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SECTION A (70 Marks)

All questions carry ten (10) marks

  1. (a) Explain the differences between foetal and adult blood circulation.
    1. Explain how the xylem tissue is adapted for its functions.
  2. (a) Define the following terms;
    1. Photophosphorylation
    2. C4 plants

    (b) Explain the meaning of dark reaction and the events which take place during dark reaction

  3. (a) Define and explain the significance of R.Q?

    (b) Explain the factors which affect the standard dissociation curve.

  4. (a) Write short notes on:
    1. Double fertilization
    2. Metamorphosis
    3. Alternation of generation.

    (b) Explain the embryonic membranes and their roles

  5. (a) Explain the concept of cell differentiation and its significance.

    (b) Outline three advantages of presence of membranes in cell organelles.

    (b) What is the significance of a cell to be small?

  6. (a) What do you understand by the term ‘taxonomic keys’ as used in biology?

    (b) In figure 1 below, you are given a dichotomous key of different organisms. Observe it carefully to answer the questions that follow:

Figure 1

Image From

  1. What type of a dichotomous key is shown in figure 1 above?
  2. Re-present the key shown in figure 1 above in a form of another type of a dichotomous key.
  3. Suggest the steps that were followed in preparing the key above.


  1. Elaborate the mechanism of hearing.




SECTION B (30 Marks)

Each question carries fifteen (15) marks

  1. (a) Explain the roles for lipids in organisms.

    (b) Categorize enzymes on the basis of substrates and type of reaction catalysed.

  2. (i) The curve shown in fig. 2 below represents the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis.

Image From

Fig. 2

  1. What is the limiting factor in region A?
  2. What is represented by the curve at B and C?
  3. What do points D, E and F represent on the curve?

(ii) The diagram in fig. 3 below shows a part of transverse section through a mammalian ileum.

Image From

Fig. 3

  1. Name the parts labelled J to M.
    1. Describe briefly how three (3) features shown in the diagram, enable the ileum to carry out its function of absorption.
      1. (i) Describe the composition of circular and longitudinal muscles.

      (ii) What is the function of these muscles in the ileum? How is this function achieved?


  1. Explain the mechanism of transport of the manufactured food materials basing on Münch’s hypothesis.

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