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Waste: Refers to materials which are not needed.
Waste disposal: is way in which get rid of waste materials
We can classify waste according to its state
  1. Solid waste
  2. Liquid waste
  3. Gaseous waste
  4. Sludge waste
Solid waste
Is a hard waste material e.g. House hold, garbage, mining waste, plastic, paper, glass, scrap metal, waste, used tires, empty cans and construction waste.
Liquid waste
Liquid waste include urine, water from bathrooms, water from kitchen after washing utensils, liquid also come from industries e.g. chemical liquid waste.
Gaseous waste
This is waste in gaseous form for example ammonia, carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide gases from materials and lead from petrol in motor vehicle. Gaseous waste is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory diseases.
Sludge waste
This is a thick soft and wet waste material usually a viscous material (flowing material) e.g. human waste, industrial waste which contain between 300/0 to 700/0 water. Waste from living things is biodegradable. They can be decomposed by bacteria and other living organisms. E.g. food remain, paper and cotton clothes waste material such as plastics, glass, metal are non-biodegradable.
Waste disposal
Waste disposal refers to collection, transportation, processing, re-use and other activities that help us to get rid of waste. This helps to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health, animal’s health and environment.
Basic principle of waste disposal
The principles that can help us to better manage waste, these are:
  1. Reducing amount of waste we produce, for example we do not have to buy plastic bags each time we go shop we can carry a woven basket instead.
  2. Re- using items instead of throwing them away for instance we can use an empty margarine container to store sugar.
  3. Recycling waste materials – some waste can be changed to other product for example, broken glass can be melt and use to make new glass bottles.
Importances of waste disposal
  1. It helps to provide pleasing environment.
  2. It eliminates or reduces bad air.
  3. It minimizes the spread of infections and disease.
  4. To prevent accident
Methods of waste disposal

1. Burning
Waste such as papers, plastic, carton – boxes, empty milk packet, bread wrappers, are burnt to ashes.
2. Burying
This is used to dispose inorganic refuse such as empty containers of insecticides, used torch batteries, broken bottles, pots, plates, cups and spoon.
Burying can take the following form
– Pit latrine
The sewage in pit is decayed by bacteria, when the pit is full it’s covered with soil and a new latrine is dug.
-Tipping and landfills
When car [truck] come and collect waste and take it to dumping site we called it tipping
Damping can be in form of a dump or landfill.
A landfill is place where solid waste buried in the ground.

3. Animals feeds
Organic refuse such as vegetable, fruit, potato and banana peelings, cabbage, and spinach leaves are feed to goats, sheep, cattle, poultry and also pigs. Bones are dried and ground into powder which is dog food.
4. Compost manure
After separating inorganic refuse from organic. A place of one meter deep is dug where the organic refuse is dumped to decompose, to keep away flies reduce smell and other health hazards, a thin layer of wood ashes and sock is used to cover the refuse. After the refuse decomposes, it’s used by farmer as compost manure which adds soil fertile.

5. Recycling
To recycle is to turn waste materials into useful ones that can be used again. Plastic, glass, paper, metal and rubber are the items that can be recycled for example paper can be converted to tissue paper or news print paper, worn out tires can be retreated and re- used, plastic items old glass bottles can be crushed and made into new bottles.

6. Incinerating
To incinerate is to burn something until it is completely destroyed. This process is carried out in an incinerator. Incinerator is usually done for hazardous material such as clinical waste.
7. Garbage collection
Garbage collection in urban areas is done by local authorities, local authorities provide refuse bins which are commonly placed at strategic places in towns. Garbage disposal are through landfill and incineration.
  1. Provide breeding places for disease causing organisms. e.g. empty container after rain become breeding places e.g. mosquito, cockroaches.
  2. Poor waste disposal causes air pollution result to respiratory diseases.
  3. Can cause accident in home e.g. fresh peeling of fruits and vegetable, and potatoes on the floor can cause slippery and falls down breaking his/her leg, broken glass can cut people.
  4. Organic wastes when decompose cause bad smell.
  5. Causes epidemic diseases such as cholera and typhoid.
  6. Can harm wildlife and domestic animals. E.g. when cow eat plastic bags, suffocate or block the digestive system and cause death.
  7. Block of drainage system can cause flooding
  8. Degrade the natural beauty of the environment.
How to reduce waste product
  1. Use cloth instead of paper to wipe surface e.g. window and furniture. It’s much cheaper in the long run and reduces the amount of waste paper in the environment.
  2. Invest in a set of cloth or woven shopping bags.
  3. Buy rechargeable batteries and a battery charger instead of disposable batteries.
  4. Collect and use plastic container to store food.
  5. Initiate awareness campaigns in your community on the proper ways of disposing waste.
  6. Use plastic that can be recycled or re – used and buy products made from recycled materials

Symbol of recycled material

Why waste product is a problem
  • People’s bad habits for example dumping waste on foot paths, on the roadside and using excessive packaging for example wrapping a piece of candy to layers of plastic.
  • Inadequate disposal facilities make waste disposal a problem.
  • Failure by the local authorities to enforce effective punishment on those who failed to practice proper waste disposal.
  • Poor infrastructure/ poor settlement planning render waste collection.
Why increase of waste output now today?
  • Increase of population and new settlement.
  • Increased consumption rate of more disposable packaging and foot waste.
  • Technical advancement cause nuclear waste.

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1 Comment


    Nsubuga Robert, March 19, 2023 @ 7:57 am Reply

    Nice work

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