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 5. Transport in (a) plants (b) animals Questions

1.  Explain why a fresh wound on the skin bleeds more on a hot sunny day than on a cold

 chilly day

2.  State three adaptations of red blood cells to their functions.

3.  How are sieve tube elements adapted to their function

4.  Name the polysaccharides found in the following structures:-  (a) Exoskeleton

 (b) Xylem vessels  

5.  State three factors that maintain transpiration stream

6.  (a) List three forces that facilitate the transport of water and mineral salts up the stem.  

 (b) Name the tissue that is removed when the bark of a dicotyledonous plant is ringed.  

7.  Study the dental formula of an organism below..

 I 3/3, C 1/1, Pm 3/2, M 1/1 = x  

 (a) (i) What is the total number of teeth this organism possess?  

(ii) What is the mode of feeding of the organism?

(b) State two functions of mucus produced along the alimentary canal.

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8.  The diagram below shows a bone obtained from a mammal.

 

 

Image From EcoleBooks.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 (a) Name the part of the skeleton from which the bone has been taken.

 (b) Label the parts B and C.

 (c) State the functions of part A.

9.  What is the destination of materials translocated in plants.  

10.  A person whose blood group is AB requires a blood transfusion, name the blood groups of the

donors.

11.  Explain why capillaries are:
 (i) Thin walled  (ii) Branched

Image From EcoleBooks.com12.  An experiment was set-up as shown below to investigate a certain plant process:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 (a) What process was being investigated above?

(b) What observation was made if;

(i) The experiment was left in strong wind for one hour?

  (ii) All the leaves were removed from the plant?

13.  How is aerenchyma tissue adapted to its function

14.  (a) State three structural differences between arteries and veins in mammals

 (b) Name a disease that causes thickening and hardening of arteries  

15.  Identify two forces that help in upward movement of water in plants

16.  State three ways in which red blood cells are adapted to their functions

17.  (a) Distinguish between tissue fluid and lymph

 (b) Explain why deficiency of vitamin K leads to excessive bleeding even from small cuts

18.  Name the type of circulatory system found in the phylum Arthropoda

19.  Name the blood vessel that nourishes the heart

20.  a) In which form is oxygen transported in the blood.

 b) Why do plants not take in oxygen during the day although they need it for respiration  

21.  Name a disease of the blood characterized by excessive production of white blood cells  

22.  Laboratory analysis of a patient’s urine revealed the following concentration of various

substances:

 Blood proteins 0.00%

 Water 50%

 Glucose 48%

 Salts 0.8%

 Urea 1.2%

 a) From the analysis above, which disease is the patient suffering from

 b) Name two symptoms of the disease in 3(a) above

Image From EcoleBooks.com 23.  The diagrams below show two conducting elements of the xylem tissue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 a) Identify each of them A and B

b) What makes the cellulose side walls of both A and B able to prevent collapsing?

24.  Explain why the rate of transpiration is reduced when humidity is high

25.  (a) State two functions of the xylem vessels,

 (b) List two structural adaptations that make xylem vessels suitable to their function

26.  (a) What is peristalsis?

 (b) Explain how the process above is brought about.

27.  The diagram below shows a part of a circulatory system. The arrows indicate the direction of the

  flow of blood;  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 (a) Identify the blood vessels labeled A and B

 (b) Explain why it is important to transport food substances to organ C before being released

 for circulation to the rest of the body  

28.  Name four methods plants employ to remove excretory waste products

29.  a) State the form in which oxygen is transported in the mammalian blood

 b) Why is it dangerous to sleep in an enclosed room with a burning jiko

 c) Why do plants not take in oxygen during the day although they need it for respiration  

30.  Name a disease of blood characterized by excessive – production of white blood cells  

31.  The table below is a representation of a chromosomal mutation  

Before mutation

L

M

N

O

P

Q

After mutation

L

O

N

M

P

Q

 (a) Name the type of chromosomal mutation represented above

 (b) Name one mutagenic agent

32.  The diagram shows a section through a plant organ.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 (a) (i) Name the class of the plant from which the section was obtained belong.

(ii) Give a reason for your answer in (a)(i) above

(b) How is the part labelled C adapted to its functions?

33.  State two roles of transpiration to a plant  

34.  Uptake of water by plants is not affected by metabolic poisons. Explain.

35.  The diagram below represents a plant tissue.

 

 

 

 

 

 (a) Identify each of them.

 (b) What property makes B to be more efficient in function?  

 (c) What makes the walls of both A and B impermeable to water and solutes?

36.  A woman gave birth to a child of blood group B+ (B positive). Name the two antigens that

determined her child’s blood group.

37.  A transfusion of RH+ blood was given to a patient with Rh blood. After one week a similar

transfusion was given to the same patient. What was likely to be the effect of the second

transfusion?  

38.  The diagrams below show stages in the process of feeding shown by amoeba.

 

 

 

 

 

 (a) Name the part labeled A.

(b) Name the process illustrated in the diagram above.

(d) Name the type of cell in human beings that exhibit this process.  

39.  (a) Why are xylem vessels more efficient in the transport of water than tracheids?

 (b) What is the significance of xylem vessels being dead?

40.  Distinguish between guttation and transpiration

41.  Other than transport, state one other function of xylem tissue in plants

42.  State two functions of aerenchyma tissue in plants

43.   (a) What is sickle-cell anaemia?

  (b) Identify the part of the heart that initiates the heart beat

44.  (a) Give a reason why the left ventricle muscles are thicker than the right ventricles muscles

  (b) State the forms in which carbon (IV) oxide is transported in the blood

45.  Explain how the following adaptation reduce transpiration in xerophytes

 (a) Sunken stomata  

 (b) Thick waxy cuticle

46.  Name the:  (a) Material that strengthens xylem tissue

  (b) Tissue that is removed when the bark of a dicotyledonous plant is ringed  

47.  The diagram below shows the traverse section of a young stem.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 (a) What are the functions of the structures labeled A, B and C  

 (b) What type of cells are fonjd in the parts labeleld D

 (c) Name the tissue labeled E

48.  Name the components of blood that do not enter the renal tubule in mammals

49  Outline the route taken by a molecule of glucose from the ileum up to the kidney.  

50.  The flow chart below shows a blood transfusion pathway

 

 

 

 

 

(a) What three conclusions can you draw from the flow chart?  

(b) State two precautions that must be observed during blood transfusion  

 (c) Explain how blood clot is formed once a blood vessels is injured  

Image From EcoleBooks.com51.  The figure below represents a diagram of a photometer;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) What is the photometer used for ?

(b) State the precautions which should be taken when setting up a photometer

(c) Explain what you will expect if set up was placed under the following environmental

conditions;

  (i) Dark room

  (ii) Leafy shoot enclosed in polythene bag

  (iii) In a current of air created by a fan

52.  The amount of blood flow through various parts of the body of a mammal was measured in

cm3 per minute at rest and during different physical activities. Results are shown below.  

 

Blood flow in cm3/min

At rest

During light Exercise

During strenuous Exercise

Heart muscles

200

300

1050

Gut

1300

1000

400

Skeletal muscles

1100

5050

23000

Kidneys

900

650

250

Skin

400

1300

600

a) Calculate the percentage change in blood flow through the skeletal muscles and gut when the

mammal was exposed to strenuous exercise.

 i) Skeletal muscles

ii) Gut

b) Account for the differences in amount of blood flow through the gut and skeletal muscles;

i) At rest  

ii) During streneous exercise

 c) Account for the result obtained for the skin during light exercise

 d) Name two substances which are removed from the body by the kidney

Image From EcoleBooks.com 53.  The diagram below represents a transverse section of a young stem.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 (a) Name the parts labeled A, B and D  

 (b) State the functions of the parts labeled C and E

(c) List three differences between the section above and the one that would be obtained from

the root of the same plant

54.  Describe the functions of the various components of the mammalian blood

 

5. Transport in (a) plants (b) animals Answers

1.  On a hot sunny day blood vessels are dilated hence more blood is lost; on a cool chilly day the

 blood vessels have constricted hence less blood flows on the surface of the skin;

 

2.  – Biconcave disc shaped to increase surface area for gaseous exchange;

 – Have no nucleus to increase room for the package of red blood cells;

 – Numerous in number to increase surface area for the transportation of oxygen

 – Have haemoglobin which has a high affinity of oxygen;

.  – Cytoplasmic filaments/strands along which food streams;

  – Companion cells have mitochondria that provide energy for translocation;

 – Sieve plates with sieve pores thorugh which cytoplasmic filaments pass.

  – Photoplasmic material pushed on the sides to create lumen space for translocation;

 

4.  (a) Chitin;  (b) Lignin:

– Root pressure

– Cohesion – adhesion forces  

 

5.   Transpiration pull;  

 

6.  (a) – transpiration pull;

– Cohesion and adhesion;

– Capillarity;

– Root pressure

 (b) Phloem;

7.  (a) (i) (15 x 2 ) =30;

(ii) Carnivorous; reject carnivore

 (b) – To lubricate the food;

– To protect the alimentary canal wall from digestion by protein digesting enzyme /protoelytic

enzyme;

  – Make the food adhere together during swallowing;

 

8.  (a) Thoraic vertebrae;

 (b) B – Neural canal;

C – Centrium;

 (c) For attachment of back muscles;

 

9.  – Growing regions (e.g meristems); storage organs for storage (e.g stems, roots, fruits)  

 – secretory organs (e.g. flower nectarines);

 

10.  A, AB, B, O; for all blood groups

 

11.  (i) Efficient diffusion of substances e.g. food, gases and waste products;

 (ii) Efficient transport of food/gases/waste products to and from cells;

 

12.  (a) Transpiration;  

(b) (i) The level of water in the boiling tube reduced significantly;

(ii) The level of water did not reduce;

 

13.  Aerenchyma tissues have large and numerous air spaces; hence facilitation buoyancy;  

 

Arteries

Veins

– Thick muscular

– No valves (except pulmonary artery and aorta

at the base

– Narrow (small) lumen

– Thin muscular walls

– valves present;

 

– Wide lumen (large) lumen;

14.  a)

 

b) Arteriosclerosis; reject Artheroma

 

15.  Transpiration pull; Capillarity;

Cohesion and adhesive forces; Root pressure

 

16.  -numerous to increase surface area

  -Biconcave to increase surface area for packaging hemoglobin alter shape to fit narrow

  lumens of capillaries;

 -No nucleus to increase surface area for oxygen leading;

-Have hemoglobin which has high affinity for oxygen;

 

17.  a) Tissue fluid is a fluid / liquid found surrounding cells/ between cells formed as a result of

ultra filtration from blood while lymph is inter cellular fluid which nutrients and oxygen have

been taken and is rich in waste materials (mark as a whole)

b) Vitamin K is needed for formation of prothrombin which is activated to thrombin which

helps in clotting of blood.

 

18.  Open circulatory system

 

19.  Coronary Artery;  

 

20.  a) Oxyhaemoglobin;  

 b) Use oxygen released from photosynthesis process;

 

21.  Leukemia (acc. blood cancer)

 

22.  (a) Diabetes mellitus

  (b) – Symptoms of diabetes mellitus

 – Passing urine frequently;

 – Constantly feeling thirsty;

 – Dehydration;

 – Loss of weight;

 – Poor resistant to infection;

 

23.  (a) A – Tracheid;   B – Vessel;

(b) – Side walls are impregnated wit lignin/deposited with lignin /walls are lignified/pressure of

lignin nucleus not enclosed by a membrane

 

24.  There is high concentration of water vapour around the leaf/less space for water vapour form the leaf to occupy low saturation deficit /low diffusion gradient / the diffusion between the

concentration of water vapour in the atmosphere and the air spaces is greatly reduced.  

 

25.  a) Transports water and dissolved mineral salts; provides mechanical support due to

lignification of cells

 b) Narrow lumen of vessels and tracheids – enhances capillarity forces;

  Presence of pits on lignified walls follows for lateral movement of water;

They are hollow to allow uninterrupted/ continuous flow of water from roots to leaves;

 

26.  a) Involuntary movement of food along the alimentary canal

 b) Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the circular and longitudinal muscles along the gut;

 

27.  a) A – Hepatic portal vein;  B- Hepatic artery;

 b) Excess glucose must be converted to glycogen; for storage

 c) Burning charcoal produces carbon (II) Oxide which combines with haemoglobin to

28.  a) Oxyhaemoglobin  

form carboxyhaemoglobin that is stable/ does not dissociate; reducing efficiency of

haemoglobin in carrying oxygen leading to death; Ref death alone

 leaf fall;

exudation;

gutation;

transpiration

 

29.  – Sebum – from sabaeceous glands – antiseptic

 – Confined layer of dead cells- impenotratable by bacteria/ fungi/ viruses

 – Sweat – saline and kills bacteria and viruses

30.  Leukamia/ blood cancer;  

 

31.  a) inversion;  

 b) mustard gas/ gamma rays/ x-rays/ beta rays/colchicines;

 

32.  (a)( i) Dicotyledonae;

(ii) Star shaped xylem/phloem between the arms o the xylem;

 (b) Lignified walls to prevent it from collapsing/keep it hollow open throughout:

– Hollow/Lack cross walls for continuous flow of water and mineral salts any 1

– Narrow Lumen to enhance capillarity;

 

33.  – Creates transpiration pull:

  – Absorbs latent heat of vaporization hence cools leaves of the plant: (2marks)

 

34.  Water absorption does not involve active transport that requires energy from respiration

facilitated enzymes hence no metabolic inhibition involved;

 

35.  (a) A – Tracheids B – Xylem vessel; (b) B is hollow at the middle therefore the substance flowing through it gets to their destination

faster as compared to that of A;  

(c) – Lignification  

 

36.  – Antigen B;

 – Rhesus antigen / Rhesus factor /rhesus protein;

 

37.  After the first transfusion the patient would produce rhesus antibodies; second transfusion

rhesus antigen would react with rhesus antibodies; causing agglutination;

 

38.  (a) Pseudopodium;  

 (b) Phagocytosis;  

 (c) White blood cells.

 

39.  (a) Xylem vessels are hollow (lack cross walls) , hence more efficient in transporting water

than tracheids which have trapped ends with perforation;

(b) Xylem vessels are dead due to heavy lignification on their walls hence provision of support

to the plant as well preventing collapse  ;

 

40.  Transpiration is the loss of water vapour, while gutation is loss or exudation of liquid water through hydathodes  

 

41.  Support

 

42.  – Storage of air

  – For buoyancy

43.  (a) A blood disorder where red blood cells appear sickle shaped

  (b) Sinoatrio node/pace maker  

 

44.  a) To generate high pressure to pump blood; to all parts of the body/ to furthest distance;  

 b) Hydrogen carbonate (HCO3)

  Carbonic acid;  

 

45.  a) Sunken stomata form pits; in which water vapour accumulates reducing rate of

transpiration

 b) Water proof to reduce the rate of transpiration;  

 

46.  a) Lignin;

 b) Phloem;

 

47.  a)  A – Transport of organic food substances from sites of manufacture;

B – Formation of new xylem and phloem tissues;

C – Transport of water and mineral salts from the roots to the leaves;

 b) Parenchyma cell;  

 c) Sclerenchyma;

 

48.  – Blood cells;

 – Plasma proteins;  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acc. Descriptive form Rej. – From appoint of a mistake

 

50.  (a)  – Blood group O is a universal donor (as it donates to all other blood groups);  *UGU*

– Blood group AB a universal receipient (as they receive blood from all other groups.

– Blood group A can receive blood from group O and A only.

– Blood group B can receive blood from O and B only.

– Blood group O does not receive blood from other blood groups except O.

– Compatibility of blood group

  • Absence of pathogens in blood.
  • The Rhesus factor matches.  

(c)- When blood vessel is injured, exposed platelets rupture to release thromboplastin (enzymes); which converts prothrombin to thrombin; in presence of Ca2+ thrombin activates conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin; which forms mesh work of fibre in the cut surface;  

 

51.  a) Measure rate of transpiration; b) -Assemble apparatus under water;

  – Apply vasectomy between cork shoot contacts;

  – Open the reservoir tap;

  c)  i) The air bubble will not move

ii) Water droplets will be seen in he polythene;

iii) Air bubble will move faster

 

 

52.  (a) (i) (23000 – 100) x 100 = 1,990%;  

  1100

 (ii) (1300 – 400) x 100 = -6.92%;

1300  

 

 (b) (i) At rest, the gut is more active than skeletal muscles as this is the time when digestion is

taking place; more blood goes to gut to transport the absorbed food;

(ii) During strenuous exercise, skeletal muscles are more active; and a lot of blood is diverted

to help it contract and relax while very little blood flow through the gut which becomes

less active;

 (c) During light exercise, the skin becomes more active; thus give the highest blood flow

compared to other times to release excess heat, sweat and wastes.

 (d) – Excess water;

– urea, ammonia, uric acid;  (OWTTE)

 

53.  a)  A- Epidermis

B- Pith

 b)  C- Transports manufactured food/ products of photosynthesis/ translocates food

E- Transports water and mineral salts

 c)

 

Section above

Section from root

Xylem/ phloem form around cambium

Xylem star shaped and centrally placed

Pith at the centre

No pitch

Roof hairs absent

Roof hair present

Epidermis has cuticle

Epidermis has no cuticle

 

54.  Geographical distributed of organism;  

Theory supposes that at sometime the present day continents found a large single land mass; animals migrated freely all over the land mass; the land broke up into parts which drifted from one another forming the present day continents; this drive isolated animals from common ancestry; leading to the formation of new differed species distinct; from those found in other climatically similar but separate regions.

Comparative embryology;

Embryos of different groups have been found to have similar morphological feature during their early stages of development. This similarly suggest a common ancestry

Comparative anatomy;

When comparing the firm and structure of different organism; some groups shows basic structural similarities; which suggest a common ancestry as observed in homologous and analogous structures

Homologous structures are those that have common embryonic…. But are modified to perform different functions e.g. vertebrate fore limbs

Analogy structure those that have different embryonic origin bad have evolved to perform similar functions due to exploitation of similar environment e.g. bad and insect wing)

Cell biology;

Cells of all higher organism show basic similarities in their structure and functions; cell membrane and cell organelles such as ribosomes; biological chemicals in common e.g. ALP &DNA. This strongly indicate that all cell types have a common ancestral origin

-blood pigments among also show the same ancestral origin

Comparative serology;

Analysis of blood proteins and the antigens to reveal phylogenetic relationship. Those species that are more phylogenetical reacted contain more similar blood proteins

An immunological reaction between human beings and chimpanzees produces a lot of precipitate showing a close phylogenetic relationship

-red blood cells; carry oxygen; to all parts of the body/from lungs /to tissues; transport CO2 to lungs /from tissues;

-platelets/thrombocytes; produce in enzymes/thrumbokinace /thrumboplastin; necessary for blood clotting;

-leucozytes/W.B.C; produces antibodies for defense against disease; they also engulf foreign bodies/pathogens;

-plasma; transport nutrients; hormones; distribute heat; carbon(iv)oxide; nitrogenous waste/urea; mineral ions; fibrinogen; plasma bathes the tissues allowing for exchange of materials

Acc. Plasma proteins for fibrinogen (20)

 

 




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