caused by cramps in the intestines of the baby, causing the baby real discomfort or pain. A baby who has cramps cries hard common during the first 3-4 months., but much less after that.

CONSTIPATION

This involves the passing of hard stool at long intervals or not passing it at all. Constipation is common with bottle fed babies.

Treatment

1  Give the child extra water.

2  Add small glucose to his feed.

3  Give more fruit juice

4  Serious cases should be taken to the doctor

DIARRHOEA

This is the sudden increase in the number of bowel movements, especially if they are loose and watery. Could be caused by unsuitable diets, overfeeding, infection or diseases.

TREATMENT

Give oral dehydration therapy after each stool.

NAPPY RASH

Occurs when the child has rashes in the nappy area could be caused by using dirty napkins, leaving soiled napkin on the baby for a long time, not cleaning babies buttocks properly.

TOYS FOR CHILDREN

As a baby grows he or she enjoys playing with things. It is therefore important to provide baby with toys that suits their age levels.

USES OF TOYS

1  Keeps children busy.

2  Help them to learn.

3  Helps them to exercise themselves in different ways.

4  Make children happy.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1  ___________ feeding is the natural way to feed a baby.

 a) bottle b) breast c) artificial d) regular e) constant

2  Babies skin is delicate it should not be allowed to get_______

a) clean b) complex c) dirty d) hard e) simple

3  Constipation is common with ___________ babies.

a) breast fed b) bottle fed c) well fed d) hungry e) angry

4  The process of introducing a baby gradually to foods other than milk is called________

a) feeding b) winning c) warning d) weaving e) weaning

5  ___________- prevents a child from diseases.

a) air b) sun c) warmth d) immunization e) love

THEORY

1  State 4 advantages of breast feeding

2  define baby’s layettes.

 

WEEK 5 Date:………………………

FOOD PRESERVATION

Food preservation is the caring for or treating food in such a way that it will keep in good condition for a long period of time.

REASON FOR PRESERVING FOODS

1  To preserve seasonal foods in and out of season especially fruits and vegetables.

2  To prevent scarcity,

3  To prevent food spoilage.

There are different methods of preserving foods. The common ones are;

1  solar/sun drying:-is a very effective way of preserving some vegetables, maize, beans, cassava, chips etc

2  smoking:- Foods like fish, meat, and root crops can be preserved by smoking.

3  Freezing:-is a method of preserving foods by placing them in a freezer compartment.

4  Canning:-is a method of preserving foods by sealing them in an air tight container, and applying heat.

FOOD STORAGE

It involves keeping preserved foods in safe conditions and suitable facility for use.

CLASSIFICATION OF FOODS

1  PERISHABLE FOODS are foods that spoils very fast as a result of the moisture content of such foods eg tomatoes, fish, meats, eggs, vegetables.

2  NON-PERISHABLES are foods that do not spoil easily, and this include, rice, beans, salt, sugar, yam, dried maize.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1  State 3 reasons for preserving foods

2  What is food preservation.

3  Give 5 examples of a perishable food.

4  Give 5 examples of non perishable foods.

5  What is food storage.

 

WEEK 6 Date:………………………

KITCHEN EQUIPMENTS AND UTENSIL

Kitchen equipment and utensils are very important for food storage, preservation and cooking. Small kitchen tools such as knives are called utensils while the large ones such as cookers are known as equipment. The materials include metals, plastic, wood, glass e.t.c.

POINTS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSING KITCHEN EQUIPMENT

1 The equipment to be chosen must be suitable for the job.

2 The money available for the purchase of the item.

3 The equipment must be durable.

4 It should be easy to use.

5 It should be easy to care for.

 

CHARACTERISTICS,USES AND CARE OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS USED FOR MAKING COOKING EQUIPMENT AND UTENSILS

Materials

characteristics

uses

Care

Aluminium

i A very good conductor of heat.

ii it does not rust easily. 

I for kettle, sauce pans, frying pans, water filter e.t.c

i) wash with warm soapy water.

i)_ scour with mild abrasive.

iii) dry with soft kitchen cloth.

Enamel

i Rust proof

ii can chip if dropped.

Sauce pans jugs, pie dish, basin, plates etc

i) Wash in warm soapy water.

ii) Rinse thoroughly in clean water.

iii) Dry well

China

Porcelain or china 

i it is porous

ii it is a poor conductor of heat 

Plates, tea-sets, mugs, ovenware etc.

i) Wash with warm soapy water.

ii) rinse well

iii) dry with clean dish.

Wood

 

 

 

 

 

Can be plain, painted or varnished.

 

 

 

 

Mortar and pestle, spoons, forks, spatular trays, rolling pins, chopping boards, bread boards e.t.c.

 

 

i) wipe varnished wood with dry clean cloth.

ii) wash plain painted wood with warm, soapy water.

iii) rinse

 

 

 

Stainless steel 

 

 

i) It is a poor conductor of heat.

ii) It is strong and durable.

iii) it does not rust

 

 

 

Tea set, trays, plates, kitchen sink, cutlery, cups, frying

 

pans and sauce pans. 

 

 

I wash with warm soapy water and rinse thoroughly.

ii scour, with mild abrasive when necessary.

Earthen ware

It is porous

It is a poor conductor of heat

It takes time to get heated 

Cooking pots, water pots, jugs, cooler e.t.c

i) wash with soapy water.

ii) rinse with warm water

Chromium

It is hard metal

It is resistant to acid.

Does not scratch easily

Use to coat other metals. 

Spoons, forks, water, taps, ranks etc.

Do not use abrasive.

Wash in warm soapy water.

Rinse thoroughly.

Dry well.

Polish with a soft duster 

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1.  Which of the following may not influence the choice of cooking equipment and utensils?

 A family size B income C ease of use D Height of parents E use of equipment

2.  One of the following is a good conductor of heat?

A stainless steel B plastic ware C china ware D earthen ware E aluminium

3.  Rolling pins and chopping boards are commonly made of _____

A glass B plastic C china D wood E steel

4.  One of the following rust easily

A aluminium B iron C glass D plastic E tin

5.  Which of the following is porous?

A zinc B chromium C earthen ware D plastic ware E iron.

THEORY

1.  List 4 points to consider in choosing kitchen equipment.

2.  List any 2 of the following:

 (a)  Measuring Utensils

 (b)  Mixing Utensils

 (c)  Top Range Utensils

 

WEEK 7 – 9    REVISION

 

WEEK 10 EXAMINATION




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