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  • Revision
  • Writing
  • Speech work


  • Comprehension


Revision of Last Term’s

Examination Questions

Informal Letter

Vowel Sound /i:/, /I/, /e/ and /æ/


Play: “The Forbidden Thing”



  • Grammar
  • Comprehension
  • Writing
  • Consonant Contrast

Phrases and Clauses

The Fall of Seyfawa Dynasty in Borno

Descriptive Essay

\ ð \, \ d \ and \ z \


  • Vocabulary Development
  • Writing
  • Structure
  • Listening comprehension


Commerce and Industry

Description Essay (oral)

Adjectives and Adverbs

Talk on Nigerian Salt


  • Comprehension
  • Structure


  • Speech Work
  • Writing

The Nervous System at Work

Expressing Willingness/ Unwillingness Using modal verbs + adverbials

Consonants Contrast: /f/ and /v/

Formal Letter


  • Comprehension
  • Speech Work
  • Grammar
  • Dictation
  • Poem

From the Great Ponds

Consonants Contrast: /s/, /t∫/ and /∫/

Question Tags


A Deserted Palm Tree


  • Literature



  • Structure
  • Writing
  • Vocabulary development
  • Comprehension

Making Request using can, could, may and mind

Semi-Formal letter

Using “in” and “un” to express opposite

Directions on Shelltox Tin  


  • Speech work
  • Vocabulary development



  • Structure
  • Writing

Consonants /l/ and /r/

Words Building using

Prefixes: super, over, under, counter, anti, pro, trans, inter, hyper.

Expressing possibility using may, can, might and could.

Argumentative Essay(Debate)


  • Comprehension
  • Writing
  • Speech work
  • Structure

From the Jero play by Soyinka.

Argumentative Essay (Debate) contd.

/h/: where it is voiced and where it is silent

Expressing ability using can, be able, be capable



Reading of the recommended text












































Revision of Last Term’s Examination Questions.

Writing: Informal letter

Speech Work: vowels /i:/, /I/, /e/,and /æ/

Comprehension: The Forbidden Thing



Revision of the last term’s examination questions. The teacher reviews the two passages and the 60 objectives with the students and provides correct answers to all the questions.


Reference: Third term examination question paper


B. WRITING: Informal Letter

What is an informal letter?

An informal letter is also known as private or personal letter. Informal letters are letters we write to people who are very familiar to us such as our parents, friends, class-mates, etc.


Features of an informal letter include:

  1. Writer’s Address and Date
  2. Salutation e.g. Dear Sola, Dear Father…..
  3. Introduction: Usually pleasantries.
  4. Body of the letter
  5. Conclusion
  6. Subscript e.g. Yours sincerely, Your daughter, Yours ever, Yours affectionately


Evaluation: Write a letter to your best friend, telling him/her of your plans for this academic session


Reference: Graded essays for Junior Secondary Schools by Omoju


Reading Assignment: Read “Creative and Guided Composition by Odetola page 6


C. SPEECH WORK: Vowel sounds /i:/, /I/, /æ/ and /e/


  • What is a vowel sound?
  • Words in which these sounds occur.


A vowel sound is a sound that is produced from the mouth without any obstruction.

A vowel is the nucleus or central part of a syllable. The following vowel sounds /i:/, /I/, /e/ and /æ/ are known as monophthongs, i.e. each of them comprises only one symbol. These sounds are represented by different letters. Consider the examples below:


(i) /i:/

ea: meat, beat, seat, meal, grease, peace

ee: seed, meet, feel, feeble, feet

ei: deceive, seize, ceiling

i: elite, police.

ey: key

eo: people

uay: quay

oe: foetus, amoeba

ie: chief, grief thief, thief brief


(ii) /I/

i: bit, hit, sit

ui: build, quilt, quiz

u: busy, business

e: believe, pretty, retrieve

a: Monday, village Friday

y: symbol, tyranny, lynching

o: women


(iii) /e/

e: best, get, leg, egg

ea: head, death, bread

a: many, any

eo: leopard, jeopardy, Geoffrey


(iv) /æ/

a: back, bat, man

ai: plait


Evaluation: Identify the sounds underlined below:

Chat, bury, English, sheep, ate, chip, plait, quay, leopard, guess


Reference: Oral English by Sam Onuigbo; standard speech, page 11-15


Reading Assignment: Standard speech (Diction in English) page 11-12



COMPREHENSION: “The Forbidden thing”


  • Summary of the comprehension passage
  • Questions on the passage


The passage is a playlet with three characters only- Ogwuoma, Uloko and Odubei. Ogwuoma is a widow who is mourning the death of her husband, Adigwu. However, she has a lover Uloko, who comes to see her during her mourning period. Odubei, Ogwuoma’s mother-in-law stood against their love.


Evaluation: Do practice 3 on page 21 and 22.

Reading Assignment: Read more about the play in Zulu Sofola’s Wedlock of the Gods


Weekend Assignment: Do test for continuous Assessment on page 33 of the Effective English book 3 (Number 1 only)



Use a suitable word to fill each of the blanks below.

  1. “Please give me some water,” he —————–
  2. “Yes I would like some tea, thank you,” Mrs Dike —————-
  3. “I’m always the one to do the cleaning up,”Yaro——————-
  4. They —————, “what? How dare he be so rude!”
  5. He —————–, “I was late because my car broke down.”

    Give the meanings and make sentences with the following words.

    Swagger, totter, tiptoe, shuffle, roam

Identify the sounds underlined:

Bad, legal, said, Geoffrey and greedy





















Grammar: Phrases and Clauses

Comprehension: The Fall of Seyfawa dynasty in Borno

Writing: Descriptive Essay

Consonant Contrasts: \ ð \, \ d \ and \ z \



Phrases and Clauses

  • What is a phrase?
  • Types of phrases
  • What is a clause?
  • Types of clauses


A phrase is a group of words which does not contain a finite verb. A finite verb marks for tense, number and concord.

Examples of finite verbs are:


Image From EcoleBooks.comI / You / We / They go to school.

He / She goes to school. Concord or number

Image From

I see her everyday

I saw her yesterday Tense

I have seen her today


Types of phrases

A phrase can be:



A noun phrase is a group of words which has a noun or pronoun as its head word.


  • Image From She has eaten the food.


  • The boy is dead


  • I need a pencil


  • My brother met a very beautiful lady yesterday.

    NP NP


A noun phrase can function as:

  • Subject of the sentence – as in 2 above
  • Object of the sentence- as in 1 above
  • Subject complement e.g.

The beautiful lady is my friend.


“My friend” is the subject complement

  • Object complement e.g.

They made him our class captain.


“Our class captain” is the object complement

  • Complement of a preposition e.g.

I gave the money to the man.


“The man” is a complement of the preposition “to”



A verb phrase can either be simple or complex. It is simple when it is made up of just one main/ lexical verb. A verb phrase however, becomes complex when it consists of one main verb and one or more auxiliary verbs.


  1. Sola eats a lot (main verb)


  2. Sola is eating now (main + auxiliary verb)


  3. Sola has finished the food


  4. Sola must have eaten the food



A verb phrase performs the function of a verb- tells us the action performed



An adverbial phrase is a group of words headed by an adverb.

An adverbial phrase can be realized by:

  • Adverb: e.g. Alaba drove carefully.
  • Adverb phrase e.g. Alaba drove very carefully.


  • Prepositional phrase e.g. They go to school every Saturday



An adjectival phrase describes/ qualifies a noun or pronoun.


  1. The woman in red is my aunt.

      Adj. ph.

  2. I saw the boy with a broken leg.

    Adj. ph.




  1. My grandfather is in good health.

  2. They congratulated her on her success



A clause is group of words that contains a finite verb. Clauses can be:

  • Main clause/ independent clause and
  • Subordinate clause / dependent clause


An independent clause can stand on its own to express full meaning while a subordinate clause cannot.

Consider the following sentences

Independent clause / subordinate clause

Image From EcoleBooks.comImage From


(a) I saw a dead man / when I was coming to school today.

(b) She didn’t see the pencil / where she kept it.


Subordinate clauses are of three types, namely:

  1. Noun clause
  2. Adjectival clause
  3. Adverbial clause


A.  Noun clause: (NC) Upper case

This is a subordinate clause that performs the functions of a noun. i.e.

1. Subject of the sentence as in:

  • What you did was wrong

    Noun clause (NC)

2. Object of sentence as in:

I don’t like what you did.


3. Subject complement, as in:


Honesty is what we want.


4. Object complement, as in:

I made you what you are today.


5. Complement of preposition as in:

The prize goes to whoever wins.



An adjectival clause performs the function of an adjective .i.e. describes or qualifies a noun or pronoun.


  1. This is the boy who stole my money.

    Adj. cl.

  2. That is the house which my father just bought.

    Adj. cl.

  3. These are the children whose parents died in fire-accident last week

    Adj. cl.



An adverbial clause performs the function of an adverb i.e., it modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. We have adverbial clause of time, reason, place, purpose, manner, condition, result, degree, concession etc.


  1. He came back when I had slept.

 Adv. cl.

  1. She goes whereas she likes.

    Adv. cl.


Identify the phrases in the sentences below:

  1. The car is in the garden.
  2. The girl with the blue bag is my sister.
  3. The man came at the wrong time.
  4. She has done the work
  5. He gave the book to me


Reference: Count down English by Ogunsanwo


Reading Assignment: Read Count down English by Ogunsanwo pages 220- 225; English Grammar by Sam Onuigbo



COMPREHENSION: The fall of Seyfawa Dynasty In Borno. Page 35


The passage is about the Jihad that took place in Borno Kingdom which led to the fall of Seyfawa Dynasty.


Evaluation: Do the practice 4 on page 37


Reference: Effective English for JSS BOOK 3


Reading Assignment: Read Effective English Book 3 page 36.


WRITING: Descriptive Essay


  • What is a descriptive essay?
  • What are the features of a descriptive essay?


A descriptive essay is one that requires you to write a description of, for example an object, a person, an animal, a process etc.


Features of a descriptive essay are:

  1. Title e.g. My School Compound.
  2. The use of simple present tense
  3. Vivid description
  4. Logical presentation
  5. The description should be made very clear, interesting and informative.


Evaluation: Write a good essay on the topic “My School Compound”


Reference: Countdown English by Ogunsanwo


Reading Assignment: Read Effective English Book 3 page 66.



SPEECH WORK: Consonant Contrast/ð/, /d/ and /z/


Consider the sets of words below:






























Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary; Standard Speech (Diction in English).


Evaluation: Provide any ten triple set of words of your choice.




Complete the sentences with suitable adverbs.

  1. The bird sang—————–
  2. She —————- got killed.
  3. Adamu is —————– the first in class.
  4. Take these dirty socks away———————–

Arrange the adjectives in the correct order.

  1. Big plastic shopping white bag.
  2. American tall blue-eyed boy.
  3. Coffee carved French beautiful table.

Give a word each for these sounds.

/d/, /d/, /z/.


Weekend Assignment: Effective English Book 3, page 235, question 16- 25.


































Vocabulary Development: Commerce and Industry

Writing: Description Essay (oral)

Structure: Adjectives and Adverbs

Listening Comprehension: Talk on Nigerian Salt




Commerce means trading, that is, buying from a supplier and selling to a buyer. It can also be defined as an act of buying and selling of goods and services.

  • A trader’s income: Selling price minus buying price.
  • A trader’s profit: Selling minus cost price + expenses (Transport, wages of employees, etc.)
  • Importers: People who bring goods from other countries.
  • Exporters: People who send or sell goods to foreign countries.
  • Wholesaler: People who buy in large quantities from the producers

    and sell to retailers.

  • Retailers: People who buy in small quantities and sell in their shops

    to consumers.

  • Industry: This refers to companies (firms) that make things. It can be  conceived as the production of goods from raw materials, especially in factories. Examples: Timber industry refers to all the organizations that grow trees, cut them down, process the wood, sell it etc. Textile industry means all those involved with the making and selling of cloth.
  • Raw Materials: What a manufacturer starts his business with, e.g.: Cotton is the raw material needed by every textile industry.
  • Process: To process raw materials means to do things to them in order to turn them into finished products.
  • Minerals Extraction: The process of removing or obtaining raw materials from the ground e.g. iron ore, crude oil, gold, uranium etc.
  • Manufacturing: Making of goods in factories.
  • Agricultural: Agricultural industries produce crops from the soil, e.g. Cocoa Industry.
  • Services: The service industries do things for people i.e. they provide  services e.g. a bus-service, a medical service, a teaching service, etc.

Evaluation: Do practice 5 on page23


Reference: Effective English Book3; Oxford Advanced Dictionary.

Reading Assignment: Read Effective English Book 3 pages 22 and 23




The teacher reminds the students what a descriptive essay is and its features. The teacher calls out some students to discuss the topic “Travelling by Air”


Evaluation: Discuss the topic “Travelling by Air”


Reference: Count down English by Ogunsanwo

Reading Assignment: Read pages 10 and 12 of Creative and Guided Composition by C.O Odetola


STRUCTURE: Adjectives and Adverbs


  • What is an adjective?
  • Types of adjectives
  • Comparison of adjectives
  • What is an adverb?
  • Types of adverbs
  • Comparison of adverbs


An adjective tells us what something or someone seems like. It is used to describe a noun or pronoun.



  • Tola is a beautiful girl.
  • It is rather warm in here.
  • Can I have five sweet buns, please?


Types of adjectives

  1. Descriptive adjectives: These tell about the kind or quality of a noun or pronoun.


Pretty girl;

White roses;

Large sack;

Funny man. etc.


  1. Adjective of number or quality: These usually come before nouns and show “how many” or “how much” of the noun

    Definite: One, eleven, double, second, both etc.

    Indefinite: All, any, few, many, much, some, several, etc.

  2. Demonstrative Adjectives: These point out nouns which follow them.

    Example: this house; these forms; such games; that table; these boys

  3. Interrogative adjectives: These adjectives ask questions and come before nouns.


    Which door?

    What present?

    Whose shoes?

  4. Possessive Adjectives: These show ownership or possession.


My pen

Your ruler

His bicycle

Its leg


Comparison of Adjectives

Adjectives have three degrees of comparison.

These are:

  • The Positive: This is used when describing an object or a person only.


She is tall

Musa is young and handsome.



She is as tall as her mother.

Musa is not as playful now as he was before.

  • The Comparative: This is used to compare two things (nouns)


Taller, younger, more beautiful, bigger, more expensive e.t.c.


  • The superlative: This is used to compare more than two nouns


Tallest, youngest, most beautiful, biggest, most experience, e.t.c.



An adverb is a word used to describe or modify a verb, that is, how, where, or when, an action is performed.

An adverb can also modify an adjective, another adverb, a whole sentence or a prepositional phrase.


  • She is very angry.
  • He ran very quickly.


  • Actually, we don’t know.
  • The ball flew right through the window.


Types of adverbs

  1. Adverbs of manner: These describe “how” actions are performed.


Happily, easily, loudly, well e.t.c.

  1. Adverbs of time: These describe “when” actions are performed.


Soon, then, now, before, since, already e.t.c.

  1. Adverbs of place: These describe “where” actions are performed.


Here, there, everywhere, nowhere.

  1. Adverbs of degree: These describe “how much” actions are performed.


Almost, much, only, quite, very, too, so, rather, etc.

  1. Adverbs of frequency: These describe “how often” actions are performed.


Once, twice, again, almost, often.

  1. Adverbs of interrogation: These are used in questions.


Where, when, how

  1. Adverbs of Negation


No, not, nothing, nowhere, never etc.


Comparison of Adverbs

Adverbs are composed in the same way as Adjectives.

Study the following example:


























More easily

Most easily


More slowly

Most slowly


More willingly

Most willingly


Evaluation: Do practice exercise four, question 3, page 20 of English Grammar by P.O. Olatunbosun.


Reference: The New Student’s Companion for Secondary School; English Grammar by Olatunbosun.




  • The development of listening skills
  • Evaluation


Listen to the passage on page 243, Unit 2.

“Talk on Nigerian Salt”.


Evaluation: Do practice 1 on page 41.


Reference: Effective English for JSS Book 3, page 243.


Reading Assignment: Read page 243 of the Effective English for JSS Book 3.



a. Write out five terms used in Agriculture and make sentences with them.


b. Rewrite the following using the following using the comparative or superlative forms of the adjectives.

  1. Mount Kilimanjaro is the (high) mountain.
  2. He is the (good) Math teacher we have.
  3. Is Emeka (popular) than his sister?
  4. It was (cool) yesterday than today.

What are the functions of adverbs and adjectives?


Weekend Assignment: Do practice exercise nine on page 44 of English Grammar by P.O. Olatunbosun.



































Comprehension: The Nervous System at Work

Structure: Expressing Willingness/ Unwillingness Using Modal Verbs + Adverbials

Speech work: Consonants Contrast: /f/ and /v/

Writing: Formal Letter


COMPREHENSION: The Nervous System at Work.


  • Summary of the passage
  • Evaluation


The passage is about how the various parts of a human nervous system work. The brain sends a signal to the nerves which then keep other parts of the body informed of the new development.


Evaluation: Do practice 2 on page 51


Reference: Effective English for JSS Book 3.


Reading Assignment: Read Effective English for JSS Book 50 and 51.


STUCTURE: Expressing Willingness / Unwillingness Using Modal Verbs + Adverbials


The word “willingness” means not objecting to doing something or readiness to do something. While the word “Unwillingness” means the opposite.

Modal verbs are auxiliary/ helping verbs. They are : can/ could; may/might; shall/ should; will/ would; must; ought to; dare; need; used to and have to.

Modal verbs do not have “ing” forms and “ed” forms.

Modal verbs can express possibility, permission ability, intention, willingness, obligation etc.

Expressing Willingness or willingness with modal verbs + adverbials

Study the examples below:

  • I will come if I am invited. (willingness)
  • She will not come if she’s not invited. (unwillingness )
  • They shall have their salaries when they complete the task. (willingness on the part of the speaker.)
  • I will do job provided you meet my demand. (willingness)
  • We shall attend the programme if our parents permit us.


Evaluation: Form five sentences that express willingness or unwillingness using modal verbs + adverbials.


Reference: Countdown English by Ogunsanwo; Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary


Reading Assignment: Read P.O Olatunbosun English Grammar for JSS, page 48-49


SPEECH WORK: Consonant Contrast, /f/ and /v/


Consonant /f/ and /v/ are both fricatives. However, consonant /f/ is a voiceless sound while /v/ is a voiced one. Both of them are described as labio-dental fricatives. This means that in the production of each of them, we involve the lower lip and teeth.


Consider the following pairs words
























Evaluation: Produce 10 pairs of your own


Reference: Oxford advanced Learner’s Dictionary; Countdown English by Ogunsanwo.


Reading Assignment: Read Effective English for JSS 3 page 184


WRITING: Formal Letter


  • Definition of a formal letter
  • Features of a formal letter


Formal letters are also called official or business letters. They are written to people in their official positions. They are people we do not know personally e.g. local government chairman, commissioner etc.


Features of a formal letter

  1. Writer’s address with date
  2. Receiver’s address
  3. Salutation, e.g., Dear Sir; Dear Madam;
  4. Heading or Topic or Title e.g. Application for the post of a Teacher; Letter of complaint; Letter of Request, Invitation etc.
  5. Body of the letter: This must state, in clear and well-defined paragraphs, the purpose of the letter. The paragraph should be as short as possible (i.e. not too long)
  6. Conclusion (This is usually very short)

Example “Looking forward to hearing from you; I shall be very grateful if my request is granted etc.

  1. Subscript


Yours faithfully,


Full name of the writer.


Evaluation: Write a letter to the chairman of the local government area where your school is located, asking him to tar the road to your school.


Reference: Countdown English by Ogunsanwo


Reading Assignment: Read pages 23-24 of Creative and Guided Composition by C.O Odetola.



  1. Provide five words for each of the sounds below

/f/ and /v/


  1. In three sentences summarize the comprehension passage on, “The Nervous System at work.”

Weekend Assignment: Do section F on page 241 of Effective English for JSS Book 3.

























Comprehension: From the Great Ponds

Speech Work: Consonants Contrast: /s/, /t∫/ and /∫/

Structure: Question Tags


COMPREHENSION: From the Great Ponds


  • Summary of the passage
  • Evaluation


The passage is about the poaching of the great ponds in Chiolu by the neighbouring villages and the efforts of Chiolu men to catch the poachers.


Evaluation: Do practice 3 on page 66


Reference: Effective English for JSS 3


Reading Assignment: Read Effective English for JSS 3 pages 66 and 67.


SPEECH WORK: Consonant Contrast, /s/, /t∫/ and /∫/


Consonant sounds /s/, /t∫/ and /∫/ are all voiceless sounds. Consonant /s/ is described as voiceless alveolar Fricative. Consonant /t∫/ is described as voiceless palatal-alveolar affricate and consonant sound /∫/ is known as voiceless palatal-alveola fricative.


Consider the following sets of words



































Evaluation: Provide 10 sets of words to contrast consonant sounds /s/, /t∫/ and /∫/

Reference: Countdown English by Ogunsanwo; Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology by Fatunsin.





GRAMMAR: Question Tags


In all types of questions, the verbs in both the question and the answer must be in the same tense.

For example:

If the verb in the question is in the present tense, the verb in the answer must also be in the present tense.


Question tags/ tag questions are mostly used when you want your listener(s) to agree with you on something.


The rules that govern tag questions are as follows:

  1. Positive Statement, Negative Tag, Positive Answer.
  2. Negative Statement, Positive Tag, Negative Answer.
  3. An auxiliary verb repeats itself in the tag, but main verbs use the appropriate forms of the verb “Do”
  4. In a complex sentence, the tag is picked from the main clause.
  5. Statements containing negators are regarded as negative statements.


Study the examples below:




We are good friends,

Aren’t we?

Yes, we are.

You will do the work,

Wont you

Yes, I will.

She was there,

Wasn’t she?

Yes, she was.

They didn’t send it,

Did they?

No, they didn’t.

We haven’t many oranges,

Do we?

No, we don’t.

We went to the place,

Didn’t we?

Yes, we did.


Although the rains have been good, the harvest this year is a poor one, isn’t it? Yes, it is.


Evaluation: Do practice 2on page 93 of Effective English for JSS 3.


Reference: English Grammar for JSS 3 by P.O Olatunbosun, page 76-77; Effective English Book 3, page 93.


POEM: A Deserted Palm Tree


  • The poem is about a palm tree that once blossomed and housed a lot of birds but now has withered and as such deserted by all. The poem is a metaphor. The palm tree represents a powerful king that lost his glory.

The following figures of speech are used in the poem to realize its meaning.

  • Simile- line 2
  • Alliteration- lines 2 and 3
  • Metaphor – lines 12, 13 and 15
  • Assonance- lines 1, 2 and 3


Evaluation: Define and give two examples each for the following figures of speech.

  1. Simile
  2. Alliteration
  3. Metaphor


Reference: Effective English for JSS Book 3


Reading Assignment: Read the poem on page 41of Effective Book 3 and summarize it in your own words.



Give the meanings and then assess the effectiveness of the literary devices used in the poem, “A Deserted Palm Tree.”

Write out the meanings of the following proverbs;

  • Little strokes fell great oaks.
  • Lost time is never found.
  • If the wishes were horses, beggars m

Weekend Assignment: Do the tests for Continuous Assessment on page 79 of Effective English. Nos. 1 and 2





























Literature: Theory

Content:  What is Literature?

Definitions of Literature

Literature is the art of composition in prose and verse. It is the writing or study of a whole body of literary composition. Literature is an imaginative work of arts, which uses language, plot, characters, setting etc. to give us a picture of life.

When we talk about literature in this sense, what we normally have in mind is that artistic or creative composition which represents the emotions, feelings and thoughts of a person in form of a prose, poetry and drama. Literature could also be defined as an imitation of life.


Give two definitions of Literature that you know.


Reading Assignment:  Read: (a) Exam Focus Literature in English

(b) ABC of Literature by Oni D.




  • Prose
  • Drama
  • Poetry

The genres of Literature are prose, drama and poetry.

Prose includes all forms of writing or even speaking that is done in such a way that we cannot say they are measured or calculated to read a given number of syllable or feet. Generally, a prose writer is free to use sentences of various lengths and might not use these literary devices: rhyme, alliteration, assonance much, as evident in poetry.


Features of Prose

1.  The sentence: Grammatically is defined as “that unit of language which contains a subject, a predicate and a finite verb”. We have types of sentences, the simple sentence, the complex sentence (one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses) the compound sentence (consisting of two or more main clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.

2  The paragraph: This is a device by which a whole composition is broken up into meaningful and readable segments based on a logical sequence of thought. The beginning of a new paragraph is often indented to mark it out.

3.  The use of idioms and proverbs. An idiom is a form of usage or expression peculiar to the language. It sometimes violates the conventional rule of grammar e.g.:-

 (a)  She promised to make up for it. Later that is to provide some form of compensation.

(b)  Make hay while the sun shines. Proverbs on the other hand, are short but profound sayings used in illustrating one truth or the other e.g. one good turn deserves another. There is no rose without a thorn.

(c) The use of slangs. A slang is a highly colloquial expression which is rarely used in literary English except in dialogue, prose or drama e.g.

 (1)  The man blew his top (i.e. got angry)

 (2)  The criminals dodged the coppers (i.e. policemen)

4.  Narrative Technique: The technique adopted by a literary artist in telling a story. The narrative technique is invariably part of the author’s literary style.

There are types of narrative techniques namely:-

(1)  The use of the omniscient narrator e.g. Tess of the D’urbervilles

  1. The use of the first-person narrator i.e. subjective e.g. Defoe’s

    Robinson Crusoe

  2. The use of the epistolary style i.e. epistles or letters such as in Mariama Ba’s So Long a Letter.


Prose can be fiction and non-fiction. Fiction comes out of the imagination of the author. It means that which is made to look as if it really happens. The things that happen in a fiction can also happen in real life but the truth is that the one you are reading is not a true life story.

Some types of fiction are fables, parables like the sower or prodigal son, fairy tales about a day old baby that was walking and talking e.g. Things fall apart, Mine Boy and Silas Manner.


Non-fiction is the opposite of fiction. It is a section of the prose which holds all those events which had occurred at a particular place and to a particular person at a particular time. Non-fiction can be of three types namely:-

  • Autobiography
  • Biography
  • Autobiographical fiction

Autobiography is when an author tells the story of his own life e.g. Zambia shall be free by Kaunda.

Biography is when an author writes the story of another person e.g. Steve Biko by Donald Wood. When an author puts all the events of his life in a book under a different person and name, the book becomes an autobiographical fiction e.g. The Narrow Path by Francis Selormey


Fiction and non-fiction in Creative Literature are together called novel. It appears today that the word fiction refers to novels and romance only. Fiction can be of two kinds. The first one is novel which shows the readers only things, beings and events that can happen in the real world. But the opposite happens in romance. Things and events that happen in a romance are far from what happen in the real world. The characters have powers that are either too small or too great.


Drama is a penetration of life through artificial means. It is a type of story that exists mainly in action and performed on the stage by different characters. The origins of drama are likely to be found in early religious ceremonies and festivals. This aspect of literature entertains, teaches moral lessons and helps to bring into focus life in action outside our immediate environment. Drama refers to the performance on stage while play refers to the textbook itself. So drama will include setting, props, costume, lighting etc., whereas play is restricted to the printed words on the pages of a book.

There are three main types of drama namely:-

  • Tragedy
  • Comedy
  • Farce

Tragedy is a type of drama in which the most important character suffers a fall, he either dies or loses his power. In a tragic drama, the hero has a lot of good qualities which endears him to the people, but he has also some negative traits or weaknesses which cause his failure and downfall which makes him lose his life or his power e.g. The gods are not to blame by Rotimi. Macbeth by Shakespeare.

Comedy is the opposite of tragedy. This is a play where the story and the characters are amusing and which ends happily. But a mixture of tragedy and Comedy will result in tragi-comedy, a drama where we are happy on one side but sad on the other e.g. Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare.

Farce is a comedy of extravagant humour. Here, the characters appear to be foolish in their behaviors and present themselves as being unserious. Farce is just meant to entertain and make us laugh.


Features of Drama

The protagonist is the character who takes the leading role in a play or novel. The antagonist is the main opponent of the protagonist against whose interest he is always working.

Dramatis personae is the parade of all the characters involved in a play. Cast is the comprehensive list of actors and actresses playing the different characters in the drama.

The director is the one who directs the speech, movement and actions of the actors and actresses.

The producer is a person or organization who brings about the performance and also provides the funds for its realization.

A prologue is a formal introduction to a play or drama written in either prose or verse.

Epilogue is the opposite of prologue, coming at the very end of the drama. The climax of a play is the moment of greatest tension when the conflict attains its peak and is now fully ripe to be resolved. Resolution is the point immediately after the climax when the conflict is finally resolved either in a comic or tragic manner. It is a critical moment in the final determination of the play as a comedy or a tragedy. A less familiar word for resolution is denouement.

An interlude is a brief performance which serves as an intermission or interval to a main performance. A flashback is a literary technique by which a previous scene or action can be recalled in a play to shed light on the present action. Suspense is the state of anxious expectation or uncertainty usually brought about by keeping the reader or audience wondering or guessing the possible trend of action or likely outcome of the conflict. This arouses and sustains the curiosity of the reader or audience to the very end. Catharsis is the effect of purgation of emotion which a great tragedy is meant to produce in the reader or audience. It is a process of cleansing the mind of unwanted emotion. A tragic flaw is a natural weakness or flaw which invariably leads to his tragic death or serious misfortune, thus inspiring a pity and fear in the audience.

A soliloquy is a dramatic device which enables the audience to gain access to the innermost thoughts of a character by having him or her talk to himself or herself when there is no other character with him or her on stage. By this, the character is made to think aloud. This should not be confused with an aside which is a much older device intended to serve the same purpose. In this latter case, however, the speaking character whispers his her thoughts to the audience without being physically alone on stage.

Audition is the process by which actors and actresses are chosen for specific roles in a performance. This involves the reading of lines from the play to the hearing of the director. The physical features of the actor or actress are also taken into consideration before the final casting is done.

Poetry is a form of artistic literature in which the writer knowingly expresses his thoughts and feelings in a series of calculated or measured lines. This conscious measurement gives rise to a movement which we can hear regularly in our ears. This movement is called rhythm, it marks out poetry. Poetry is generally written in lines. A group of these lines is called a stanza. A group of unmeasured lines in a prose is called a paragraph. In poetry, it is a stanza.

There are different types of poetry namely:-

  • Sonnet
  • Ode
  • Elegy
  • Lyric
  • Narrative
  • Ballad
  • Epic

A sonnet is a lyrical poem which usually has 14 lines. The fourteen lines stand in two parts or stanzas. The first eight lines are called octave while the other part, the six lines are called sestet. There are sonnets, however, in which the fourteen lines are divided into four stanzas of three line stanzas which are called quatrains and the last two lines are called couplets. All sonnets make use of rhyme patterns which occur regularly within the short space and duration of the poem.

Ode: This is a poem which is written or spoken in the form of an address to somebody or something. E.g. an Ode to the Grecian Urn

Elegy: An elegy is a poem which sings about or laments a sorrowful event especially death. A song of sorrow is known as dirge.

Lyric: This is a poem that has a musical effect on the listeners. This includes some poems which sound like a music and appeals largely to the sense of hearing e.g. – ode – elegy – sonnet and songs.

Narrative: This is a long poem that tells a story. You can think of myth of the Bagre as a narrative poem.

Ballad: This is an old type of poem which is derived from village festivals. It usually consists of words which are generally out of current use. The topics are about village heroes and events of fighting, wrestling or love that happened to a people. It is usually presented in the form of a song even though it is telling a story.

Epic: Is a long poem that talks of great or heroic deeds of a people. It may talk about a war, the origin of a thing especially rivers, hills, caves, sky etc. It may narrate the history of a people.


(a)  Mention or list the features of drama

(b)  List the types of poems that you know


Reading Assignment: Read: (a) Exam Focus Literature in English

(b)  ABC of Literature by Oni D.




  • Definition
  • Types of figures of speech

A figure of speech is a deliberate shift from the normal style of speaking or writing. It is a departure from the literal use of a word or phrase.

Figures of speech can be classified thus:-

  1. Figures of speech based on resemblance are simile, metaphor,

Personification, Apostrophe etc.

 (ii)  The ones on the point of contrast/difference are Antithesis, Irony

Hyperbole, Pun, Epigram, Innuendo, Euphemism, oxymoron,

Climax, Anti-climax etc.

 (iii)  While those on association are: Metonymy, Synecdoche etc.



Simile is a figure of speech in which two things of identical or similar qualities are directly compared by the use of such words. Like, as, as though and as if e.g.:-

  1. The woman is as proud as a peacock
  2. Your love is like the fall of rains
  3. He is as dirty as a pig



Metaphor is a compressed simile whereby the two similar objects or persons are fully equated with one another thus eliminating the comparative words, ‘like’ and ‘as’ e.g.:

1. The woman is a peacock

2. He is a pig

3. Your love is the fall of rains.



Personification is a figure of speech in which inanimate things or abstract ideas are given specific human attributes or qualities e.g.:-

1. Love is blind

2. The night has grown older

  1. The dark sun appears.



Apostrophe is a figure of speech in which somebody addresses or talks to something that is not alive as though it is physically present and listening to the speaker. Apostrophe is recognized by the use of exclamation mark e.g.:-

1. Oh! W.A.E.C., why did you treat me like this?

2. Oh! Death! Where is thy sting?

3. Night! Fold out thy darkness.



Irony is a figure of speech in which one writes or says the opposite of what one intends to say or write. It is a figure of speech in which the ordinary meaning of the word is more or less the opposite of what the speaker intends. E.g.:-

 1. The best way to avoid being punished by the teacher is to disobey him.

 2. Behold a giant is coming.



Sarcasm is an openly expressed disgust which is calculated to wound the feeling of a person. It is the opposite of what is meant which is said to make fun of a person or to inflict pain on somebody. E.g.-

 1. Mr. Anini, you are a righteous man

 2. A harlot is referred to as a virgin e.g. Sola, the virgin is coming.



Innuendo is a clever way of passing unpleasant comment without insulting or offending the person being addressed e.g.

– Tobi has ten wives but he is impotent

– Judas is very honest especially with matters unconnected with money.



Antithesis is a figure of speech in which a word or an idea is placed to contrast with the opposite word or idea in the same statement. E.g.

 – United we stand, divided we fall.

 – Many are called, but few are chosen.

 – To err is human, to forgive is divine.

 – More haste, less speed.



Oxymoron is a figure of speech in which two opposing words are placed together to create a sharp contrast. It is usually not a full sentence like an Irony, Innuendo, Antithesis and Paradox but it is in most cases, a phrase that contains two or more words. e.g.

 – Painful laughter – Bitter sweet – Silent thunder


Paradox is a figure of speech in which a statement shows a completely untrue, contradictory, incredible, absurd and ridiculous meaning but a closer and more detailed examination would reveal the truth of the statement e.g.-

 – I must be cruel in order to be kind.

 – Water is everywhere but there is no water to drink

 – Attack is the best form of defence.



Hyperbole is an extravagant exaggeration. It makes something smaller sounds or looks bigger. E.g.

 – The whole world stood at a standstill because of him.

 – Toyin’s teeth are sharper than razor.


Litotes or Meiosis

Litotes or Meiosis is the opposite of hyperbole. It is an understatement whereby a positive statement is put in a negative way e.g.

 – Nne! You are not bad.

 – The man is not mean.

 – It is no laughing matter.



Euphemism is a figure of speech in which a mild indirect and more pleasant term is used in

Place of a blunt, direct and unpleasant one in order to conceal its real nature. That is we try not to call a bad thing or a bad situation by its proper name e.g.

 – The patient is mentally unstable.

 – The old man has finally passed away.

 – The girl has been put in a family way.



Epigram is a short sarcastic witty saying. It contains some proverbial wisdom e.g.

 – He who laughs last, laughs best.

 – The more you look, the less you see.

 – He who will save his life must first lose it.



Metonymy is a figure of speech in which one describes an object by something closely associated with it although it is not necessarily a part of it e.g.

 – The guests were invited over to the table.

 – Pen is mightier than sword.

 – Who among the aspirants will wear the crown?



Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a part of a person, place or thing is made to stand for the whole or the whole is made to stand for a part e.g.

 – I need more hands to complete the work.

 – The enumerators counted all the heads in our house in the last trial census.

 – The government is asked to encourage the brains of the country.


Alliteration is the repetition of an initial consonant sound on the same line e.g.

– Friday fried fresh fish on Friday.

– The exiled man gave the city a last, long lingering look.



Assonance is the repetition of the vowel sounds on the same line e.g.

 – The dog roams with bone in his jaws.

 – Talk loud and laugh aloud.



Pun is a play on words which have a similar sound but different meanings e.g.

 – Sweet lady, let me prey for you.

 – The dead drunkard was laid on his bier.



Onomatopoeia is the formation of words in imitation of the actual sound made e.g.

 – Tick tack says the clock.

 – Cuckoo



Define the following: Alliteration, Sarcasm, Pun and Metonymy



















Structure: Making Request Using Can, Could, May and Mind

Writing: Semi-Formal Letter

Vocabulary Development: Using “in” and “un” to Express Opposite

Comprehension: Direction on Shelltox Tin


STRUCTURE: Making Request using Can, Could, May and Mind

Content :

We can make requests with modal auxiliaries “can”, “could”, “may” and “mind”


  1. Would you type this letter please?
  2. Can you please pass the salt?
  3. Could you please help me? (polite)
  4. Would you mind my coming along?
  5. May you please pardon me?
  6. I am wondering if you could pass the salt (very polite)

Evaluation: Make five requests using can, could, and mind.


Reference: Count down English by Ogunsanwo


Reading Assignment: Read English Grammar for JSS by Olatunbosun, pages 47- 48

WRITING: Semi-Formal Letter


  • Definition of a Semi-Formal Letter
  • Features of a Semi-formal letter.


Semi-formal letters are letters we write to people who are not totally strange to us to describe personal letters, e.g. our teacher, family doctor priest etc.

The semi-formal letter is more related to the informal letter than the formal letter.


Features of a Semi-formal letter:

  1. Writer’s address with date
  2. Salutation e.g. Dear Mr. Eze, Dear Mrs. Osho, Dear Dr John.
  3. Introduction
  4. Body of the letter
  5. Conclusion
  6. Subscript (usually Your sincerely)
  7. Writer’s full name.



A semi-formal letter does not require the writer’s signature.


Evaluation: Write a letter to your class teacher, explaining to him/her the reason(s) for your absence from school.

Reference: Countdown English by Ogunsanwo.


Reading Assignment: Read Countdown English by Ogunsanwo pages 62 and 63.



Prefixes “in” “im” and “dis” to express opposite


A prefix is a word-element added to the beginning of a word. It can also be defined as a letter or group of letters added to change its meaning.

Prefix can be added to words to realize their opposites. Prefix “in”, “im”, “un” and “dis” mean “NOT” as in:

  • Happy – unhappy (not Happy)
  • Possible – impossible (not Possible)
  • Adequate- inadequate (not Adequate)
  • Obedient – disobedient (not Obedient)


Here are more examples:

  • Fertile – infertile
  • Tolerant – intolerant
  • Sufficient – insufficient
  • Moral – immoral
  • Legal – illegal
  • Kind – unkind
  • Important – unimportant
  • Regular – irregular
  • Respectful – disrespectful
  • Loyal – disloyal
  • Like – dislike
  • Friendly – unfriendly
  • Literate – illiterate


Evaluation: Write the antonyms of the following words with the appropriate prefixes

  • Advantages
  • Relevant
  • Reasonable
  • Abuse
  • Orderly
  • Agree
  • Usual
  • Responsible
  • Proper
  • Correct


Reference: Countdown English by Ogunsanwo; Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary; English Grammar by P.O. Olatunbosun.


Reading Assignment: Read page 104 of the English Grammar by P.O. Olatunbosun.


COMPREHENSION: Directions on Shelltox Tin


The passage is about the pieces of information printed on a Shelltox tin on how to use the Shelltox to kill household pests like cockroaches, mosquitoes, bed-bugs, ticks, spiders, etc.


Evaluation: Do practice 2 on page 82 of the Effective English Book 3.


Reference: Effective English for JSS 3.


Reading Assignment: Read page 82 of Effective English for JSS Book 3.



Add prefixes to the following words to form the opposites.

Legal, balance, accurate, behave, regular


Give the synonyms of the following words.

Accuse, achieve, fertile, govern, increase


Weekend Assignment

Do practice Exercise 18 on page 78 of English Grammar by P.O. Olatunbosun.

Do section (on page 238 – 239) (56-60) of Effective English for JSS Book 3.


Speech Work: Consonants /l/ and /r/

Vocabulary Development: Words Building Using the Prefixes, super, over, under, counter, anti, pro, trans, inter and hyper.

Structure: Expressing Possibility Using May, Can, Might and Could.

Writing: Argumentative


SPEECH WORK: Consonants /l/ and /r/

Content- Descriptions of Consonants / l/and /r/

  • Words in which they occur
  • Instances where they are silent


Consonant / l/ is a voiced lateral sound while consonant /r/ is a voiced liquid sound.

Consonant / l/ can take the following forms:

“l” as in lip, late, letter, tailor.

“ll” as in wall, silly, yellow, Shelltox


Consonant /r/ can take the forms below:

“r” as in rain, story scream

“rr” as in hurry, carrot, worry

“wr” as in write, wrinkle, wrath

“rh” as in rhetoric, rhyme, Rhoda


Consonant /l/ is silent in:

Walk —- /wɔːk/

Talk —– / tɔːk/

Half —– /ha:f/


Consonant /r/ is silent in:


Evaluation: Write five words that contain each of the following sounds below:



Reference: Countdown English by Ogunsanwo; Diction in English book 10


Reading Assignment: Read Diction in English, Year 9.


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT: Word Building, Using prefixes: super, over, wider, counter, anti, pro, Trans, inter and hyper.


As we learnt in week seven, prefixes are added to the beginning of words to after their meanings. Each prefix has its own meaning. For examples:







Greater than normal




More than usual

Over blown, over-charge



Less than usual

Wider-charge, under-estimate



Against, opposite

Counter-attack, counter-claim



Against, opposed to

Anti-Christ, anti-clockwise



In favour of, supporting

Pro-Democracy, Pro-active



Beyond. into another state / place

Trans- Atlantic transform, Transplant.



Between, from one to another

Inter-action, international, interface.



More than normal

Hyper-active, hypertension.


Evaluation: Form two words with each of the following prefixes:

  1. Anti
  1. Counter
  2. Super
  3. Over
  4. Under
  5. Trans
  6. Hyper


Reference: Oxford advanced Learner’s Dictionary; English Grammar by P.O. Olatunbosun.


Reading Assignment: Read English Grammar by Olatunbosun, page 104


SRUCTURE: Expressing Possibility using “may”, “might”, “can” and “could”


As we have learnt in the previous weeks, “may”, “might”, “can” and “could” are modal auxiliaries. They can be used to express possibility.

Study the examples below:

  1. Tunde may arrive from Jos today.
  2. We might have a heavy rain this afternoon.
  3. Shade may be here today.
  4. He couldn’t have left like that.
  5. They might have gone by then.
  6. Their team may win the match.
  7. She couldn’t have done that deliberately.
  8. The man might have shot the wife ignorantly.


Evaluation: Make 10 sentences with “may”, “might”, “can” and “could” to express possibility i.e. likelihood that something will happen .


Reference: 40 lessons by J.O Asudo; Countdown English by Ogunsanwo; English Grammar for JSS by P.O. Olatunbosun.


Reading Assignment: Read “The Ordinary Use and The Special use of Auxiliary verbs on page 47 – 49 of English Grammar by P.O. Olatunbosun


WRITING: Argumentative Essay


  • The definition of an argumentative essay.
  • Reasons for argumentative essays.
  • Things to know about argumentative essays:

An argumentative essay is one that requires a student to present a subject with a view to persuading his/her reader to agree with his/her own point of view against another one. However, we should note that all forms of debate are argumentative essays but not all argumentative essays are debates. In a debate, the writer knows the audience as well as the setting.


On the other hand, in argumentative essays (that are not debates) the writer just writes out the topic, underlined it and presents his/her view without addressing anybody.


An argument may be developed for the following reasons:

  1. to prove a point
  2. to present a view point
  3. to balance the two sides of an issue.


Note that:

  1. Vocative is compulsory in a debate, i.e. the writer should recognize the presence of the members of the audience e.g. The Chairman; Panel of Judges; Co-debaters; Ladies and Gentlemen e.t.c.
  2. In an ordinary argumentative essay (not a debate), no audience is indicated and no vocative is necessary.


Evaluation: You have been invited to participate in an Inter-School debate Competition to speak for or against the topic “Corruption is Worse than Armed Robbery”. Write out your Contribution.


Reference: Countdown English by Ogunsanwo


Reading Assignment: Read Creative and Guided Composition for Senior Classes by C.O. Odetola, page3 -14.



Use a better word to replace the words ‘got’ and ‘walked’ in the following expressions.

She got a bad cold yesterday.

Hannah got a prize.

They got married at last.

The angry little girl walked out of the room.

The thief walked into the house through the unlocked door.


Weekend Assignment: Do practice exercise fourteen, question 2 (1-20) on pages 64 and 65 of English Grammar by P.O. Olatunbosun.






















Comprehension: From the Jero Play by Soyinka.

Writing: Argumentative essay (Debate) contd.

Speech Work: /h/: Where it is Voiced and where it is Silent

Expressing Ability using, can, be able, be capable


COMPREHENSION: From The Jero Plays, by Wole Soyinka


  • The summary of the passage


The passage is a drama piece acted by two characters, Amope and a trader. An argument ensued between the trader (a fish-seller) and Amope and it resulted in the use of a stream of vective on each other.


Evaluation: Do practice 2 on page 98 of Effective English Book 3.


Reference: Effective English Book 3


Reading Assignment: Read Effective English Book 3 pages 97 and 98.


SPEECH WORK: /h/ where it is voiced and where it is silent.


The consonant sound /h/ is described as a voiceless glottal fricative. This sound is voiced in so many words but silent in certain words. It is pronounced or voiced in the words below:

  • Habit, House, Hair, Hello, Halt, Hadith, Halleluyah, Hall, Hail, Hammer, Hand, Harrow, Harmful, Heartless, Heavy, Hatch, Harmony etc.


Consonant /h/ is silent in words like:

Hour /aʊə/

Honour / ɒnə(r)/

Honest /ɒnist/



  1. Write any ten words in which /h/ is voiced
  2. Write any five words where /h/ is silent


Reference: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary; Countdown English by Ogunsanwo


SRUCTURE: Expressing Ability using “can”, “be able” and “capable of”


“Can” is a modal auxiliary that can be used to express ability; i.e. what somebody/one is able to do. For example:

  • Can you play piano?
  • I can hear someone calling
  • She should be able to play the piano.
  • They haven’t been able to get much work done today.
  • We were not able to locate the place.
  • I could see there was something wrong.
  • I can’t do the work alone.
  • He’s quite capable of lying to get out of trouble.
  • She’s capable of organizing the party.
  • She’s never capable of doing anything well.


Note that:

It is wrong to use “can” and “be able to” together in sentences e.g.

  • I can’t be able to do the work.
  • They can’t be able to get the book.



  1. Correct the following sentences:
    1. Can she be able to do it?
    2. I couldn’t be able to solve the problem
    3. We were not able to complete the forms yesterday.
    4. He can’t unable to do the work.
  2. Write three sentences of your own using can, able to and capable of to express ability.


Reference: English Grammar for JSS By Olatunbosun; The New Student’s Companion for Secondary School by Chris Talbet; Oxford Advanced learner’s \Dictionary.


Reading Assignment: Read “Special use of Auxiliary Verbs” on pages 48- 49 of Olatunbosun’s English Grammar for JSS Book 3.


WRITING: Argumentative Essay


Same as Week eight.


Evaluation: Write for or against the topic: “A Teacher Is More Important Than A Doctor In A Society”


Reading Assignment: Read page 14 of C.O. Odetola’s Creative and Guided Composition for Senior Classes.



a. Use the dictionary to transcribe the following words.

Listen, phlegm, hustle, comb, hedge.


  1. Write your argument for or against the motion that, ‘Female Education Ends in the Kitchen.’


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