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Literature is the work of arts which use words / creative language to express human realities in social, political, economical, cultural and love
Literature is the work of art which use language and transmitted in spoken and written form.
There are two types of literature, namely
a) Spoken or Oral literature
b) Written literature
Is the literature which represented/expressed through oral or spoken form.

Is the literature presented / expressed in written form.
There are two element of literature include
i) Form
ii) Content

Is the outer shell of the work of arts. This means that author (artist) organized his / her work of arts.
The form in literature comprises / consist of the following things;
i) Style
ii) Plot
iii) Setting
iv) Characterization
Is the work of arts we use simple language, difficult language by employing figures of speech, proverbs, idioms,saying etc
  1. STYLE
Is the technique or method which artist used in constructing/performing a work of arts such as Narrating, Monologue, dialogue, straight forward, oral traditional style etc.
E.g. Once upon the time
Is the environment where the work of arts events taken.
E.g. (“This time tomorrow” it’s setting in Kenya)
  1. PLOT
Is the way which an art organized or arrange event in his / her work of arts e.g. flash back, straight forward.
a) A character – Is a person in a story. Character donate the beliefs habits of mind moral choice and motivation
b) Characterization – Is the creation of imaginary a real person who exists for the leader as real.
In work of arts there so many characters including
– Expository character
– Dramatic character
– Flat character
– Round character
– Per eloping character
– Stock character
But all those character can be grouped into two
a) Main (Central ) character
b) Minor (Assistance) character
Main character: Is the person or people who appear the work of art from the beginning of story the end of the story.
Main character conveys carry the message of the story.

Minor character is the person who appears and disappears as a story continues.
Content refers for to what is being said or conveyed or content is what is described in the work of art (literature).
Content involves the following
i) Themes
ii) Conflict
iii) Message
iv) Philosophy and climax, crisis and prologue
A central or dominating idea in a literary work, Themes of most African work of arts are love, Betrayal corruption, oppression women position, culture, Alienation etc.
In any work of arts which written or Spoken there must be a theme. Also they are center of any literature question.
This is the use learn from a literary work. Normally message is occurred after read a novel titled, a wreath for father Mayer you can get a message that you to have to fight against injustice to build Justice Society.
Conflicts is misunderstanding, collision of ideas Antagonistic
Or Opposition between one side and another side.
Conflicts arise between characters and their environments, or
Circumstances, or Character himself (internally) conflicts Made a work of arts to precede events.
  1. Educates the society
  2. Criticize the society
  3. National and culture identity
  4. Entertain the society
  5. Develop and improve the language use
Atwoki – Son of Adyeri
Adyeri – Father of Atwoki and Abooki
Vicky – An orphan
Amoti – Wife of Adyeri
Abooki – Daughter of Adyeri and Atwoki is sister
Aluganyira – Vicky’s husband
It’s relevant to content of the book once it takes about life of the people whose life seemed to pass like a shadow.
ADYERI: Is an educated man who reached the level of being the head of the school. Became famous one married with a good reputation in his society however later he changed to be alcoholic, womanizer took his secretary (and squared)
– Use the money to entertain Birungi (Secretary) Picked women from bar and slept with them.
– He used to mistreat his family after being drunkard; he beats his wife and uses a lot of abusive language “Have Married a Pig”. He also demanded a respect from his children while he did not deserve, he demanded delicious food while he did not leave enough money to buy such a delicious food for his family.
Vicky Atwoki’s cousin brings a man called Akena Opoto from Pallisa who owns a garage but coming from another tribe she wants to introduce him as her husband. “He is the man who wants to marry me.”
The book tried to reveal the way Vicky is treated in her uncle’s family. She is chased away by her uncles and found nowhere to go as a result she made a decision to find a husband who would make her life comfortable.
Her mother dead before telling Vicky who is her father therefore Adyeri’s wife is Lamenting to be given a burden i.e. Caring Vicky.
Akena is rejected by Adyeri’s wife that he is Munyamuhanga means a man from another tribe she said (Amoti). A person from another tribe cannot marry Vicky especially the tribe from north.
Adyeri is against Amoti’s view
, to Adyeri something important is dowries and not anything else “I don’t care who married Vicky. Whether is a person or a con or a donkey all I want is dowry.”
Adyeri analyzing the dowries as he said is head cattle, including 3 bulls, but marriage negotiation fail dowry, then Vicky is completely disappointed and she wishes in other were alive because her uncle’s wife is no help but she is jealous of her.
The Author “reveals” to us the talent of Atwoki that when he is at primary school a little Atwoki is very good at football, it is ambition is to be prominent person as exemplified his argument he has with his age mate. The behavior of his father drinking much is hurting him when is mentioned any other person.
The Author reveals that Atwoki’s father is irresponsible person. This happened when Atwoki’s under pays visit to Atwoki home and kind home has got no food.
Araali (Atwoki’s uncle) is a best friend of children as always tries to show true love to them “Uncle Araali drew out a box of biscuits to them.”
“What are you thinking Vicky?”
In this chapter Vicky is persuaded by her friend “Tusiime and Kunihira to find herself a man to look after her.
“Why didn’t you run a way with the man”……… ……
Kunihira is complaining that the parents they have considered marriage as a business. Since when one wants to marry, parents tend to put some conditions that can hinder smooth running of marriage process………… They demand a lot and put impossible condition”. Kunihira is also complaining that too much demanding of this things have become the reason to why people get marriage without official marriage.
The author tries to show that, friends or peer group can change the behavior of a person example because of some advice or influence given to Vicky by her friends she started to use cosmetics, she also started to attend disco but all in all she did all this so as to attract men
As a result from started to find Vicky “Men started chasing her up the way flies chasing rotting meat”
Vicky behavior is completely changing as she is going with sugar daddy being some money where sometimes she managed the budget and later Vick went for good with a man from Kassese.
Adyeri is invited to Kanyamasika as the one of teachers started at that school the time it was starting.
The song that was sung by pupils of standard five touched Adyeri and gave a friction of his whole life.
One of the Adyeri’s life was that he was a drunkard person, a womanizer therefore however he was employed still he had nothing, he lived in a poor life.
Example: A part from Atwok’s mother Adyeri had another woman called Birungi she was a secretary when Adyeri the time when he was the head master at ST. LUIS high school.
This made Adyeri to acquire a disease that was called a (slim) AIDS as he was found asleep.
Atwoki and Abooki are living with their mother at Katumba in a home built by Atwoki while still a High School Student at St. Luis. Atwoki gets the money from rewards and gifts given to him by the president following the classic goals he scored in the Africa Cup of Nations. He was the national team striker while a school boy. The two Atwoki and Abooki have completed high school and they are at home.
Amoti informs her children about the news of their father’s sickness back at Kachwamba. The children have not been aware since there has been no communication between them and their father, Adyeri for several years. Though Adyeri know about his son’s fame as football star in Uganda, he has sworn never to beg or ask for any financial assistance from him.
Amoti informs the children about the broken relationship between Birungi and their father. Atwoki feels sorry for the father especially on the disease but the mother claims that has been the right time for Adyeri. An elderly woman comes to Amoti’s house to plead with her in order to have mercy on the husband who in a pathetic sight back at Kachwamba. Amoti refuses to heed this request and instead she advice the woman to go and tell concubine Birungi that Amoti is very bitter with the husband such that she not ready to forgive him.
Adyeri is brought by a group of people to his children and wife. He is very thin and barely recognizable. In fact he is stinking because of the sores all over his body. He is brought on a stretcher to one of the rooms in their house. The people who bring him are football fans who know Atwoki so well.
They have found it wise to bring the dying father despite the poor family history. They are sorry for those decisions to bring him there as they suspect it will remind them the family wounds. Atwoki accepts his father back despite the strong objection from his mother, Amoti. All that the children can do is weep uncontrollably what has be fallen their father. They really pity him.
Atwoki pays a visit to his friend, David, who lives in Kampala. While in Kampala Atwoki is introduced to a girl called Edd
a whom they meet in a restaurant. Everybody in the restaurant knows Atwoki as a football star nicknamed “the foot portal Bullet,” while at the restaurant, girls keep eying Atwoki. Some even sit directly opposite to him in a very provocative careless posture. It is revealed in this chapter that by the time Atwoki goes to Kampala; he is twenty two years but has never slept with a girl all his life. His sister Abooki has always warned him against girl even back at portal frontal.
During his stay in Kampala, Atwoki falls in love with Edda as a result of the peer pressure and the environmental influence at David’s home. David’s father, being rich and in the governmental influence at David’s with all the luxuries they need. Despite the information made available it about AIDS over the radio, TV, and magazines, David’s father never seems to care. He attends bar and picks girls together with his son, David, who a university drop out. Atwoki is provided with a room at David’s home where he sleeps with Edda during his stay in Kampala. David assures him that the girl is healthy and free from AIDS judging from her appearance. “Eventually the foot portal Bullet” falls a prey to girls.
Vicky and her husband, Aluganyira, go to a witch doctor at night. Their aim of visiting the witch doctor is to get a charm which makes them have a child. Aluganyira had married twice and divorced before he married Vicky. His former wives have given birth to two children each. They are now being taken care of by Vicky, as their step mother.
Aluganyira is a rich man and therefore, needs more children with Vicky. Vicky does not welcome the idea of visiting witch doctors but the pressure and anxiety to have a child makes her agree with the husband’s plan to make her to the witch doctor. At the doctors place they find six people lying on the Floor. Two of them are very thin and have rashes all over the bodies. At the corridor there are five other customers, probably AIDS victims must have been among the witch doctor patients.
The witch doctor makes pricks on Vicky stomach and tattoos it. He uses the same knife on the other patients who are probably infected AIDS. Vicky fails to object to the situation because she is desperately in need of a baby. Instead they receive something else, AIDS from the infected knife of the witch doctor. Victims must have been among the witch doctor.
Adyeri passes away and people mourn him bitterly, especially his drinking mates. Everyone knows the causes of Adyeri death. Judging from his love for ladies, they know he has swell died of AIDS (slim) probably infected by one of his concubines in the streets.
It revealed that Adyeri’s wife, Amoti, is also sick and the only hope is in the children. However, the Foot portal Bullet is rumored to have changed and become a reputed womanizer in Kampala. They say he has taken after his father and would probably die the same death because AIDS never discriminates people on the basis of race, age, wealth or education. The drunkards are wondering where the disease come from such that they are afraid it will wipe the whole of Uganda.
After his father’s burial, Atwoki goes back to Kampala leaving behind his sick mother under the care of Abooki. Atwoki neglects his mother and sister, Abooki back at home without enough money while the mother is sick, Football fans who are frequent Kampala say, he is tied to a lady with whom he is living. Despite his mother lamentation, Atwoki does not respond to the call of his sister. This makes their mother very bitter and complains a lot.
– These are Vicky’s female friends
– They sell their bodies and exploit men
– They convince Vicky to be engaged in prostitution
– They are ignorant of the disease “slim”
– Uncle Araali is the brother of Adyeri who lives Ilunga village at Kitangwenda.
– He supports the family of his brother as seen by paying school fees
– He is a kind and loving man
– He welcomes Atwoki and Abooki when the farmer is sick
– It is a technique or uniqueness of the writer’s say of writing a work of art. In “Passed like a shadow” the author used a creative technique as he used a simple language with the use of familiar language devices as he used the following in his form of language.
1) Abooki was in a nightmare : To mean she was in a deep thought (page.2)
2) Daddy gave him a classic slap to mean a heavy slap (page . 3)
3) Amoti’s eyes nearly popped out: To mean the high surprising state, Amoti was in at the moment(p.9)
4) She told him breathlessly to show how exciting Abooki was (p.4)
5) The catastrophic that had been him to mean hard time(P.25)
The situation where by a comparison of two unlike things is made using words like, as or like.
  1. She walked to wards him or fearless as a lioness (p.3)
  2. He was humble as a dove (p.8)
  3. His face was us him as a child(p.21)
  4. She was a hard working as a donkey (P.14)
Are popular says made by the notion of people which are mostly conclude as the truth.
1) Life is not easily (p.9)
2) I have hit the jack pot (p.9)
3) Men are like a buses (p.6)
4) Like father like son (p.39)
5) East or west home is best (p. 19)
A metaphorical representation of an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes —– attributes of form character feelings, behavior, and son as on. As the name implies a thing or ideas is treated as a person.
i) His eyes near heart (p.28)
ii) Amoti’s eye nearly popped out (p.9)
Amoti don’t have a hard heart.(P.28)

Imagery: It is an act of an author to create an imaginative picture in the mind of a reader.
E.g. The birds were really a wonderful sight (Pg 49)
Due to her well shaped figure(Pg 19)
With electricity speed (Pg 26)
Symbols: Is the use of words in such a way that one thing stands for something else.For example the cross stands for Christianity.In this novel ,the following symbols have been used.
1. A big fish – means a rich man(pg 19)
2. Slim – HIV/AIDS.
3. I regret to have married a pig – Unsuccessful man
4. He is so green – Outdated people.

Code Switching.
Chill – poor me (pg 2)
Munyamahanga – Down and foreign can outcast who doesn’t belong to the tribe of Batooro (pg 6)
Juju – Magic power(Pg 37)
The main theme is passed like a shadow is the AIDS pandemic which has invaded the setting of the story in western Uganda. The disease, which is referred to as a slim, is wiping the population. Indiscriminately, the writes has revealed some of the practices and beliefs that speed up the spread of the disease among the people.
The generation is dying miserably of the disease before the right age. The title of the novel PASSED LIKE A SHADOW reflects on how the young and energetic men and women perish from AIDS (slim). Their life span lasts as short as that of a shadow. Man power and talents are worded by the disease. Before the talents are utilized fully, the people pass away like shadows.
The characters in the novel , like Adyeri, Amoti, David, Vicky, David’s, father and mother, Aluganyira and Atwoki are example of the people who fall victim of the AIDS pandemic. The writer reveals the factors that exposed them to this tragedy as follows:
2.Position of Woman:
This is the role of woman in the family.A woman is portrayed as a tool of pleasure for men. This is when David and his father pick different girls from the bar and restaurants because they think women are instrument of pleasure.Aliganyira divorces two women after having children with them and marries Vicky as the third wife.
A woman is also portrayed as weak and cannot be involved in decision making .For example Aliganyira forces Vicky to visit witch doctor who could give them a charm forgetting children.
Also the woman takes care of the home and give birth to the children.

3.The influence of Power.
The position that we hold in the society plays a very big role in the exposure to AIDS infections.
The rich business people like Aliganyira and David’s father use their position to influence young little girls into their trays using money and power.Atwoki falls a prey to the trap of Edda , and the other girls in Kampala because he is a football star and famous.

4.Influence of Parents and Their Children.
a) The jealous of Amoti influences Vicky’s life style.Amoti has always been jealous of anything that concern Vicky,especially of the man who wanted to marry her.
b) Atwoki falls a victim to David’s influence because of the poor life in their family.
c) David is exposed to infection because of very free, leisure and fair environment in their family.The tendency of David’s father to pick girls and shares drinks with his son in the bar.This influences David so much .
d) The negligence and greed of Adyeri, Atwoki ‘s father exposes Vicky to infection.

5.Peer Pressure and Influence.
This is the influence of age mates , friends and colleagues in making decisions.In the novel ,the following people fall victims of peer pressure and influence .
The pressure from relatives and her husband expose Vicky to further infection when she accepts the services from witch doctor so that she can have children.The witch doctor use the same knife he used to another patients who are probably victims of slim.
Atwoki is influenced by his friend David who used to take him to girls and even finances their cost.This lead him to become an HIV victim.
Vicky is also influenced with her friends Tusiime and Kunihira .She sell her body so that she can take care of herself.

6.Ignorance and Superstition.
Ignorance is situation in which people are unaware of the vital information within their society.Most of people in the story are ignorant because they can not
tell the truth about AIDS- people are not aware of the disease.
Vicky’s husband takes her to witchdoctor so that they could have a child.In process she got infection of slim.
Amoti associates her husband’s sickness to witchcraft.She thinks that her husband , Adyeri is bewitched by Birungi.
The victims of slim are taken to witchdoctors with the belief that they are victims of bewitching and evil spirits.

7.Family Conflicts.
These are the misunderstanding within the family which lead to instability of the family.These conflicts play a big roles in the spread of AIDS (Slim)
1.Conflict lead Atwoki falls victim of the disease.
2.Amoki separates from her husband
3.Vicky get into prostitution when her uncle chases her from the house and also later refuses her fiance.

8.Promiscuity and Infidelity/Prostitution.
This is a situation of some one having many sexual partners who are not married legally to him/her.
Adyeri is promiscuous because he has a lover called Birungi,besides his wife . Apart from that he also has other lovers in the streets.
Vicky had several men before she married Aliganyira.
David and his father are promiscuous because they are pick girls from the streets.

Is a lesson we get after reading a work of art.In passed like a shadow is mostly concerned with the HIV/AIDS pandemic where we see people are negligent and ignorant of the disease as they practice promiscuit
y and infidelity/prostitution without precaution on protecting their health as a result they acquire the HIV virus

This is misunderstanding between a person and himself or a person and a group of people or a group of people and a certain group of people.
In this book the conflicts are divided into two parts.

1.Personal Conflicts.
Vicky going to the witch doctor unwilling since it as an order from her husband (pg 37)
Amoti did not know what to do when he was brought to their home without her concent (pg 29)

2. interpersonal conflicts
Vicky with her aunt because she always felt jealous of any success of hers (p7)
Vicky’s uncle with Vicky’s fiance(P 11)
Atwoki and his age mates about his dreams.

Philosophy of the writer.
Philosophy of the writer is that HIV/AIDS is spread to people because of the ignorance and negligence of the people. Also the main cause of spreading HIV/AIDS is the sexual intercourse between two partners having unprotected sex.

Relevance of the Book.
This book is relevant to the society as it brings a teaching message to the society of Uganda,Africa and the world wide which encounter the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
It criticizing the society’s way of life with its act of prostitution and infidelity at the same time it educates the society and lastly entertain the society by different songs in the book so as to bring up awareness.
1) Explain how the Author of the book have used characters to bring massage to the society
2) Parents are the agents to shape their children by using their parents are either good or bad.
1) Solution qn. 1
Character is the agent which carries the message to the society. In the novels passed like a shadow which written by BERNARD MAPALALA and wreath for father Mayer which written by S.N. NDUNGURU the author of this book are try to use characters to bring message to the society.
The following are the characters from the book Passed like a Shadow which used to bring message to the society.
Adyeri is the head of the family not only but also is the head master of St. Luis high school. He becomes a hopeless drunkard and womanizer after losing his job so the message which brings from these characters to the society is irresponsibility. Irresponsibility shown by Adyeri who failed to provide for the family basic needs. As the book says “uncle pays visit. Atwoki’s home and find the home had gated no food.
Aluganyira is rich person, exploiter and Vicky’s husband also he is superstitious because he believes in the power of witch doctor. The message which we get from this character is local beliefs. Local beliefs are the beliefs of existence of goods and the activities that are concerned with their being the worshiped. Shown when Aluganyira takes his wife to witch doctor in order to get child. As the book says “The witch doctor make prinks on Vicky stomach and tattoo’s it”
Abooki’s is Adyeri’s and Amoti’s daughter she is a kindness person is the message which we get from her.
This character is kindness. Kindness showed when Abooki’s is taking care of her sick mother, father and her brother. As the book says, “Abooki back at home without enough money while the mother is sick”.
Also characters from the book wreath for father Mayer bring the following message to the society.
Father Den’s Moyo: He is the parish priest at Mkongo parish. Also is sympathetic about twenty parish owners who dead cholera and also used to visit patient at the dispensary. He is important figures in the society who think and solve issues critically. The message which this character brings to our society is prisoners. As the book says “Father Moyo continued to help villagers with used kerosene fins. This message are show good example to our society also it teach us how should be to live in our communities with other people who suffered from different problems.
Bwana Pima: He real home of Omary Mtepa. He is medicine man at character is infidelity. According to this book wreath for father Mayer infidelity is shown by Bwana Pima. As the book says “Bwana Pima has five wives ——-still he has many combined in village—–“in other side this message he bring in the society is so bad because infidelity may cause different disease especially HIV/AIDS for those people who apply or concerned with it.
Paul: is Bwana Pima’s son the only Rozina child. He is twelve years old and he is a standard five pupil at Makongo mission school. The message we get from this character is transparency. Transparency shown by Bwana Pima’s son who very important figure in this book is through is a minor character. As the book says “He revealed about secret use of tetra cycling at his home——–“This message he bring in our society is very good so is a good example for people to imitative.
The following above are the characters and the message which are bring to the society which are still found in our daily activities and surrounding
Answer qn 2
Parents are the agent to shape their children by using two books explain children can learn something from their parent be either good or bad.

SETTING: KENYA (Uhuru market)
TIME: 1970
PUBLISHER: Kenya literature Bureau
‘’This time tomorrow’’ is a play which shows disappointment among the majority who are being humiliated and made to suffer. It also unseals the weakness in the government that doesn’t take decision and affects masses and their interest.
The title of the play is direct because it simplify explains the disappointment made by the new government to the majority who live in slums and also the government decision on the ‘clean the city’ campaign which demanded the demolition of slums without a clean statement to which place that majority will leave soon after the demolition because of this situation, Njango is asking herself a question ‘’where will we go tonight? “Where will be, this time tomorrow”

– The writer used both 1st and 3rd person point of view
Example wakes up! I tell you
– The Writer used 3rd person Point of view for narration i.e. By explaining those words in brackets,
Example (the journalist resumed typing, then he stops …………) Pg 31 (as she sweep she hears a tune) Pg 34.

Pg 38, when Njango explained about her man and what caused his death
Pg 42, when Tinsmith explained himself to the journalist about different kinds of jobs he had.
Pg 43, when shoemaker explained to the journalist about how they fought for freedom

– She is the central character in the play. She is a protagonist and the mother of Wanjiro. She is a widow since her husband is killed in the forest during Maumau movement.
– She has come to town after the death of her husband.
– She engages herself in petty trade at the Uhuru market (selling soup).
– She earns a poor life. Her house is made of cardboard and share the floor with her daughter as a bed.
– She is tribalistic due to conservatism. She is against inter-tribal marriages.
– She is one of the victims of the Clean-the- city Campaign. She laments, “Where Shall I be this time tomorrow?”
– She is abandoned by her daughter Wanjiro who decides to go with Asinjo.
– She warns or advises Wanjiro to be cautious with city boys.
– Daughter of Njango.
– She is naturally beautiful but not smart due to poverty.
– She has not been sent to school like her brother but does work at home.
– She loves Asinjo and wants to marry him but her mother forbids her.
– She helps her mother with domestic chores and in her petty business.
– She is unhappy with the poor life in the slums and wants to go away with Asinjo.
– She admires we ring like white people and walks like an European lady.
– She is not touched by the demolition of slums.
– She finally goes to marry Asinjo.
– Conscietizes the people about their rights and makes them aware of humiliation and exploitation.
– The people think that he has magical power to save them.
– He advises the people to unite in their opposition against the demolition of the slums.
– He is aware that in order to succeed, there should be a strong determination, organized struggle and unity.
– He is courageous. He remains alone when others run away until he is arrested by the police Officer for inciting people into violence and civil disobedience.
– He is one of the slum dwellers.
– He is illiterate and does not know his age.
– He is married to one wife and his five children.
– He is among the freedom fighters in the forest.
– He earns a living by mending shoes.
– He protests against the government’s decision to demolish the slums.
– He is once arrested and sent to Manyani Concentration Camp.
– He easily despairs to struggle against the City Council.
1st Customer
– Is among the slum dwellers.
– He buys soup at Njango’s place.
– He is also against the demolition of the houses.
– He suggests that they should hold a meeting with the stranger. He believes in magical powers and thinks that the stranger can use his magic.
– He is coward. He tells the people at the meeting that the police are coming and cautions them that they have got batons.
2nd Customer
– He is another person who buys soup at Njango’s Place.
– He complains to Njangu about the price of the soup.
– He believes that the stranger has magic to save them.
– He is coward. He tells others to run and he runs away.
3rd Customer
– He is also a slum dweller and buys soup at Njango’s place.
– He also protests against the government’s decision to demolish the slums. He therefore, does not want to move.
– He supports the idea of uniting (standing together) as suggested by the stranger and encourages people to accept what the stranger says and stand firm.
– He is also courageous like the stranger.Inspector Kiongo
– He works with the City Council Health Department, therefore, he reminds the people in Uhuru markets to move away since the slums are going to be demolished in a bid to clean the city, because the filthy slums are an eyesore to the city.
– He is not among the slum dwellers.
– He is among the few people enjoying the national cake; living a good life.
– He helps in forcing the people to move away from the slums. He drives Njango out of her hut.
– He is a young man fom another tribe who loves Wanjiro and wants to marry her.
– He was chased away and insulted by Njango because she does not want him to marry her daughter.
– He tells Wanjiro that he is a taxi-driver and owns a house in old Jerusalem.
– He convinces Wanjiro to go with him and ignore her mother because she is old.
– He is aware that slum will be demolished that day. He therefore, uses that chance to convince or win Wanjiro. So, Asinjo in this case is depicted as an opportunist because he takes advantage of the demolition process to get Wanjiro.
– He is also a slum dweller who lives a poor life.
– He is illiterate. He is not sure of his age.
– He came to the city many years ago, and does not remember exactly when.
– As the journalist takes his photograph, he tells him that he has done many jobs including cooking, washing, sweeping.
– He cooks for the White people during the war and after. He also works as a porter.
– He has terrible experiences in his life that involve sleeping on shop-verandahs, trenches and in public latrines.
– He makes water buckets, pangas, hoes, etc.
– He report different events in the society like the state of sanitation, the government’s decision to demolish the slums, the people’s reactions, etc.
– He gather the people’s views on the decision to demolish the slums.
– He is not among the slum dwellers.
– He takes pictures of different people like the tinsmith and Inspector Kiongo.
– He works with the media.
– He tells the journalist to hurry up writing the article.
– He is also not among the slum dwellers.
Police Officer
– Is among the people in the civil servant.
– He is representing the government in the implementation the Clean-the-City Campaign.
– He arrests the stranger for inciting the people into violence and civil disobedience.

– They implement the government’s decision to demolish the slums.
– They face some resistance thought not strong.
– They storm into the slums and in the meeting, and start hitting people with batons until they run away.
– The majority in the slums. The group of people suffering and living a poor life.
– Most of them are freedom fighters fighting for Kenyan freedom and against land alienation.
– They struggle against injustice exercised by the new government. They are against the demolition of slums which takes place so abruptly without due consideration of their impending plight.
– Since they are not properly, united struggle against the government fails. As the beginning they manage to stand together, but later they split due to lack of coherence and confidence.
– They are superstitions. They believe. (Have illusions) that the stranger can
perform magic and save them. Due to their weaknesses, their slums are demolished.
  1. Abessolo
  2. Atangana ‘s father and Juliette’s grand father
  3. Ondua
  4. Atangana‘s brother
  5. Bella
  6. Abessolo’s wife and Juliette’s grand mother
  7. Mezoe
  8. A relative in Juliette’s family
  9. Engulu
  10. Mbia’s driver

The writer used a language which is simple he also used common language to express his identity and his culture
Words like
Ghorka meaning uncircumcised girl
Oyono eto Mekong ya ngozi [pg12]
Nane ngok! [Page 13] etc
This is explained to be the main theme because it simply shows variation of culture between the old cultural aspects preserved by the elders and the new cultural aspects introduced by the young generation for example ‘’the issue of marriage ‘’this is shown by Juliette’s family who have already prepared a suitor for Juliette without consulting her only because they received 100 and 200 Francis from Mbia and Ndi as a bride price.
This means that elders in Mvoutessi have power and are the ones who make decisions for the young and the young must obey their parents / elders
Therefore elders are doing this so as to make sure that they preserve their culture without considering whether they are right or wrong while young generation are busy fighting for their rights such as decision making so as to make sure that those wrong traditions preserved by their elders are destructed.
In the play women are described into different aspects as follows
i) Bride price
In Mvoutessi the issue of bride price is compulsory to them payment of bride price especially high amount of money is a symbol of respect of the women
They believed that for a girl who is educated like Juliette must get married for a high amount of bride price so as to compensate with the amount of money used for her school fees.
ii) Decision making
According to their customers and traditions women in Moutessi do not have a right to make decisions for their lives for example Juliette who was forced by her
family to get married to Mbia also in Mvoutessi women do not speak and they do not speak and they don’t have the right to be asked their opinions about something concerning their lives and the society as whole
Example in [act 1 pg 15]
Abessolo says
Your options she wants to be asked her opinion since when do women speak in Mvoutessi…..
iii) Food taboos
Women in Mvoutessi are strictly prohibited to eat taboo animals like Vipers ,Wild bears
According to their traditions such food is only for old men and the younger men who were expected to eat them until they had been granted special permission to do by elders of the tribe
iv) Item for sale
This is shown by Juliette’s family who takes Juliette as a means of getting money so that others can benefit from that they believe that for Juliette to be married to mbia will make her family rich as Ondua says
These words show that you will try and make as rich when you get married [act 1 page 16]
They also believed that high bride price of a 200 franc which is already paid by Mbia to Juliette will help Oyono to pay bride price for the girl he wants to marry
v) Domestic activities
In the play women are seen in the kitchen performing their duties such as working food for men cracking peanuts etc while men are just drinking, smoking and discuss some issues
vi) Education
In the play many women and girls are not educated except Juliette this shows that women in Mvoutessi do not have rights to get education but they only supposed to engage themselves in other activities like taking care of the family and plantation etc
vii) Business
In the play women are engaging themselves into a business of sealing ‘Arki’ is illegal they are doing this because men in Mvoutessi like drinking
viii) Superstition
Majority in Mvoutessi believes in superstition that is why they decided to call for the witch doctor (Sangatiti) to let them know who stole the money paid for the bride price instead of helping them sangatiti just took their things and left them and later on they discovered that sangatiti was a liar who cannot help them as they say in [act 4 page 59] you lair ….. you scoundrel……;. You robber etc
2. Illiteracy
People in Mvoutessi are illiterate only because they are not educated and due to this they are easily convinced to do wrong things ideas and even wrong people only because they know nothing about education this can be easily proved by Kouma who convinced them to believe that oko is a doctor of doctorate as Mbaga says “Can’t you explain to Mr. DR of palm tree leaves doctor of Spanish” act 5 page 68
3. Polygamy
In the play the system of having more than one wife is just a normal thing and think that it is pride taking Meka’s daughter for example who became the twelfth wife of the deputy secretary of the state
Also Mbarga had twelve wives who were officially married and still want to marry another woman also Mbia has eight wives and still wanted to marry Juliette
4. Love
In the play true love is shown by Juliette who loves Oko Juliette has true love that is why she was against the decision made by family that she is supposed to get married either to Ndi or Mbia even though Oko was a school boy with nothing Juliette still loved him and decided to steal the money paid for her bride price and give it to Oko so that he could marry her
5. Awareness
Juliette is aware about her rights that she has the right to make decisions to get married to the man she loves also Kouma is aware about Sangatiti tricks that Sangatiti was there not for the stolen money but only because he wanted things for the people in Mvoutessi

6. Nepotism/Favouritism.
This is also another form of corruption and is so vivid in the government offices.The government officials serve people that they know and sometimes they can not take any measure against such people once found in problems.For example Mbarga is never touched although his wife makes Arki since he is the head man but people like Ondua are caught and beaten by the police.Also common villagers get problems in obtaining gun permit just because they are not known by any body in those offices and hence they expect that Mbia can assist them.

7. Misuse of of Power and Despise.
Big shots misuse their power.They despise is common villagers and hence keep on cheating them. Mbia for example,tells them a series of lies and shows a lot pomposity such that after paying the pride price he leaves as fast as possible .When he is asked to add another 100,000 francs to the bride price he makes a series of prosaic and arrogant threats that he will send ten police commissioners he says ” the roads are poorly kept and the houses have not been whitewashed in expectation of the honour of my visit”. When one listens to this ,one can think that Mbia is the president of the country .So Mbia shows an arrogant behaviour which is common among the ruling class of many African countries.This tendency is posing as an important person in the society when it might not be so is referred to as self aggrandizement.
8. Alcoholism
In Mvoutessi majority especially men believed that the important and respected sector is the one who gives them something to drink as Mbia did this is simply shown in [act 1 page 19] when Ondua said ‘’….. Did the civil servant bring us something to drink??’’
9. Conflicts
In the play conflicts portrayed are as follows
Conflicts between Juliette and her family
This is because Juliette’s family forced her to get married to either Ndi or Mbia but she finally married Oko
Conflicts between Ndi, Mbia, and Juliette’s family
Source of this conflict is stolen money paid for bride price ndi and mbia were convinced by Juliette’s family to add more 100 francs so as to marry Juliette
For this case Ndi and Mbia told the family that they will go to report the problem to the police so as to arrest them
Conflicts between kouma and sangatiti
Source is when kouma interrupted sangatiti
Solution to this is when sangatiti run away
  1. This time tomorrow
  1. Three suitors one husband
  • This time tomorrow
………. A girl of the tribe………………..
This word was from Nguru and he was felling his son that they have a wife for him who is the same tribe with him.
………………………. A man from another tribe…………………….”
This words was from Njango and she telling her daughter
  • Three suitors one husband
…………………….No marriage! He is related to Juliette……………..
This proclaimed by Abessolo that Mbia can not marry Juliette because they are from one tribe.
  • This time tomorrow.
…………………… you sent him to my uncle in the country so that he might attend and you left me here to work for you…………………..
This words was from Wanjiro complaining to her mother that she set her brother to school while her left there to help her mother.
  • Three Suitors One husband.
…………………… I tell you again you must beat your wives…………………………………..”
This words was proclaimed by Abessolo that means should beat their wives like children
  • This time tomorrow
– Conflict is between Nguru with his son
……………………… What! You don’t want her…
This words was proclaimed by Nguru because he was not be leaving that his son disobeyed
  • Three Suitors one husband
– Conflict is between Juliette and Her relative
“……………………… I say I don’t want to marry him………………….”
………………. Why don’t you ask my opinion ……………………
This word is from Juliette when her relative force her to get marriage with servant (Mbia)
  • This time tomorrow
…………….. You see they have bride for me ……………..
This was proclaimed by Charles
  • Three suitors one husband
……………… t
hree hundred Franc only for a girl………………
This words provoked by Tchetgen
This time tomorrow
…………………. Where are the clothes you buy for me…………………….
This word was provoked by Wanjiro that her mother Njango promised he she will buy good clothes for her.
Three suitors’ one husband
……………….. You see I’m a poor old man………………..
These words proclaimed by Abessolo that Mbia is important man that can make them wealth because they are poor.
This time tomorrow
——– Nguru is our liken with our ancestors————–
These words spoken by 1st elder when he was speaking with stranger that Nguru make relationship between ancestors and Elders.
Three suitor’s one husband
…………….. My mmmw tell me that looking for a certain sum of money………………
This word was telling Atangana that he is looking money that he has lost.
  • This time tomorrow
…………………… I don’t know my age…………….
These words proclaimed by shoemaker he was asking by Journalist and reply like that because he was ignorant
Three suitors’ one husband
……………….. Doesn’t he work in hospital? …………………..
This question was Cecilia asking because he doesn’t know if other doctors are for medicine.
  • This time tomorrow
…………………… school have corrupted everything…………………..
This words proclaimed by Nguru
  • Three suitors one husband
…………….. You will studying at Dibamba aren’t you my child
This words proclaimed by Abessolo
This time tomorrow
………….. He comes here with one wife but now he has four wives.
This word was proclaimed by 1st elder when stranger asked who is father of Charles. He answered his father is greater man who come here with one wife but now he has four wives.
Three suitors’ one husband
………….. I was not known once you have another wife…………….
This word was spoken by Mezoe and she was telling Abessolo.
…………………….. Twelve wives officially marriage…………….
This was Mbarga telling Sangatiti
  • This time tomorrow
……………… What you don’t want her? ……………….
This word was spoken by Nguru when Charles go against his father wiling.
Three suitors’ one husband
…………….. I don’t want to marry him…………..
This time tomorrow
……………….. You want to dress like white people……………..
This word was proclaimed by Njango who was asking her daughter that she wants to appear lie white.
This time tomorrow
……………………. And custom will and must be respected……………….
This was spoken by Nguru telling stranger and Elders that Charles must obey and must follow his ways.
Three suitor’s one husband
In this book we have seen there is traditional song as the book proclaim
“………………… Aya aya moneminga aaah! ………………….

This song Ondua was singing and it is traditional song which presents traditions.

Share this:





    Junior July, June 19, 2024 @ 6:47 am Reply



    amos masanja, April 2, 2024 @ 12:56 pm Reply



    Harrison Katebe, March 27, 2024 @ 11:20 am Reply

    This is lovely content i love


    Rwaichi, June 4, 2023 @ 12:32 pm Reply

    This notes is so good 👍👍👍 Are not difficult to read also to study


    Rwaichi, June 4, 2023 @ 12:30 pm Reply

    This notes is so good 👍👍👍

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