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  1. Revision / Environmental Conservation
  2. Transportation in Nigeria

    3 – 4.  Manufacturing Industries in Nigeia

    5.  Commercial Activities in Nigeria

6. Representation of Relief Landforms

7 – 8.  World Population  

9 – 10.  Settlement  

11. Revision



Essential Geography for Senior Secondary Schools, O.A. Iwena.





Environmental conservation is the process of preserving natural resources from loss, waste or exploitation in order to ensure continuous availability.

Environmental conservation methods include the following:

  • Afforestation
  • Re-afforestation
  • Cover-cropping
  • Improved farming techniques
  • Environmental education
  • Recycling
  • Legislation against environmental degradation.



  1. Define environmental conservation.
  2. Mention some of the methods of environmental conservation.


Soil is defined as the thin surface of the uppermost layer of the earth crust on which plants grow.


Composition or Components of Soil

Soil is made up of five components which are (i) inorganic or mineral matter (ii) organic matter (iii) soil water (iv) soil air (v) living organisms

Mineral or Inorganic matter, organic matter, water and air are collectively referred to as physical components of the soil while living organisms are referred to as biological components of the soil.


(1)  Mineral or Inorganic Matter

The mineral matter represents small rock fragments of the soil. It forms the bulk of about 45% of total volume of the soil. It consists of gravel, stones, sand, silt and clay.


Importance / Effects of Mineral Matter on Agriculture

  1. It forms the solid part of the soil which provides support for plants.
  2. Mineral matter is the main source of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, calcium, magnesium iron etc.
  3. It represents the home or habitat of all soil living organisms.
  4. It holds water and air for both plants and animal activities.
  5. Mineral matter has moderating effects on soil temperature.
  6. It also affects soil porosity.


(2)  Organic Matter

The organic matter represents the remains of the decomposition of plants and animals. It is about 5% of the total volume of the soil. Leaves, roots of plants, the residue of crops, animal dung, etc. when they are deposited on the soil, they decay to form a dark colour on the upper part of the soil. This becomes organic matter which is also called humus.


Importance / Effects of Organic Matter on Agriculture

  1. It is very rich in plant nutrient.
  2. It is the habitat of many soil micro-organisms.
  3. It prevents leaching in soil where it is present in adequate amount.
  4. It also prevents soil erosion and evaporation of soil water.
  5. It allows for good drainage and holds water in the soil for plant use.
  6. It improves the structure of the soil by binding particles together.
  7. It increases water-holding capacity of the soil.
  8. It moderates the soil temperature.
  9. It has moderating effect on PH value.


(3)  Soil Water

 Soil water refers to the water in the soil which is usually obtained either from rain or irrigation. Water represents 25% of the total volume of the soil. It is usually found in the pore spaces of the soil. When water is too much in a soil (covering the soil surface), the soil is said to be Waterlogged. A waterlogged soil can however be improved by drainage to make such soil more productive. On the other hand, when there is complete lack of water in the soil for a very long time such that plants cannot absorb water even when supplied again, this results in a condition called permanent wilting point. The plant at this stage can die.


Importance / Effects of Soil Water in Agriculture

  1. Water is an important agent of weathering of rocks in the soil.
  2. It helps to dissolve plant nutrients into solution form.
  3. Water is an essential raw material for photosynthesis.
  4. Hydrolysis of many food nutrients and enzymatic activities.
  5. Loss of water from plant through transpiration helps in the cooling of the plant.
  6. Presence of water aids easy tillage of the soil and also improves the soil structure.
  7. It also promotes the activities of soil organisms.
  8. It is needed for the germination of seeds.


(4)  Soil Air

This refers to the gases present in the soil pore spaces found between the soil particles. Theamount of soil air varies, depending on the amount of soil water, the size of the porespaces, the type of soil and the amount of living organisms in the soil. The percentage of air is about 25% of the total volume of the soil. The ability of air to circulate freely in the soil is called aeration.


Importance / Effects of Soil Air on Agriculture

  1. Oxygen is necessary for the growth and development of plants.
  2. Oxygen in the soil promotes easy germination of seed.
  3. Soil organisms require oxygen for respiration.
  4. Excess of carbon dioxide in the soil, when combined with water can cause acidity and aid weathering of rocks.
  5. Air is needed in soil reaction particularly carbon and nitrogen cycles.


(5)  Living Organisms

This refers to plants and animals which inhabit the soil. They range from microscopic organisms to bigger organisms. Some are beneficial while others are harmful to crops and livestock. The most commonly found groups of soil organisms include bacteria, fungi, virus nematodes, insects e.g termites, soldier ants, millipede, centipede, earthworm, snails, reptile, mammals, (e.g rats and rodents).


Importance / Effects of Living Organisms on Agriculture

  1. They help to improve the aeration of the soil.
  2. They help to decompose organic materials in the soil to form humus.
  3. They aid percolation of water.
  4. They improve the structure of soil.
  5. Some organisms like bacteria help to fix nutrients in to the soil.
  6. Some are pests and parasites while some cause diseases of crops.
  7. Some soil micro-organisms produce acidic materials which help to break down rocks.



  1. Mention the components of soil.
  2. Outline four importance of organic matter to soil.


    Types of Soil and their Properties

There are three main types of soil. These are: (i) sandy soil (ii) clay soil (iii) loamy soil

(1)  Sandy Soil

  • A soil is said to be sandy if the proportion of sand particles in a sample of soil is very high.
  • The particles are mainly quartz (SiO2).
  • They have the size of 2.0mm in diameter.
  • Sandy soil is not very good for farming because it is poor in plant nutrients.


    Properties of Sandy Soil

  1. Sandy soil is coarse, grainy and gritty.
  2. It is loose with large pore spaces.
  3. It is well aerated and cannot hold water.
  4. Percolation is high but capillarity is low.
  5. It is not sticky when wet.


(2)  Clay Soil

  • A soil is said to be clayey if the proportion of clay in a sample of soil is very high.
  • The relative size is less than 0.002mm in diameter.
  • It is a heavy soil because it is very difficult to work on or cultivate.


    Properties of Clay Soils

  1. Clay soil is fine grained and smooth.
  2. Particles are tightly packed with little pore spaces.
  3. It is poorly aerated and can hold water.
  4. Percolation is low but capillarity is high.
  5. It is sticky when wet and hard when dry.


(3)  Loamy Soil

  • Loamy soil is a mixture of sand, clay with high proportion of organic matter.
  • Loamy soil is the most fertile and the best soil for farming.


Properties of Loamy Soil

  1. Loamy soil is moist and loose.
  2. It contains lots of organic matter (humus).
  3. It does not support erosion and water logging.
  4. It is well aerated and can hold water.


Characteristics of Soil

Certain features or characteristics are used to identify or describe a soil sample. These are:

  1. Soil colour 2)  Soil texture
  2. Soil structure 4)  Permeability
  3. Porosity 6)  Soil PH



  1. Describe a sandy soil.
  2. State the properties of loamy soil.
  3. Define soil.
  4. Mention three types of soil.
  5. Mention two characteristics of each of this soil type.



The following are the processes of soil formation:

  1. Weathering of parent materials.
  2. Action of Chemicals.
  3. Further Disintegration.
  4. Appearance of biological activities.
  5. Formation of humus.
  6. Final soil formation.



  1. State the processes of soil formation.
  2. Explain the factors that determine soil formation.



Soil profile is defined as the vertical section through the soil to the underlying rocks, showing

series of horizontal layers. These horizontal layers are called horizons.

A Typical soil profile has three layers or horizons which are A, B and C horizons.



A horizon is also called top soil.

  1. It represents the surface layer of the soil profile.
  2. It contains more humus or organic matter.
  3. It is the zone of elluviation where minerals are leached down the profile.
  4. It has maximum biological activities of plant and soil micro-organisms.



B horizon is also called sub soil.

  1. It is the zone of illuviation where soil minerals accumulate, especially those leached from the A-horizon.
  2. It contains lot of mineral matter.
  3. There is the conversion of organic matter from A – horizon into inorganic matter.
  4. This zone contains leached materials.



C horizon is also called zone of parent materials.

  1. It contains weathered parent rocks.
  2. It represents materials from which top and sub-soil are formed.
  3. Beneath the C Horizon is the bedrock.


Importance of Soil Profile

  1. It determines the level of fertility of the soil e.g. a tick top soil represents high level of soil fertility.
  2. It helps the farmer to know the type of crop to grow.
  3. It determines the level of root penetration, drainage and aeration.
  4. It determines the rate of percolation of water and the level or degree of soil erosion.

Importance of Soil

  1. Agriculture: It provides the only medium through which agriculture is practised to provide food for man.
  2. Building: All buildings are sited and erected on soils.
  3. Construction: Various forms of construction like roads, railway, industries etc are constructed on soil.
  4. Vegetation: All vegetation types form their basis on soil. Without soil, plants cannot get support and nutrient for growth.
  5. Storage of nutrient: Soil provides plants and crop with all nutrients for their continuous existence.
  6. Habitat of organisms: Soil provides the habitat for most organisms, especially bacteria, earthworms, termites and rodents.
  7. Reservoir for water and air: Soil also acts as reservoir for air and water needed by living organism to survive.
  8. Provision of minerals: soil is the source of all minerals used by man.


Evaluation Questions:

  1. How does time affect soil formation?
  2. Mention five importance of soil.



  1. What is soil?
  2. State factors affecting soil formation.
  3. Mention five processes of soil formation.
  4. Differentiate between rotation and revolution.
  5. Describe a Great Circle.


Reading Assignment

Essential Geography, pgs 103-108.


Weekend Assignment

  1. The type of water that is tightly held by the soil particles such that it is never available to the plant is known as (a) Capillary water (b) Hygroscopic water (c) Gravitational water (d) Field capacity.
  2. Which of the following soils is made up of mainly quartz particles?(a) Clay soil (b) Sandy soil (c) Loamy soil (d) Humus soil
  3. The best soil for agricultural activities is (a) Loamy soil (b) Sandy soil (c) Clay soil (d) Compost soil
  4. The remains of the decomposition of plants and animals in soil constitute…….. (a) mineral matter (b) organic matter (c) soil water (d) living organisms
  5. The smallest soil particle is __________ (a) Silt (b) Sand (c) Gravel (d) Clay



  1. Draw and label a typical soil profile.
  2. Describe any two zones of the soil profile.





Transportation is defined as the movement of people, goods and commodities from one place to another either by land, water or by air.



A.  LAND TRANSPORT: This is the movement of people and goods from one place to another by land. Means of transportation by land include:  

  • Human portage: This involves the use of human legs for movement i.e. trekking. This is basically applicable where the distance is not much.
  • Animal portage: This involves the use of certain animals like horse, donkey, camel, etc for movement. This is very common in the northern part of Nigeria.
  • Road transport: This involves the use of motor cars, buses, motor cycles, Lorries and trucks for movement.
  • Rail transport


In Nigeria, there are 3 types of roads:

  • Trunk A Road: These are roads constructed and maintained by the federal government. They are dual carriage or express roads linking federal and State capitals. E.g. Lagos – Ibadan, Warri – Benin, Onitsha – Enugu, Kaduna – Zaria express road.
  • Trunk B Roads: Are roads constructed and maintained by the state government. They link different areas within a state. E.g. Ikeja – Ojota, Ogba – Oshodi, Mile 2 – Badagry, etc.
  • Trunk C(local) roads: Are roads constructed and maintained by the local government. In most cases, these roads are not tarred in Nigeria.


Advantages of Road Transportation

  1. It is the most common means of transportation.  
  2. It provides door- to- door services.
  3. It makes goods available where they are scarce.
  4. It feeds water, rail and air transportation.


Disadvantages of Road Transportation

  1. Roads are very expensive to construct and maintain.
  2. Road is difficult to construct especially in the rainy season.
  3. Amount of goods and passengers carried by road is limited.
  4. Roads are more prone to accident than any other means of transportation
  5. They require adequate maintenance on a daily basis.


Limitations of Road Transportation

  1. Presence of high lands and other rugged relief.
  2. Presence of swampy areas.
  3. Soil erosion caused by heavy rain.
  4. Lack of finance to construct and maintain the roads.



  1. Roads should be constructed on lowlands, passes or gaps around mountain areas.
  2. Construction of flyovers in marshy areas.
  3. Construction of bridges across rivers.
  4. Fund should be provided for road maintenance.


Rail Transport: This is transportation by rail i.e the use of Trains. Nigeria uses mostly narrow gauge railway lines.

Advantages of Rail Transport

  1. It is most convenient means of transporting bulky goods.
  2. It is cheap.
  3. It can move people and goods over a very long distance.
  4. It helps to open up new lands.


Disadvantages of Rail Transport

  1. It involves high cost of construction and maintenance.
  2. It is very slow (the slowest), and therefore not suitable for transporting perishable goods.
  3. Constant stopping in each station and changing of passengers waste a lot of time.
  4. It depends on roads to feed it with passengers.


Limitations of Rail Transport

  1. Rail transport is too slow.
  2. It has very low patronage and high competition with other forms of transport.
  3. Lack of spare parts, narrow gauge with single tracks.
  4. Inadequate funding.
  5. Lack of technical know-how.



  1. Modern rail system with wide gauges and multiple tracks should be developed.
  2. People should be trained on rail maintenance.
  3. Rail transport should be properly funded.
  4. Spare parts should be made available.
  5. Railway fare should be cheap to attract passengers



  1. Mention types of transport.
  2. State the different types of road transport.


B.  AIR TRANSPORT: This is movement of people, goods and services from one place to another by air. It involves the use of airplanes, helicopters, jets and rockets. There are two types of airports: (i) International Airport and (ii) Local / Domestic Airport.


International Airports are airports where planes that fly outside the country can take off or land e.g. Muritala Mohammed International Airport (Lagos), Abuja International Airport (Abuja), Port Harcourt International Airport (PH).


Domestic (Local) Airports on the other hand are airports where planes that fly within the country i.e. from one state to another can take-off or land.


Advantages of Air Transport

  1. It is the fastest means of transport.
  2. It uses direct route.
  3. It can reach anywhere provided there are landing facilities.
  4. Aeroplanes can cross mountain, dense forest and large ocean with ease and great speed
  5. Urgently required Medicare supplies, machine parts, express mails, etc are easily dispatched by air planes.


Disadvantages of Air Transport

  1. It is expensive to operate and maintain, especially the aircraft and airport facilities.
  2. It is very expensive (the most expensive).
  3. It is easily affected by bad weather, which makes visibility very poor.
  4. There is problem of safety as incidence of plane crashing and hijacking is becoming very common.

Limitations of Air Transport

  1. There is limited capital to construct airport
  2. There is problem of inadequate spare parts.
  3. Weather hazards.
  4. There is problem of low patronage due to its expensive nature.
  5. There is also the problem of poor management and inadequate security.



  1. Loans should be sourced for the proper maintenance of airports and airplanes.
  2. Spare parts should be procured.
  3. Efficient management should be adapted.



  1. State the advantages of air transport.
  2. What are the factors limiting the use of air transport?


(C)  WATER TRANSPORT: This is the movement of people, goods and services by water. Water transport is divided into 2 parts  (i)  Ocean navigation and

(ii)  Inland water navigation.

Ocean navigation involves transportation by water between Nigeria other countries using the Oceans especially along the coast line, while inland water navigation involves navigation along the creeks, lakes, lagoons and rivers in Nigeria.


Advantages of Water Transport

(1)  It is the cheapest means of transport between countries.

(2)  The ocean is free for all Nation to use.

(3)  It is used to move bulky goods from one country to another during international trade.

(4)  Cost of construction and maintenance is low and only restricted to ships and ports.

(5)  It is good for transporting goods over a long distance.

(6)  It is relatively safe.


Disadvantages of Water Transport

(1)  It is the slowest means of transportation when compared to Air and Land transport.

(2)  Cost of acquiring a ship is very high.

(3)  Cost of ship parts, construction and maintenance is high.

(4)  Lack of technical know-how


Limitations of water transportation

(1)  Presence of waterfalls, rapids and cataracts limit the use of rivers.

(2)  Presence of floating vegetation.

(3)  It is only useful in countries with coastlines and ports as against landlocked countries with no oceans or seas.

(4)  Seasonality of most rivers is a problem.

(5)  Shallowness of most rivers is also a problem.

(6)  There is also problem of sea sickness.

(7)  Limited capital to construct seaports.


(1)  Rivers should be dredged regularly.

(2)  Loans should be granted to construct and maintain seaports.

(3)  Medical facilities on board should be improved.

(4)  Construction of canals to bypass waterfall and cataracts.



(1)  Movement of goods and services.

(2)  Movement of people.

(3)  Specific purposes e.g. Air transport can be used for survey.

(4)  National and International trade.

(5)  Opening up of new land or areas.

(6)  National integration.  

(7)  Development of tourism.  

(8)  Employment.

(9)  Generation of revenue.



A  Physical factor

  • Presence of highlands
  • Distance i.e. long distance
  • Presence of marshy areas
  • Presence of many rivers
  • Soil erosion
  • Poor visibility


B.  Human factors

  • Lack of capital
  • Lack of technical know-how
  • Low patronage
  • Bad roads


General Evaluation Questions:

  1. What is transportation?
  2. State the mode of transportation.
  3. Which transport mode is considered the cheapest?
  4. State the advantages of land transport.
  5. What are the problems facing transportation in Nigeria?


Reading assignment

Essential Geography, O.A. Iwena, Pgs 277-282.



(1)  The cheapest means of transportation is (a) air (b) water (c) rail (d) road

(2)  The best way to get an urgent medicare service internationally is by (a) water transport  

 (b) road transport (c) air transport (d) rail transport

(3)  The safest means of moving goods and passengers from one country to another is by ________ transport (a) air (b) road (c) rail (d) water

(4)  The means of transport that is more prone to accident is (a) water (b) air (c) road (d) rail

(5)  One advantage of inland water-ways is that (a) they are flexible (b) they are fast (c) goods are transported cheaply (d) it is affected by seasonality



On an outline map of Nigeria, locate and name, (i) Two international airports (ii) Two domestic airports.




Manufacturing industry is defined as the industry that is involved in the turning of raw materials into new products by mechanical or chemical process at home or in the factory.



1.  Most Nigeria industries rely on imported skilled labour from foreign countries.

2.  Most industries also depend on foreign countries for their raw materials.

3.  Industries are concentrated in few locations, especially in urban centres.

4.  Most manufacturing industries are mainly light industries.

5.  They are labour intensive i.e. require large labour.

6.  Their produce is mainly consumed in the local market.

7.  They are largely small scale.



Manufacturing industries can be grouped into 3 namely:

A.  Light Industries

–  They produce relatively light weight goods such as matches, television sets, electric fans, books, etc.

–  They employ mainly the services of women.

–  They produce final or consumable goods.


B.  Consumer Goods Industries

–  They turn raw materials into consumable goods.

–  They are normally located in cities.


C.  Heavy Industries

–  They produce heavy or bulky goods.

–  They employ the services of mainly males.

–  Examples include metallurgical industries, petroleum industries and ship building industries.


Industries can also be classified into primary, secondary and tertiary industries based ontheir functions.

A.  Primary Industries

–  They are concerned with the extraction of raw materials provided by nature.

–  They are also known as extractive industries.

–  Examples include mining, fishing, lumbering, farming and livestock production.


B.  Secondary Industries

–  They are concerned with the turning of raw materials into finishing goods.

–  Examples include construction, building, chemical industries, etc.


C.  Tertiary Industries

–  They are concerned with the rendering of services.

–  The service could be direct e.g. trading, banking, teaching, medical, etc

–  The service could be indirect e.g. police, custom, soldiers, etc


1.  Proximity of source of raw materials.

2.  Nearness to market.

3.  Nearness to sources of power.

4.  Availability of labour.

5.  Availability of capital.  

6.  Adequate transport network.

7.  Government policies.  

8.  Political stability.



1.  Large market.

2.  Availability of labour.

3.  Good transport network.

4.  Nearness to seaports and airports.

5.  Availability of finance.

6.  Presence of infrastructure facilities.



This refers to the sitting of industries in a particular area i.e. the concentration of industries in one area.


Advantages of concentration of Industries

1.  It leads to inter-dependence of industries.

2.  It creates employment opportunities.

3.  It aids mobility of labour.

4.  It leads to the provision of social amenities.

5.  It encourages healthy competition among industries.

6.  It leads to the development of organized market e.g. cooperative societies.

7.  It leads to attraction of subsidiary industries in the area.

8.  It leads to inventions and innovations due to competition among industries.

Disadvantages of concentration of Industries

1.  It leads to congestion in traffic, industries and housing.

2.  It can lead to shortage of amenities.

3  It can escalate crime rate like armed robbery, car snatching, etc

4.  It can cause environmental pollution due to the presence of many industries.

5.  The area is made the target of attack during war time.

6.  It encourages rural-urban migration.



  1. What is an industry?
  2. Explain the different types of manufacturing industries in Nigeria.
  3. State the advantages of concentration of industries.



    Local craft or cottage industries are those industries that depend mainly on raw materials obtained from their immediate locality. They use simple tools and their work is of high artistic quality. They include:

    1.  Leather works e.g. sandals, cushions, handbags, etc. They mostly found in Kano, Bida and Sokoto.

    2.  Wood carving: This is done in Ikot Ekpene, Uyo, Oyo, Benin city, etc

    3.  Pottery and glass making: These are done in Ikot Ekpene, Bida, Ilorin and Calabar.

    4.  Ropes and mat making: These are done in Ikot Ekpene, Warri, and Kano.

    5.  Brass and silver works: These are done in Bida, Benin and Kano.

    6.  Textile/cloth weaving: These are done in Akwette, Okene, Kano, and Iseyin.



    A.  The western industrial zone: Include Lagos, Ibadan, Sango Ota, Abeokuta, Epe, Apapa, Ewekoro, Oshogbo etc.

    B.  South-East industrial zone: This includes Nkalagu, Onitsha, Port Harcourt, Enugu, Aba, Owerri, Calabar, etc.

    C.  The North-Central industrial zone: This includes Kano, Kaduna, Jos, Zaria, etc.

    D.  The Mid-West industrial zone: This includes Warri, Benin, Sapele, Ughelli, etc.


    General Evaluation Questions:

  4. Define an industry?
  5. State the types of industry.
  6. Which type of industry engages in provision of finance for other industries?
  7. Explain cottage industry.
  8. Explain the classification of manufacturing industries in Nigeria.


    Reading assignment

    Essential Geography, O.A. Iwena, Pgs. 277-282.



    1.  Which of these industries produce biro, slippers, and school wears  (a) Heavy industries (b) Primary industries (c) Tertiary industries (d) Light industries.

    2.  The following are primary industries except  (a) nursing (b) fishing (c) lumbering (d) hunting

    3.  One of the following is not a reason for sitting industries in Nigeria  (a) large labour force  (b) Nearness to banks (c) Availability of market (d) presence of social amenities

    4.  The following are characteristic of manufacturing industries except (a) small scale in nature (b) produce mainly exported goods (c) absence of indigenous skilled labour (d) they require large labour force

    5.  Which of these towns is known for textile making (a) Akwette (b) Bida (c) Lagos (d) Benin city



    1. State two reasons why most manufacturing industries are sited in cities.
    2. On a sketch map of Nigeria, show and name:

       (i) One industrial zone in the west.  

     (ii) One industrial zone in the east.





    Trade refers to the buying and selling or exchange of goods and services between one region

    and another in the same country or between one country and another. The former is called

    internal trade while the latter is called international trade.



    1. Differences in products produced in the different regions of the country.
    2. Differences in climate.
    3. Fertile soil.
    4. Wide market.
    5. Common currency.  


    Divisions of International Trade

    International trade is divided into two groups or types. These are:

    (a)  Import Trade: This trade involves the buying of goods and services from another country into your own country.

    (b)  Export Trade: This trade involves the selling of goods and services produced in one’s country to another country.



    Factors or reasons why countries exchange goods and services include the following:

    1.  It fosters international cooperation: International cooperation is fostered between two nations which are involved in international trade.

    2.  Provision of new products: New products that would otherwise have been unavailable in a country are provided.

    3.  Provision of foreign exchange: Through international trade, countries do get foreign exchange from the sales or export of their goods to another country.

    4.  Provision of employment: Jobs are provided through activities involved in the exportation and importation of goods and services.

    5.  Growth of ancillary services: Ancillary services are usually stimulated through international trade like the establishment of Trade Bank and Export Processing Zone (EPZ) in Nigeria.

    6.  Diffusion of ideas: Through world trade, people from different regions of the world interact and exchange new ideas leading to the acquisition of new ideas.

    7.  It stimulates production of exportable goods: Export goods or products are easily stimulated through increased production in the source region.

    8.  Growth of Industries: Through international trade, the growth of industries is enhanced from either the exportation or importation of raw materials for these industries.

    9.  Improved living standard: Provision of goods from another country can reduce the prices of goods which are easily affordable by the people; hence, standard of living will improve.

    10.  Generation of revenue: Government generates revenue from import and export duties imposed on commodities involved in international trade.

    11.  The need to exchange skills and expertise. Through international trade, skills and expertise are exchanged between nations.



    Factors which determine the volume of trade between two countries include:

    1.  Differences in natural resources: The higher the differences in the presence of natural resources like minerals between two countries, the greater the volume of trade between them and vice versa.

    2.  Differences in technology: The higher the differences in the level of technology (i.e. comparative advantage of specialization) the greater the volume of trade between two countries and vice versa.

    3.  Differences in import duties: The higher the import duties imposed on imported goods and services, the lesser the goods that will be imported and vice versa.

    4.  Differences in the prices of goods: The higher the differences between the prices of goods, the greater the volume of trade between two countries and vice versa.

    5.  Differences in the prices of goods: The higher the differences between the prices of goods, the greater the volume of trade between two countries and vice versa.

    6.  Colonial ties: Countries with former colonial ties tend to trade or have favourable trade with their colonial masters e.g. trade between Nigeria and Britain.

    7.  The need to earn foreign exchange: This also helps to increase the volume of trade between nations.

    8.  Political consideration: A country may decide to trade with another, based on political consideration e.g. the enthronement of democracy in a nation may warrant a trade relation with another country.

    9.  Comparative cost advantage: A country as a result of its comparative cost advantage it has over some other countries may engage in a trade relation with another which has lesser comparative cost advantage in the production of certain goods.



    1. What are the reasons for trade?
    2. Mention factors affecting international trade.



    High volume of trade exists between Nigeria and developed countries like Britain, U.S.A,

    Japan etc. because of the following reasons;

    1.  Non-Similarity of Products: Both countries produce goods and services which are not similar.

    2.  High Level of Technology: The increase for high volume of trade between developing and advanced countries is due to the high level of technology in the latter.

    3.  High Level of Savings: The high level of savings in developed countries makes production cheaper; hence they can easily export their products to developing countries.

    4.  Colonial ties: The inclination of some developing countries to their colonial masters, has helped to increase the volume of trade between the nations.

    5.  Differences in import duties: There are higher differences in import duties imposed on imported goods in both countries.

    6.  Differences in prices of goods: There are higher differences in prices of goods produced by both countries in order to earn foreign exchange. Foreign goods are cheaper than local ones.

    7.  Preference for imported goods: Developing countries like Nigeria has preference for goods produced by advanced countries here the high volume of trade.

    8.  Absence of trade unions: There is absence of trade union between developing and advanced nations; hence, the increase in the volume of trade.

    9.  Differences in Climate: There is differences in climate which results in the production of different agricultural products.

    10.  Industrial requirements: The raw materials produced in Nigeria are needed in factories in developed countries.

    11.  Favourable market: Nigeria has large markets for some goods manufactured in developed countries e.g. computers, electronics.


    Factors Which May Limit International Trade

    (i)  Strained International Relations: Strained international relations between two countries involved in international trade can lead to non-importation or exportation of goods.

    (ii)  Inadequate production of goods: Inadequate production of goods, either by the importing or exporting country can limit international trade.

    (iii)  Low demand for products: There will be low sales when the other country’s demand for products is low.

    (iv)  Inadequate foreign exchange: Inadequate foreign exchange can seriously affect the volume of trade between two countries.

    (v)  High tarrifs on goods: High tariffs charged by a certain country can affect the rate of import or export of goods to that country.

    (vi)  Political instability: Political instability in either country can limit the volume of trade. In most cases, there will be no trading at all.


    How to Improve Trade Between Nigeria and Developed Countries

    (i)  Increased international cooperation between both countries.

    (ii)  Through Technical cooperation between the countries.

    (iii)  Membership of the same international economic organization.

    (iv)  Provision of loans to enhance or increase production.

    (v)  Liberalization and simplification of export/import procedures by both countries.



    (1)  Similarity in products: Both Nigeria and other African countries produce goods or products that are similar.

    (2)  Low level of technology: They have the same level of technology; hence, they produce or operate at the same

    low level.

    (3)  Low level of savings: Both Nigeria and other African Countries have low level of savings and this affects their purchasing power.

    (4)  Preference for imported goods: African countries have that strong preference for imported goods, thereby neglecting goods produced locally.

    (5)  Colonial ties: Most African countries are still tied to their colonial masters in terms of trade to the detriment of fellow African countries.

    (6)  Trade restrictions and high tariffs: There are lots of trade restrictions within African countries: hence, a reduction in the volume of trade.

    (7)  Similarity in Climate: Majority of African countries have almost the same climate: hence, they produce almost the same type of crops.

    (8)  Existence of regional trade unions: The presence of many regional trade unions tends to create a barrier for international trade among African countries.

    (9)  Poor transport links: There is poor transportation network, linking African countries and this also, creates some barriers to international trade in Africa.

    (10)  Differences in currencies: The use of different currencies makes trade difficult.

    (11)  Political instability: Political instability does not allow them to explore their potentials to the fullest.


    How to Improve the Volume of Trade Between Nigeria and the Rest of African Countries:

    (1)  Encouraging specialization in production.

    (2)  Formation of an African Economic Community.

    (3)  There should be improvement in technology.

    (4)  Encouraging the patronage of locally made goods by other countries in Africa.

    (5)  There should be protection from foreign competition.

    (6)  There should be construction of trans-continental transport network.

    (7)  The saving capacity of the people should be improved by way of salary/wages.



    1. What are the reasons for the low volume of trade between Nigeria and other African countries.
    2. How can these problems be solved?


      Problems facing International Trade

      1.  Inadequate capital: Inadequate capital among the countries involved in international trade may limit the volume of trade.

      2.  Export of raw materials: Most exports to European markets are mainly in its raw form. This is a major problem to developing countries.

      3.  Colonial history: The existence of colonial ties between developed and developing countries has posed some problems in international trade.

      4.  Unfavourable balance of trade: Unfavourable balance of trade could lead to low production of goods by the country affected.

      5.  Low value of currency: When the value of a country’s currency is very low, such country finds it difficult to transact meaningful trade with another country.

      6.  High cost of transportation: This has some negative effects on the final cost of finished goods as the consumers will find it difficult to buy.

      7.  Port congestions: Owing to low management capability to handle imported and exported goods, the ports are always congested.

      8.  Government policies: Deliberate government policies in most cases can lead to problems in trade between two nations.


    Solutions to the Problems of International Trade

    The solutions to the problems of international trade between countries are:

    1.  There should be political stability in the country.

    2.  Countries should sign treaties and peace accords.

    3.  There should be reduction in tarrifs.

    4.  There should be proper government policies on trade restrictions.

    5.  Well trained port personnel should be employed to handle port management.

    6.  Loans should be granted to facilitate trade.

    7.  Processing facilities should be provided to process the raw materials to finished goods before export.


    Remedies for unfavourable balance of Trade

    A country with an unfavourable balance of trade can take certain steps to improve it. These steps may include:

    (i)  Import restriction.

    (ii)  Tax relief for young industries.

    (iii)  Bilateral trade agreement.

    (iv)  Exporting semi finished goods.

    (v)  Creation of export processing zones.

    (vi)  Granting of loans to indigenous entrepreneurs.

    (vii)  Manufacturing of import substitution goods.


    World’s Major Ocean (Shipping) Routes

    The ocean navigation is the major means of transportation used in international trade.


    The following are some of the major ocean trade routes:

    1.  The North Atlantic Route: This is the busiest and the most important route that links two most populous and heavily industrialized parts of the world (Western Europe and Eastern part of North America). About 1/10 of the world’s shipping trade and about half of the world’s major ports are located in these regions.

    2.  The Panama Canal Route: This is a domestic route between the east and west coasts of the U.S.A.

    3.  Trans-Pacific Route: This route is the longest in distance and has increasing significance in view of the rapid economic development of the West – U.S.A, China, Japan, Australia, etc.

    4.  The South African or Cape Route: This is the oldest route. It serves Europe through South America to Colombo.

    5.  The South Atlantic route: This is an important east-west route between South America, Europe, West Africa and South Africa. The largest volume of trade is between Eastern Brazil and Argentina.

    6.  The Mediterranean – Asiatic route (Suez Canal route)

    7.  The North pacific route.



    Nigeria‘s trading partners are mainly with the advanced countries. These include:

    1.  Western Europe: The countries are Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Holland, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, etc. Britain is Nigeria‘s first and most important trading partner. The sea-route through which Nigeria and Europe exchange their products is through the North Atlantic Sea route.

    2.  The North and South America: The countries include U.S.A. Canada, Brazil, Venezuela, Argentina, etc.

    The sea-route through which Nigeria and America exchange their products is the South Atlantic route.



    1.  List three major countries outside Africa that trade with Nigeria.

    2.  Choose any one of these countries and namethree major products which Nigeria imports from her.

    3.  Discuss two factors responsible for the present pattern of trade between Nigeria and that country.

    4.  With specific examples, give four reasons why countries exchange goods and services.

    5.  Account for the low volume of trade between Nigeria and the rest of Africa.


    Reading Assignment

    Essential Geography, pgs. 225-226.



    1. Light industry is predominant in West Africa because of (a) inadequate capital (b) sparse population (c) inadequate power supply
    2. The role of transport in economic development of any nation include all except (a) national disintegration (b) movement of goods and services (c) opening up new areas
    3. Which of the following is the major export commodity of Nigeria? (a) cocoa (b) palm oil (c) crude oil
    4. All are commodities exported by Nigeria except (a) groundnut (b) corn beef (c) rubber
    5. All are benefits of international trade to Nigeria except (a) makes the country a dumping ground (b) increases foreign exchange (c) creates employment



    On a map of Nigeria, locate

  9. An area of cocoa production.
  10. An area of oil palm production.






    Conventional signs are symbols used to represent both natural and human features found in an area that is represented on a map. The conventional signs represent the language of the map. The map reader cannot read any map without the use of the signs. They are usually shown at the bottom of all topographical maps where the symbols are found. From these signs, information on the map can easily be interpreted e.g

    + This sign represents hospital or dispensary.

    +++++++++ This represents a railway line.

    ========== This sign represents a main road.



    What are conventional signs or symbols?



    Therelief of an area refers to the position and character of the highlands and lowlands in that area.



    1. Spot Height: These are spot or points on the maps whose height above the sea level has been accurately measured.
    2. Hill Shading: In this method, only one colour is used but the intensity or thickness of the colour depends on the steepness of the hill. The higher the hill, the deeper the shade representing it.
    3. Trigonometrical Stations: These are simple points on the ground marking the angle of triangulation when mapping an area. They are usually represented by a triangle and a dot in the middle, with the height written by the side.
    4. Form Lines: These are lines drawn on a map like contours but are based on estimations. They are not as accurate as contours and they are represented by broken lines.
    5. Contours: These are lines drawn to join places of equal height level or altitude. The sea level is taken as the starting point in all measurements in metres or feet. The height of a particular point is written on the line.
    6. Hatchures: These are short lines drawn down the slope in the direction of the steepest gradient. The steeper the slope the heavier the lines which are used.
    7. Contour Layering : As an aid to visual impression , the space between contours are often coloured or tinted. Different shades of colours are used to denote differences in height e.g green represents a low land, yellow and brown represent highlands and white represents snow capped peaks. Blue represents water bodies and the darker the blue, the deeper the sea.
    8. Bench Mark: This is a permanent mark made on objects like walls, building and bridges. It indicates the actual height which is usually written on the object. In most cases, it is written along the road.



    1. What do you understand by the term relief?
    2. Explain four methods of representing relief.




    Relief profile or cross section is the practice whereby relief shown by contour on map are drawn to bring out the real appearance of such relief as it is on the ground. It shows the nature of the relief that is represented by contour lines on a map.



    1. Draw a straight line to join the two points to be drawn.
    2. Place a strip of paper on the section line and mark all the points at which contours cross the line. Number the marked contours down vertically. The rise and fall in the lines should be indicated respectively.
    3. Transfer the strip of paper to the point of the scale of height and at each point draw a vertical line to the corresponding height on the scale.
    4. A smooth line should be drawn to join up the points.




    Intervisibility is defined as a way of knowing whether one point or place on the map can be seen from another point or place on the same map.

    1. A point at the peak of a conical hill is visible to another point at the base of the hill.
    2. A concave slope gives room for intervisibility between two points while a convex slope does not.
    3. Two points on the same contour lines are intervisible when all the contour lines between them are at the same point or lower than the two points.



    Explain relief profile.


    INTERPRETATION OF TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPS : Topographical maps are maps that shows the relief and important features of a place. It is important for geography students to be able to interpret topographical maps either with or without the use of conventional signs. Important features that need interpretation are relief, drainage, settlement communication and land use.


    Interpretation of Relief

    1. Use contour lines, spot height, trigonometrical station to note the highest point and the lowest point on the land. The highest point is found on the highest contour lines.
    2. Note the proportion of the land occupied by highlands and lowland.
    3. Note the specific landform or relief whether a ridge, hill, knoll or plateau.
    4. Note the location or direction of the relief features on the map.
    5. Note the height of the lowlands above the sea level and whether they are flat plains or undulating.
    6. Note if the hills and plateau are dissected or not.


    Interpretation of Drainage

    1. Find out the important rivers on the map.
    2. Note the direction of flow of the rivers.
    3. Find out the pattern of drainage on the map whether radial, trellis or dendritic.
    4. Look out for water sheds which separate drainage system.
    5. Note if there are marshy areas which are usually poorly drained and are liable to flooding.
    6. Note if there are water bodies like river, sea, ocean  or ake. Identify their location on the map.
    7. Determine whether the river has a delta or an estuarine.


    Interpretation of settlement

    1. Find out the type of settlement, either rural or urban.
    2. Note the pattern of settlement whether linear, nucleated or disperse.
    3. Relate the settlement to relief i.e are the settlements located on highlands, plateaux, ridges or on lowland?
    4. Relate settlement to drainage i.e are settlements along the river course, far from rivers, near a lake, ocean or far from marshy areas? And give reasons for such settlement.
    5. Relate settlement to communication i.e is the settlement linear i.e along the road, railway, far from airport, or along a navigable river or lake?
    6. Describe also areas which are not settled and give reasons why they are uninhabited.




    1. State two methods of interpreting relief.
    2. State two procedures for interpreting drainage.
    3. Mention three ways of interpreting settlements on topographical maps.


    Procedures for interpreting communication

    1. Find out the means of communication i.e by road, railway, footpath, air (if there are airports) and rivers(if there are navigable rivers).
    2. Note from conventional signs: If the roads are primary, secondary or minor roads.
    3. Relate communication to relief: Do the roads, railways or footpath avoid steep slopes, passes through highlands, ridges or are they located on the lowlands? Are there passes? Etc.
    4. Relate communication with settlement: the presence of major roads is an indication of commercial or industrial towns while minor roads and foot path are common features of rural settlement.
    5. Note important natural and man made features like mountains, boreholes, ridges which one may come across when traveling from one area to another.



    Land use refers to the various ways in which man uses the land i.e the use of land by man is a reflection of the function of that settlement. The use of land or the function of a particular settlement can best be determined from the conventional symbols usually found below all topographical maps.




    1. Presence of banks & markets


    2. Presence of mineral resources


    3. Presence of rivers

    Fishing and canoe building

    4. Presence of hotels and stadium

    Social function

    5. Presence of schools

    Educational function

    6. Presence of marshy area

    Swamp rice cultivation

    7. Presence of industries

    Industrial functions

    8. Presence of forest

    Farming and lumbering

    9. Presence of grasses


    10. presence of prison, court, police station.


    11. Presence of buildings


    12. Presence of hospital, dispensary

    Health function



    1. State three procedures in interpreting communication on topographical maps.
    2. What do you understand by “land use”?
    3. Explain map reduction.
    4. Explain the procedures involved in reducing a map.
    5. Explain the procedures of enlarging a map.




    Essential Geography, page 181.



    1. Enlarge the scale 1:100,000 by 3 times (a) 1:300,000 (b) 1:33,000 (c). 1:150,000 (d) 1: 500,000
    2. The presence of marshy area signifies —————- (a) Educational function (b) Social function (c) Swamp rice cultivation (d) Livestock and farming
    3. The presence of features like forest indicates —————- (a) Farming and lumbering (b) Commercial function (c) Administrative function (d) Residential function
    4. The presence of hotels and stadium signifies ( a) Social function (b) Educational function (c) Farming and lumbering (d) Administrative function
    5. In relating communication to settlement, the presence of minor roads and foot paths are common features of ———————– (a) Urban settlement (b) Rural settlement (c) Town (d) City



    1. Reduce the following scale by 2 times

      (i) 1:800,000

      (ii) 1/250,000

    2. State two procedures for interpreting communication.




      Population is defined as the number of people living in an area at a particular time.

    In terms of countries, China is the most populous country, followed by India, United States, Indonesia etc. In Africa, Nigeria is the most populous country with approximate population of over 160million people.



    (a)  OVER POPULATION: Over-population exists when the given population of a country is considered too large for the available resources for people to enjoy the highest possible standard of living.

    (b)  UNDER POPULATION: This is the type of population that is less than the available resources of a country. This means that given the existing technology of such a country; her population is considered too small to fully utilize the available resources.

    (c)  OPTIMUM POPULATION: This is the best type of population concept because the number of people is adequately enough to fully maximize the available resources of the country to attain the highest possible standard of living.

    (d)  POPULATION DENSITY: This is defined as the number of persons per unit area of land or per square kilometer of land.


    Population density = Total Population

    Land Area





    Factors responsible for world population growth can be classified broadly into physical and

    human factors.

    (a)  Physical Factors:

    (1)  Climate: Favourable climate of Europe, USA and China attracts high population while harsh climate of polar and desert regions do not attract population.

    (2)  Availability of good portable water for human and agricultural purposes e.g. USA, India, Java (Indonesia) etc.

    (3)  Relief e.g. Lowlands and river valleys like the Nile delta, Indus, and Ganges delta (India) attract high population while high mountains and rugged hills like the Rockies, Andes etc do not attract population.

    (4)  Soil: Fertile soil tends to attract population.

    (5)  Presence of mineral resources e.g. Coal, Petroleum, iron ore.


    (b)  Human Factors:

    (1)  Agriculture e.g. Java, China and India practice intensive agriculture hence have high population.

    (2)  Religious beliefs: e.g. The Islamic religion believes in polygamy and early marriages. These encourage high population in areas where they are practiced.

    (3)  Industry e.g. Industrial regions like pittsburg in USA,Ruhr in Germany tend to attract high population.

    (4)  Immigration: The movement of people into countries like USA, Canada and some European countries due to opportunities of employment tend to increase population in these areas.

    (5)  Good Transportation Network

    (6)  Improved Social Facilities like pipe-borne water, electricity etc and improved medical care attract high population.



    1.  Briefly explain the following population concepts:

     (a) over population  (b) under population  (c) optimum population

    2.  Mention any three factors responsible for high population growth.



    World population is not evenly distributed, some areas are densely or moderately

    populated while others are sparsely populated.

    (a)  The very densely populated parts of the World: These include:

    (i)  Industrial North: Countries here include Great Britain, France, Germany, Denmark, Belgium etc. These areas are highly industrialized due to the presence of coal and iron.

    (ii)  Industrial North-Eastern USA: This is the great industrial belt of the United States and Canada stretching from the share of the great lakes through pittsburg to New York which is very rich in coal and Iron ore.

    (iii)  Agricultural Monsoon Asia: This includes the populous countries like China, India, Japan, Pakistan, Indonesia (Particularly, Java) etc. This area has fertile soil, warm climate and abundant rainfall which promote agriculture.

    (b)  The moderately populated parts of the world: These areas include the cool temperate forest of Europe, Canada and Asia, agricultural USA, Mediterranean Europe, Africa, most parts of South East Asia etc.

    (c)  The very sparsely populated parts of the world.

    These include:

    1. The cold polar lands of Arctic and Antarctica (very cold areas).
    2. The Canadian and Eurasian tundra and Greenland (also very cold).
    3. The high mountains of Himalayas, Rockies and parts of Andes due to rugged topography and cold weather.
    4. The hot deserts of the world like the Kalahari, Atacama and Sahara deserts (due to hot weather and lack of rainfall).
    5. The dense tropical rain forest like the Amazon basin (South America), Congo basin (Zaire).


    PROBLEMS (DISADVANTAGES) OF HIGH POPULATION DENSITIES: The following problems are associated with high population growth in USA, Java, India, Japan etc.

    (1)  Pressure on natural resources such as Land, water and forest.

    (2)  Increase in crime rate.

    (3)  Insufficient food.

    (4)  Unemployment and under employment.

    (5)  Inadequate housing.

    (6)  Traffic Congestion.

    (7)  Environmental pollution.

    (8)  Pressure on social amenities like pipe borne water, electricity etc.

    (9)  Inadequate health services.

    (10)  Development of slums and ghettos.



    The following are some of the ways world population problems can be solved:

    1.  Family Planning measures to control the high birth rate especially in developing countries.

    2.  Discouraging early marriages.

    3.  Monogamy and other measures that cut down high birth rate should be encouraged.

    4.  Provision of gainful employment for women: This is to occupy them with gainful ventures rather than continousbreeding of children.

    5.  Sex education should be taught consistently in schools and mass media to enlighten the people.

    6.  Encouragement of emigration.

    7.  Stiffening immigration laws.



    1.  Mention three areas in the world where population is very high.

    2.  Give any two physical factors and two human factors that are responsible for high population in the world.

    3.  Mention the advantages of high population.

    4.  What are the disadvantages of high population?

    5.  State the disadvantages of low population.



    Essential Geography, pages 185-188.



    1.  The most populous country in the world is ____

     (a) Nigeria  (b) Indonesia   (c) China

    2.  The best type of population concept is _______population.

     (a) under  (b) optimum   (c) over

    3.  One of these cannot reduce world population?

     (a) polygamy (b) monogamy (c) celibacy

    4.  The major reason for the high population density in India is the _______

     (a) presence of Iron ore in the Ganges   (b) Early marriages in the Ganges delta (c) India is the seat of civilization for Hindus religion

    5.  One of these areas is sparsely populated ___________

     (a) The Rurh region of Germany (b) The Pittsburgh region of North-East USA

     (C) The Amazon basin of South America



    1.  Briefly explain any two factors responsible for world population growth.

    2.  Outline any six problems associated with high population densities of the world.






    A settlement is defined as a place containing one or more buildings with people living in them. A settlement can be a city, village or a compound.


    Favourable conditions for siting a settlement:

    (i)  Adequate water supply

    (ii)  Fertile soil

    (iii)  Availability of low and well-drained land.

    (iv)  Good communication network

    (v)  Defence/Protection for human habitation.


    Factors Affecting Growth of Settlement

    Some of the factors that promote the growth of towns, cities or states and finally lead tourbanization are:

    (i)  Accessibility by road, rails, air etc.

    (ii)  Presence of economic activities such as trading, farming, mining etc.

    (iii)  Good administration /seat of government.

    (iv)  Provision of social amenities like pipe borne water, electricity etc.

    (v)  Good soil condition that encourages intensive agriculture.

    (vi)  Absence of disaster.

    (vii)  Political stability.

    (viii)  Relief and drainage.

    (ix)  Favourable climatic condition.




    There are two main types of settlements.

    (a) Rural settlements  (b) Urban settlements


    (1)  Rural Settlements

    –  A rural settlement is relatively a small area with socially homogenous people who know themselves very well.

    –  A rural settlement could be nucleated, dispersed or linear.

    –  They consist of people with the same cultural background and language.

    –  They are normally involved in primary activities such as farming, fishing, hunting and lumbering.

    –  They live a simple life-style with few social amenities.

    –  They are normally made up of few buildings with people ranging from one family to few hundreds.



    There are basically, three (3) types of rural settlement. These are:

    (1)  Homestead: This is one family residence. They have dispersed settlements which are separated by bushes, called buffer zones.

    (2)  Hamlet: This settlement may be nucleated with few house, usually less than a hundred with many people living in them.

    (3)  Village: This is a large nucleated rural settlement formed from the combination of several hamlets. It contains several hundreds or a thousand of people with limited services.



    A village performs the following functions:

    1.  Agricultural function

    2.  Lumbering function

    3.  Small-scale shopping e.g. Petty shop and local markets

    4.  Fishing function

    5.  Religions function


    (b)  Urban Settlements

    –  An urban settlement is a relatively large, densely populated settlement with socially heterogenous people who do not know one another very well.

    –  Urban settlements are nucleated in nature.

    –  They consist of people with different cultural background and different languages.

    –  They consist of many buildings with thousands of people living in them.

    –  They have abundance social amenities.

    –  They are mainly involved in secondary activities such as manufacturing, construction, banking etc.



    Four (4) major types of urban settlements exist. These are:

    (1)  Town: With several thousands of people.

    (2)  City: This is a large town with greater number of people than town.

    (3)  Conurbation: This is made up of several towns joined together but each town still maintains its identity.

    (4)  Megalopolis: It is the largest type of urban settlement made up of large cities with several millions of people. Megalopolis simply means, mega cities joining together to form one big city.


    Functions of Urban Settlement

    Most urban settlements perform the following functions:

    (1)  Industrial functions e.g. manufacturing industries.

    (2)  Commercial functions e.g. presence of markets, banks, shopping malls etc.

    (3)  Administrative functions e.g. seats of government, states and federal capitals etc.

    (4)  Socio-Cultural functions e.g. establishment of universities, churches, mosques, cinemas etc.

    (5)  Mining function.

    (6)  Residential functions.



    1.  Mention any three favourable conditions for siting a settlement.

    2.  Briefly differentiate between a rural settlement from an urban settlement.

    3.  What is conurbation, and how is it different from megalopolis?



    The pattern or shape of settlement refers to the arrangement of buildings in a settlement.

    There are three main patterns of settlement. These are:

    (1)  Dispersed  

    (2)  Nucleated

    (3)  Linear settlement




    –  Dispersed settlements have buildings scattered or far from each other.

    –  They have few social amenities because they are rural in nature.

    –  They are mainly involved in primary activities like farming, lumbering etc.

    –  Individual buildings are widely spaced from one-another and; behind the buildings, these are family parcels of land.

    –  They live a quiet lifestyle.

    –  The dispersed pattern of settlement reduces conflict among families because individual families are distinctly far apart.



    –  The buildings are located along the routes e.g. roads, railways or rivers.

    –  Where two or more routes meet, a sub-linear settlement called nodal town is formed.

    –  When a settlement is formed as a result of the meeting of two rivers; a confluence town or settlement is formed e.g. Lokoja, in Nigeria, Khartoum (Sudan) where the blue Nile and the white Nile meet.

    –  Gardens are located behind houses.

    –  Farmlands may be located behind gardens.

    –  Linear settlements could extend to several kilometers in length.

    –  Some of the reasons for linear settlement are:

    (i)  The need to be closed to a transport network.

    (ii)  For easy accessibility to other areas.

    (iii)  The need to transport farm produce to markets.




    –  Here, the buildings are very close to each other or they are concentrated in a small area.

    –  It has many social amenities.

    –  It is a feature of urban settlement.

    –  People are mainly involved in secondary and tertiary activities like manufacturing, construction etc.

    –  The area is well connected with roads.

    –  Farmlands are located outside the settlement.

    –  The level of interaction between the inhabitants is very high.



    (i)  The quest to maintain social ties.

    (ii)  It leads to easy development of infrastructure and social amenities.

    (iii)  The need for defence.

    (iv)  There is easy communication.

    (v)  For commercial development.

    (vi)  It enhances a well-defined leadership structure.



    1.  What is linear settlement?

    2.  Mention two reasons for linear settlement.

    3.  Mention any four (4) characteristics of a linear settlement.

    4.  Briefly explain the three classification of settlement according to pattern or shape.

    5.  Outline any four functions of either the rural or the urban settlement.



    Essential Geography pages 198-202.



    1.  One of these is not a factor for siting a settlement.

     (a) Good soil condition   (b) Good communication network   (c) To preserve slavery

    2.  The smallest type of settlement is called ______

     (a) Village  (b) Hamlet  (c) Homestead

    3.  When several towns join together but each town still retains its identity it is called ______

     (a) conurbation  (b) nuclear town  (c) Megalopolis

    4.  The type of settlement located along major transportation routes is called ______ settlement.

     (a) dispersed (b) Linear   (c) Nucleated

    5.  One of these is not a major function of a rural settlement?

     (a) Agricultural function  (b) Industrial function   (c) Religious function



    1. What is a settlement?
    2. Outline any four factors affecting the growth of settlement.

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